Archaeological Journal/Volume 1/Catalogue of the Emblems of Saints

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CATALOGUE OF THE EMBLEMS OF SAINTS.

 

 

OF THF, XII. ARTYCLES OF THE FAYTHE. Ca XV.

S. Peter. S. Andrew S James ye more. S. Johan. S Thomas. S. Iames ye lesse.

S. Phylyppe. S. Barthylmew. S. Mathewe. S. Symon. S. Jude. S. Mathyas.
It is the object of the following catalogue to supply a clue to the practical antiquary in his interpretation of ancient art, where, but for this sacred heraldry, he must have worked in the dark. In the middle ages, pictures were the books of the unlearned; and those who were unable to read, could at once recognise a Saint by his appropriate emblem. The memory of these things has long since faded away in our country; but illuminated manuscripts, painted glass, the paintings which decorate the screen-work or walls of many of our churches, monastic seals, and early wood-engravings, furnish us with the means of resuscitation.

Saints of the highest order had a double feast, or nine lessons assigned to them in the Breviary, so that the reader may easily ascertain to which he ought to give a preference in cases of doubt. When the same emblem belongs to many Saints of the same denomination, an asterisk (*) is prefixed to the emblem as a caution, that he may not too hastily appropriate.

The following abbreviations have been employed throughout, to which are here added the vestments belonging to each order, as a means of distinguishing from each other different Saints who had the same emblem.

A. Abbot or Abbess, commonly dressed like an ordinary monk or nun, (see C.) but with a crosier in the right hand and a book in the left. On seals (and perhaps sometimes in paintings) Abbots have a Mitre, Chasuble, Dalmatic, and other insignia of a Bishop.

Ap. Apostle, usually without any tonsure, a long beard, a close tunic and mantle. At an early period the feet are usually bare.

Abp. Archbishop, like a Bishop (see Bp.) but with the pall over the Chasuble, and a Cross-staff in the left hand, instead of a Pastoral-staff.

Bp. Bishop. A Mitre, Crosier, (or pastoral staff) in his left hand, blessing with the right, or holding a book. Vested in the Chasuble, Maniple, Dalmatic, Tunic, Stole, Alb, and Amess. Sometimes a Bishop wears a Cope over a Dalmatic and Alb; sometimes a Mozzetta, Rochet, and Alb, but the latter very rarely.

C. (Cœnobite) Monk or Nun. The Monk has a frock, cowl, and usually a scapular; the Nun a frock, often a scapular, and a close fitting kerchief or veil, covering the chin.

D. Deacon. A Dalmatic, a Stole, (which sometimes is represented as worn over the left shoulder;) a Maniple, Amess, and Alb.

E. Evangelist. like an Apostle. (See A.)

H. Hermit, like a Monk, but with a long beard. Commonly he has a scull before him, and large beads hanging at his girdle: sometimes he is clad in skins of beasts.

K. King. A Crown, Sceptre, Ball and Cross, (or Mound,) and the other well known insignia of royalty.

M. Martyr. Usually dressed in the vestments belonging to his rank in the Church, with the emblem of his martyrdom in his right hand, and a palm-branch in his left.

P.P. (Pater Patrum) Pope. Triple Crown, triple Cross-staff, and Cope.

P. Priest. Vested in the mass-vestment, composed of the Chasuble, Maniple, Stole, Amess, Alb.

V. Virgin. Commonly as a young woman with flowing hair: sometimes as a Nun. (See C.)

W. Widow. An aged woman, wearing a mantle, a kerchief or veil, and wimple covering the chin, resembling the attire of a Nun.

The reference to the day of the Saint's anniversary may be considered as an index not only to the various Breviaries, but to nearly all the collections of the lives of Saints that have been published. In every instance that occurs to my recollection, the legends are inserted according to the place which they occupy in the order of the year: so that the reader may refer to them without any difficulty, in case of his wishing to understand the rationale of any particular emblem.

The chief work to which reference may be made with advantage for information regarding the legends of Saints, is the Acta Sanctorum, in which they are found arranged according to the order of the year: this great work, comprised in fifty-three folio volumes, extending only to October, comprises a mass of valuable historical materials, and dissertations on numerous subjects connected with sacred antiquities. A continuation of this work is now in progress in the Netherlands. The Acta of the Saints of the Benedictine Rule, edited by Mabillon, are exceedingly valuable, and afford authentic evidences for the early history of Great Britain, which are not published elsewhere. The numerous versions of the Golden Legend, by Jacob de Voragine, are well known; the rare early edition by Wynkyn de Worde, presents many little wood-cut figures of Saints, and some of the French editions are more fully illustrated in this manner. The Nova Legenda Angliæ of John Capgrave is the most important authority as regards English Hagiography, and the Liber Festivalis may be consulted with advantage. The most curious relations, however, illustrative of the usages of the Church, of history, and of manners, are still to be found only in the MSS. preserved in our public libraries. Many compilations have been published in various countries which may be found useful; such as the Lives of the Saints, by Alban Butler; Petri de Natalibus Catalogus Sanctorum, Lugd. 1542; Haræi Vitæ Sanctorum, Antw., 1690; and Grassii Vitæ Sanctorum, Cologne, 1616. With respect to the Roman Breviary, preference should be given to the editions which were printed before the Council of Trent; and with reference to the Saints of any particular country, to the local Breviaries.

 

 

RULES OF APPROPRIATION.

 

1. In cases of doubt, recollect that the Apostles, the most popular Saints in the Christian world, and in that particular country or neighbourhood, the patron Saint of the Church itself, or those whose reliques are known to have been deposited there in ancient times, are more likely to have been depicted than others. In addition to which I would remark, that connected with some Churches, there were guilds dedicated to particular Saints.

2. When two or more Saints bear the same emblem, those who are most popular ought to have the benefit of the doubt: and observe carefully the quality of the Saint; whether he was a Bishop, Abbot, or so forth, for this will often supply a certain criterion.

3. Observe well the juxtaposition, for this will be often a clue to your interpretation. Thus, if you discover two or three Apostles, you may reasonably expect to find the others also.

4. In applying this catalogue to the interpretation of ancient art, abstract as much as possible the emblem from its unimportant circumstances, making a logical distinction between the proprium and the accidens. Even in cases where they rigorously adhered to the ancient symbolism, the painters varied considerably in the detail. Of this many examples could be given. The same martyr is sometimes represented as transfixed with arrows, and sometimes he bears an arrow in his hand.

5. We have no reason for supposing that the inferior Saints (many of whom were martyred in exactly the same way) had any emblem exclusively assigned to them. In early printed books, (the Legenda Aurea, for example,) the same wood-cut is continually repeated; but Saints of this order would scarcely be represented except in places where they had a local interest, discoverable by county history or the tradition of the neighbourhood.

6. Ancient paintings in fresco, on panel, or glass, and manuscript illuminations, have of course an authority which cannot belong even to the earliest wood-cuts; as the artist had not the same temptation to generalise or repeat. Nevertheless, many of these early wood-cuts were unquestionably designed after more ancient models on panel, glass, &c., and where they can be identified by their circumstances are of very great value.

 

 
  1. Almsgiving
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Female employed in distributing alms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Potentiana[1], V. May 19
  1. Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Martyrdom of a Pope at the Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Stephen, P.P. Aug. 2
  1. *Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Martyrdom of a Bishop at the Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. King lying at the foot of an Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Canute, K. M. July 10
  1. Anchor
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. At the feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Clement, P.P.M.
Nov. 23, or St. Felix,
Bp. M. March 8

  1. Angel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In armour, Devil at the feet, sometimes
    other Angels behind
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Michael, Sept. 29

  1. Angel and Boy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Walking together, (see book of Tobit)
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Raphael the Archangel,
Oct. 24

  1. Armour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Warrior in
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St.George, M. April 23,
or St. Maurice, M.
Sept. 22.

  1. Arms and Legs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Cut off
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Adrian, M. March 4
  1. *Arrow or Spear
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In hand, sometimes the emblem of
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Thomas, Ap. Dec. 21
  1. *Arrow & Book
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Ursula, V.M. Oct. 21
  1. Arrows
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saint stripped, and transfixed with
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Edmund, K.M. Nov.
20, or St. Sebastian,
M. Jan. 20

  1. Banner & Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Seen in the air
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Constantius[3], Emperor
  1. Basket
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held in the hand, containing bread
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Philip, Ap. May 1
  1. Basket
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Of Fruit, Flowers, and Spices in hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Dorothy, V. M. Feb. 6
  1. Bed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Two Physicians attending a Bishop in
    bed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Cosmas and St.
Damian, M. Sept. 27

  1. Beehive
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the back-ground
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Ambrose, Bp. Dec. 7
  1. Blind Man
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Restored to sight, by a Saint
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Magnus, M. Aug. 19
  1. *Block
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Pope kneeling at the
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Fabian[4], P. P. M. &c.
  1. Boat or Ship
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Jude, Ap.[5], Oct. 28
  1. Boiling
    Cauldron
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Female Saint martyred therein
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Afra, V. M.[6]c. Aug. 6
  1. Book
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Female with a Book, teaching a Child
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Anne[7], July 26
  1. Book
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. King, holding the Gospel of St. John
    in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Edward, K.
Confessor, Jan. 5

  1. Books
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Bishop, holding three
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Hilary, Bp. Jan. 13
  1. Books
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Burning before a Saint, who holds a sword
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Dominick, C. Aug. 4
  1. *Book & Crosier
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. The former in right hand, the latter in left
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Bridget[8], V.C. Feb. 1
  1. Bottle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Two figures holding a bottle and shears
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Cosmas and St. Damian[9],
M. Sept. 27

  1. Bowels
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Wound round a windlass or a staff
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Erasmus, Bp. M.
June 2

  1. Bow and Arrow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held by a Man, aiming at a naked Virgin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Christina, V. July 24
  1. Box of Spikenard
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand of a Female
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Bread
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A loaf in the hand of a female
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Gertrude, V. and
Abbess, March 17[10]

  1. Breast
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Torn by pincers, or Breasts in a dish
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Agatha, V. M. Feb. 5
  1. Bull or Bulls
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Dragging a Saint over a stony place
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Saturninus, May 2
  1. Candle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Genevieve, V. Jan. 3
  1. Cardinal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With a lion near him, or the feet of a
    lion in his lap
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Jerome, P. Sept. 30
  1. Carpenter's
    Square
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Matthew, Ap. Sept.
21, St. Joseph, Mar. l9
or St. Jude, Ap. Oct. 28

  1. *Cauldron
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Saint boiled in
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. John Port Lat. Ap.
May 6

  1. Chains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A figure in prison, loaded with fetters
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Peter ad Vincula,
Aug. 1

  1. Chains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Or Manacles in a Saint's hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Leonard, C. Nov. 6
  1. Chalice
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. At the feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Richard, Bp. April 3
  1. Chalice or Cup
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With a winged Serpent issuing from it
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. John, Ap. Dec. 27
  1. Child
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the arms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Britius, Bp. Nov. 13[11]
  1. Child
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With a glory round the head and a
    spoon in the hand, before a Bishop
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St.Augustine, Bp. Aug.28
  1. Children
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Three in a tub before a Bishop
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St Nicholas, Bp. Dec. 6
  1. *Clubs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saints beaten with
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Boniface, Abp. M.
June5, St. Maccabea,
M. Aug. 1, &c. &c.

  1. Comb
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A wool-comb in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Blaise, Bp. M. Feb. 3
  1. Confessional
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Bishop seated in
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Gothard, Bp. May 4
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With single transverse bar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A Primate or Metropolitan
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With triple bars
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A Pope
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Patée ✠
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A Knight Hospitaler of
St. John of Jerusalem

  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Inverted, a Saint thus crucified
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Peter, Ap. June 29
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saltier , a Saint leaning on
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Andrew, Ap. Nov. 30
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saltier in background
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Benignus, D. June 6
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Like a T and a spear or double cross ‡
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Philip, Ap. May 1
  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A large one in the arms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Helena, Empress,
Aug. 18

  1. Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A tall one, with a bell at the top,
    a pig by his side
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Crowned Figure
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the sky, conversing with a Virgin
    kneeling
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Bridget, V. July 21
  1. Cups
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Two cups or goblets
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Odilo, Abbot, Dec. 31
  1. Dead
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Raised to life
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Marcialis, Bp. July 2
  1. *Devil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Beating a Saint with a club
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St.Apollinaris, July 23;
& others

  1. *Devils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saints, tormented by
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Lucy, V.M. Dec. 13;
and many others

  1. Doe or Hind
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Crouching near an Abbot
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Giles, A. Sept. 1
  1. Dog
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Setting a globe on fire
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Domminick[12], C. Aug. 4
  1. Dog
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Seated near a Saint, with a loaf in his
    mouth, a plague-spot on the Saint's
    thigh
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Roche, C. Aug. 16

  1. Dove
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Lighting on the head
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Eunuchus[13], C. July 15
  1. Dove
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Bringing a letter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Oswald, K. Aug. 5[14]
  1. Doves
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In a basket, and staff in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Joachim, April 16
  1. Dragon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Under the feet of an armed figure
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. George, M. April 23
  1. Dragon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Under the feet, and spear with a cross
    at the top in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Margaret, V.M. July
20

  1. Eagle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Standing by the side
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. John, Evangelist[15],
Dec. 27

  1. Expositorium
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Of Blessed Sacrament in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Clare, V. Aug. 12
  1. Espousals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. To the Saviour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Face
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Of the Saviour upon a cloth or
    kerchief, usually called the Vernicle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Veronica, Sept. 9
  1. Faldstool
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A mitred Figure kneeling at a
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Ambrose[16], Bp. Dec. 7
  1. Fawn, or rather
    Antelope
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. At a king's feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Henry VI., K.
  1. Fawn or Doe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Before a Female, who holds a cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Withburga, V. C.
  1. Female
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With a Devil taking her hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Theodora, C. Nov. 22
  1. Fetter, or
    Manacle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held by an ecclesiastic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Leonard, C. Nov. 6
  1. Fire
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Saint lighting a
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Januarius, Bp. Sept. 19
  1. Fish
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held in the hand; sometimes two
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Simon, Ap. Oct. 28
  1. *Flogging
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Saint scourged to death with rods
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Regina, St. Gorgon,
St. Theodore, &c.

  1. Flood
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Houses swept away by, figure at a
    prison window
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Verena, circa Aug. 30
  1. Flower
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In one hand, and Sword in the other
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Dorothy[17], V.M. Feb. 6
  1. Flowers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Sprouting from the neck, head in hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Flora, V.M. June 15
  1. Fruit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. An animal eating at the feet of a Saint
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Mangen, circa Sept. 6
  1. Fuller's Bat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. James the Less, Ap.
May 1

  1. Genealogical
    Tree
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Rising from the reclining figure of an
    old man
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Jesse, the Patriarch
  1. Giant
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Carrying the infant Saviour on his
    shoulder, across a river; he leans
    on a rude staff, which often is
    represented as bursting into leaf; a
    Hermit usually in the distance with
    a lantern
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Christopher, M. July 25
  1. Goat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Satan appearing in the form of
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Anthony, the
Hermit, Jan. 17

  1. Gridiron, or
    Iron Bed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held by a Deacon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Lawrence, D. M.
Aug. 10

  1. Ground
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Excavated for discovery of treasure
    before a King
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Gunterianus, K. Ap. 27
  1. Hairy Man
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Wearing a crown, before a double cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Onofrius, June 11
  1. Halbert
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In his hand, sabre by his side
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Theodore, M. Nov. 9
  1. Hammer & Anvil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In one hand, sword in the other
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Adrian, M. March 4
  1. Hammer and
    Crosier
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In his hands
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Eloy (Eligius) B.
Dec. 1

  1. Hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Cut off
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Cyriacus, M. Aug. 8
  1. Harp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Figure playing on the
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St.Cecilia, V.M. Nov.22,
St.Dunstan, Abp. May
19, or King David

  1. Hatchet,
    Halbert or
    Battle-Axe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Matthias, Ap.[18] Feb. 24
  1. Head
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Carried in the hands
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Denys, Abp. M. Oct.
9, St. Winifred, V.M.
Nov. 3

  1. Head
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Carried in a dish or charger
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. John Baptist, Aug. 29
  1. Head
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Of King Oswald in his hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St.Cuthbert, Bp. March 20
  1. Head
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Of Goliah in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. David the Psalmist
  1. Heart
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand, or sometimes in the air
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Augustine[19], Bp. Aug. 28
  1. Hermit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Kneeling, with beads in hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Fiacre, C. Aug. 30
  1. Hill
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Saint preaching on a
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. David, Abp. March 1
  1. Hind
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. wounded with an arrow, resting her
    feet in the lap of an Abbot
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Giles, A. Sept. 1
  1. Horns
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Glory in that form, staff, and tables of
    the law
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Moses, Sept. 4
  1. Horseback
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Bishop mounted, raising his crosier
    against a monster
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Donatus, Bp. Sept. 6
  1. Horseback
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Several mounted figures, one crowned
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Maurice, M. Sept. 22
  1. Host
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Bishop delivering it into a Man's hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Lupus, Bp. July 29
  1. Idol
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Falling from its pedestal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Philip[20], Ap. May 1
  1. Infants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Murdered by Soldiers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Holy Innocents, Dec. 28
  1. Key
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. One or two in his hand, the one
    frequently of gold, the other of silver
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Peter, Ap. June 29
  1. Kings
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Three, with their gifts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Caspar, St.Melchior,
and St. Balthazar,
K. K. Jan. 6

  1. King
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A dove over his head, and the Arms
    of France
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Louis, K. Aug. 25
  1. King's-head
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Guarded by a wolf
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Edmund. K.M. Nov. 20
  1. Knight
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Armed on horseback, Dragon at his feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. George[21], M. April 23
  1. Knife
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Figure holding one
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Bartholomew, Ap.
Aug. 24

  1. Ladder
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Emblem occurring in St. James'
    church, Norwich
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
(?)
  1. Lamb
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. At her feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Agnes, V. M. Jan. 28
  1. Lamb
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. At the feet, and a cross in his hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. John the Baptist[22],
June 24

  1. Lantern
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Gudula, V. M. Jan.
8, or St. Hugh, Bp.
April 1

  1. Leprous
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Spots on the body
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Angradesma
  1. Lily
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In an Angel's hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Gabriel, the Angel[23],
March 25

  1. Lilies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In a pot near the B. Virgin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Blessed Virgin Mary
March 25

  1. Lion
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Lying near a Saint
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Lion
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
See Cardinal
  1. *Lions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Crouching at a Saint's feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Agapetus, M. Sept.17,
also several other M.M.

  1. Loaf and Rosary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. John the Almoner,
Abp. Jan. 23

  1. Nails
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In a boy's head and in his hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. William[25], M. Mar. 24.
  1. Oak
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Prelate hewing down an oak
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Boniface, Abp. and
M. June 5

  1. Oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Distilling from the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Walburga, V. May 1
  1. Organ
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Figure playing on the
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Cecilia, V.M.[26] Nov. 22
  1. Pastoral Staff
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Fixed into a rock or tomb
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Wulstan, Bp. Jan. 19
  1. Pilgrim
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saint clad in slavine, with hat, bourdon,
    staff, and escallop shell
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. James the Great, Ap.
July 25

  1. Pope
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. On horseback, blessing the people
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Leo, P. P. April 11
  1. Pulpit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saint preaching from a
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Maternus, St.
Rupert, St. Peter,
St. Paul, &c.

  1. Rack
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saint upon the rack
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Vincent, M. Jan. 22
  1. Raven
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Bringing food to two Hermits
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Paul, H. Jan. 10 or 15
  1. Ring & Sceptre
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hands, the former bestowed on
    St. John Ev., disguised as a pilgrim
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
K. Edward, C. Jan. 5
  1. River
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saint thrown into a river or a pit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Vitalis, April 28
  1. Rock
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Saint embracing a rock
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Rosalia, V. Sept. 4
  1. Rods
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A bundle of, in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Faith, V. M. Oct. 6
  1. Saracen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Under the feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Pancras, April 3
  1. Saw
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A long saw in hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Simon, Ap.[27] Oct. 28
  1. Scales
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held by an Angel in armour, weighing souls
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Michael[28], Sept. 29
  1. Scourge
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held in a Prelate's hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Ambrose, Abp. Dec. 7
  1. *Skull
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. At feet, or in hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Mary Magdalene,
St. Jerome, &c. &c.[29]

  1. Scythe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Walstan, Bp.
  1. Seven Persons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Praying, or asleep in a cavern
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The Seven Sleepers,
July 27

  1. Shoemakers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Two at work
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Crispin and St.
Crispinian, M. M. Oct. 25

  1. Shrine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. A Saint worshipping before it, with
    beads in his hand, and a dog at his
    feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Wendelin, circa Sept 30

  1. Spade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In left hand, open book in right
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Fiacre[30], C. Aug. 30
  1. Spear
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Held by a Soldier in armour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Longinus, Soldier,
M. March 15

  1. Stag
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. With a cross between the horns
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Hubert, Bp. Nov.3, St.
Eustachius, M. May 15

  1. Stag
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Crouching at a Prelate's feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Aidan, Bp. Aug. 31
  1. Stocks
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Persons confined in the stocks rescued
    by a Saint
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Leonard, Nov. 6
  1. Stones
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the skirt or lap of a Prelate's chasuble
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Alphage, Abp. Ap. 19
  1. Stone
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In his hand, or stones in his lap
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Stephen, D.M. Dec. 26
  1. Sun and Bird
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. The latter descending from the former,
    upon a sleeping Saint
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Servatus, Bp. May 13
  1. Sword
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Paul, Ap.[31] June 29
  1. Sword
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In hand, on some Norfolk screens
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Matthias, Ap. Feb. 24
  1. Sword
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Fixed in the scull of an Archbishop
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Thomas a Becket[32],
Dec. 29

  1. Sword
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Through his body as he stands at the Altar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Quiriacus, July 22
  1. Table
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Ministering to Saints at a table
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Petronilla, May 31
  1. Thorns
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Bishop dragged over
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Mark, E. April 25
  1. Tooth in Pincers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. And Palm-branch[33] in the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Apollonia, V.M. Feb. 9
  1. Tower
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In the hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Barbara, V.M. Dec. 4
  1. Tree
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Blossoming over the head of a female
    as she sleeps
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Etheldreda, June 23
  1. Trefoil, or
    Shamrock
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. In a Bishop's hand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Patrick, March 17
  1. Tub
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Some liquid poured from, held over[34]
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Alexius, July 17
  1. Virgin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Sometimes crowned, surrounded by
    many others of smaller size
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Ursula, V. M. Oct. 21
  1. Virgin and Child
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Appearing from Heaven to a Saint
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
St. Bernard, A. Aug. 20
  1. Washing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Poor Men's feet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Louis, K. or St. Edith,
V. Aug. 25

  1. Wheel & Sword
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Or several wheels, commonly broken
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Catherine, V.M.
V. Nov. 25

  1. Woman
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Covered with her flowing hair
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Mary, the Egyptian[35],
April 2

  1. Wounds
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  1. Figure bearing the five wounds of Our
    Lord, commonly radiating from a
    crucified Seraph in the air
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

St. Francis, C. Oct. 4

EMBLEMS OF FESTIVALS.

  1. Dedication of a Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Altar, with three men before it

  1. Founder or Benefactor
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Church in miniature, held in the hand

  1. Invention of the Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Cross lifted out of a tomb among spectators, May 3

  1. Assumption of the Virgin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Virgin carried to Heaven by Angels, August 15

  1. Exaltation of the Cross
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

King kneeling before a cross in the air, September 14

  1. Corpus Christi
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Shrine supported by two Men, or an Expository with
the Eucharist carried in procession, May 31

  1. Trinity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Three Men in purple, exactly alike—also, the Father as
an old Man with triple crown, the Son as a young
one, and the Holy Spirit as a dove

  1. Cathedra S. Petri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A Pope seated, a nimbus surrounding his head;
Cardinals around him, February 22.

  1. All Souls
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

under the form of little children, Nov. 2.

 

OF THE APOSTLES' MOST USUAL EMBLEMS.

St. Peter, a key, or two keys, gold and silver, representing the keys of heaven and hell—St. Paul, a sword—St. Andrew, a cross saltier St. John, a chalice and serpent—St. Philip, a tau-cross, or a double cross, or spear[36]St. Bartholomew, a butcher's knife—St. Thomas, an arrow or spear—St. Matthew, a club, a carpenter's square, or a money-box, to receive custom or tribute—St. James the Great, a pilgrim's staff, wallet, &c.—St. James the Less, a fuller's bat and saw—St.Jude, a boat in his hand or a club—St. Simon, a fish or fishes in his hand, and sometimes a saw—St. Matthias, a hatchet, battle-axe, or sword.

 

EVANGELISTS' EMBLEMS.

St. Matthew, an angel—St. Luke, an ox—St. John, an eagle—St. Mark, a lion. At an early period these emblems were differently attributed.

 

FOUR DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH.

St. Jerome, a lion—St. Augustine, a heart—St. Ambrose, a bee-hive, or a scourge—St. Gregory, at Mass, Christ appearing to him over the chalice.

 

SUBJECTS REPRESENTED COMMONLY IN CHURCHES.

  1. Seven Cardinal Virtues
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Faith, Hope, Charity, Justice, Prudence, Temperance,
and Fortitude.

  1. Seven Mortal Sins
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Pride, Avarice, Luxury, Envy, Gluttony, Anger, and
Accedia (?)

  1. Allegories, Sundry
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Angels and Archangels, Principalities and Powers,
Virtues and Excellencies, Glories and Dominions.

  1. Seven Works of Mercy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Feeding the hungry, Clothing the naked, &c.

  1. Passion, Instruments of
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Crown of thorns, nails, hammer, sponge, spear, dice,
lantern, &c.

  1. Jesse
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A genealogical tree proceeding from the root of Jesse
(an old Man), our Lord's ancestors being represented
in the branches.

  1. Wheel of Fortune
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

a large wheel with a crowned female figure in centre,
some rising, others falling from it.

  1. Seven Sacraments
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Eucharist, Orders,
Matrimony, Extreme Unction.

  1. Hell
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A many-headed monster, vomiting fire.

⁂ In an ensuing Number it is intended to give the converse of the foregoing Catalogue, the names of Saints being arranged alphabetically, with a more detailed account of the Symbols, and references to existing representations, especially in our own country.

  1. Probably other Saints thus.
  2. Several of the Saints were martyred thus.
  3. It seems probable that this is an error, and that the Emperor Constantine was really intended.
  4. A great many Martyrs are represented at the block.
  5. He and St. Matthew are sometimes represented with clubs in their hands.
  6. Other martyrdoms are so represented, particularly St. John the Evangelist.
  7. Sometimes on this Book are the words "Radix Jesse floruit."
  8. Many Bishops and Saints are represented with Books.
  9. See Bed, supra.
  10. N.B. There is another Gertrude, V. Nov. 15.
  11. Simeon and the B. V. M. are thus represented.
  12. See Books, supra.
  13. The Blessed Virgin and many Saints thus.
  14. A Dove whispering in the ear of a figure with a triple crown is a common symbol of a Pope.—The Dove breathing into the ear of a Pope is generally a symbol of Pope Gregory the Great.
  15. See Chalice, supra.
  16. See Bee-hive, supra.
  17. See Basket, supra.
  18. Many others are so represented.
  19. See Child, supra.
  20. The same is introduced in the Flight into Egypt.
  21. See Armour, supra.
  22. See Head, supra.
  23. It is peculiarly, if not exclusively, in the Annunciation that the archangel Gabriel is thus painted, appearing to the Virgin seated at a table.
  24. St. Jerome is also attended by a Lion.
  25. Martyred by the Jews at Norwich.
  26. See Harp, supra.
  27. See Fish, supra.
  28. See Armour, supra.
  29. A Scull was common to all Hermits. The Magdalene generally bears her Box of Spikenard, which see, supra.
  30. See Hermit, supra.
  31. It is sometimes jagged like a saw.
  32. See Altar, supra.
  33. A Palm-branch, as the general emblem of martyrdom, is often found with other Saints.
  34. Dirty water thrown over him by his father's servants.
  35. She is often represented with a Monk standing before her.
  36. Sometimes a basket.