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Index:Travels in Mexico and life among the Mexicans.djvu

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Travels in Mexico and life among the Mexicans.djvu

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CONTENTS.
BOOK I.
YUCATAN.
I.
A GLIMPSE OF YUCATAN.
From Cuba to Yucatan. — Progreso. — Its one hotel. — Sisal the desolate. — An antiprogressive railroad. — The Lagoon. — Henequen. — Indians. — Garbs of centuries agone. — The Uipil. — Advent of the steam monster. — Sleepy Cabmen. — Moresque architecture. — Caged beauties. — The Plaza. — An ancient dwelling. — T'ho, or Merida. — Street of the Elephant. — El Museo Yucateco. — American gold at premium. — The "Sabios" of Yucatan. — A hot climate. — Houses that are heat and vermin proof. — Catherwood and Stephens. — Summary of settlements. 25
II.
YUCATECOS.
A dip into history. — The first Indians of New Spain. — The captured canoe. — Cacao as currency. — The error of Columbus. — First view of Yucatan. — Hernandez de Cordova. — Juan de Grijalva. — An intrepid soldier and faithful chronicler. — Montejo, conqueror of Yucatan. — The conquest. — The indigenous race. — The Sublevados. — Indians in arms. — The hidden city. — Mestizos. — Servants. — Wages. — A primitive mill. — The Metate. — Tortillas and Frijoles. — A rare Consul. — The market. — The monastery. — Ancient religion. — The Carnival. — Estudiantes. — Caleza and Volante. — The Nunrery. — The Grand Paseo. — A Yucatan salute. — Sun worshippers. — Waltzing in higher circles. — Sweet daughters of the South. — Polite and polished people. — Lovers' intrigues 39
III.
UXMAL, THE RUINED CITY.
Ruins of Yucatan. — A Volan. — Mules with ears. — Yucatecan hospitality. — The Cenote. — An oasis. — "Buenos dias, señores!" — Subterranean rivers. — Swallows and hornets. — The cattle-yard. — Garrapatas. — Honey and turtle steak. — Sylvan bee-hives. — Stingless bees. — Oracion. — The Sierra. — The double-headed tiger. — The pyramid. — The various Casas, del Gobernador, de las Monjas, de las Tortugas, de las Palomas, de la Vieja. — The Royal Palace. — A maze of sculpture. — A hanging garden. — Description baffled. — The House of the Turtles. — The Temple of the Vestals. — The Serpent's Court. — Puzzling wealth of hieroglyphics. — The feathered serpent. — A reminder of Aztec mythology. — Other ruins: Kabah and Labná. — Comparison of the Central American ruins. — A recently discovered statue. — Theories regarding the people who built these cities. — Prejudiced historians. — A week in the ruins. — Our Maya guide. — An Aguada. — The king vulture. — The "Maya Arch" and "Elephant's Trunk." — Misled antiquarians. — Gnomes and goblins. — The Nameless Mound. — The House of Birds. — Night in the Palace. — The Bloody Hand 58
IV.
A NEW INDUSTRY AND AN OLD MONUMENT.
Hemp, or Henequen. — The native wealth of Yucatan. — Cultivation and preparation of henequen. — Cordage and hammocks. — The cotton and its worm. — On the road. — Processions of Indians. — Where liammocks are made. — The coach Carlotta rode in. — Aké. — More ruins. — Cyclopean columns. — Katunes, or epochs, of aboriginal history. — Records of a vanquished people. — Who raised them? — House of the Priest. — Akabná, or dark house. — The Cenote and its inhabitants. — Lizards and iguanas. — The lizard that tortures you by biting your shadow. — The oldest monuments in America. — Our host, the Condé Peon 82
V.
MAYAPAN, THE ANCIENT EMPIRE.
Mayapan, and Chichen-Itza. — Aboriginal history. — The Maya Genesis. — Xibalba. — The Itzaes. — The three invasions of Yucatan. — Mayas, Tutul Xius, Caribs. — King Cocom. — The mound at Mayapan. — Dr. Le Plongeon's statue. — Maya astronomy. — Chaldean and Egyptian resemblances. — Antiquity and civilization of the Mayas. — Itzamal, the holy city. — The Yucatecan rebellion. — A ravaged country. — Mural paintings and sculptures. — The great ruined city. — Chaacmol, the Tiger King. — A disappointed discoverer. — A glance at Kabah. — Consul Ayme's horse. — The man on horseback. — M. Charnay and his theories. — How archaeologists are working. — How they should work 94
VI.
A GRAND TURKEY HUNT.
The ocellated turkey. — John. — Our dreadful driver, and how we managed him. — Motul. — Its Cenote. — "Toh," the bird that baffled Noah and survived the flood. — A Revolutionary General. — An impromptu ball. — An array of beauty. — A reasonable request. — A town where English had never been spoken. — The young ladies wish to hear it. — They are gratified. — English speech-making to a Spanish audience. — An "original" poem. — Timax, an isolated town. — A home-made physician. — Another dance. — A dignity ball. — The Musicos. — The Mestiza ball. — Dancing against one's will. — "Vaminos." — The turkey-buzzard dance. — The Tore. — A change of scene. — The dying Indian woman. — A welcome for death 112
VII.
IN THE LOGWOOD FORESTS.
Sleeping spoon-fashion. — A bolt for the coast. — The great mound of Oilam. — Izamal. — The start for the rancho. — "Muy temprano." — A Yucateco Refresco. — The lovely Aguada. — Rare birds. — The camp. — Logwood cutters. — Dinner-table etiquette. — "At your disposal, sir." — A quarrel. — Familiar Maya words. — Weighing the logwood, — Palo de Campeche. — Quail, deer, and turkeys. — The Indian with evil eyes. — The haunts of adders. — A walk at sunset. — Industrious women. — Toiling at the mills 126
VIII.
NORTH COAST OF YUCATAN.
Trogons and parrots. — Wild hemp. — Puntas Arenas. — Sea birds by the thousand. — The Lagoon. — Spoonbills and flamingoes. — Ibis and heron. — Fish and coco-nuts. — Failure. — Cozumel and Isla Mujeres. — First landing of the Spaniards. — Important discovery. — The Brasero, or incense burner. — A wilderness of ruins. — Tulum. — Rio Lagartos. — A fall. — Puerto de Dilam. — Mangrove forests. — Excessive politeness. — El Viejo. — Timax again — The Medico and his patients. — The Correo. — Motul. — Generous Compañerios. — Merida 139
BOOK II.
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN MEXICO.
IX.
PALENQUE AND THE PHANTOM CITY.
Farewell to Yucatan. — Why one should love the Yucatecos. — An honest people. — The Alexandre steamers — Delightful voyaging. — Campeche. — Aboriginal catacombs. — Champoton, or "Mala pelea." — Laguna de Terminos. — Unexplored territory. — Frontera. — The River Tabasco, or Grijalva. — San Juan Bautista. — Marina, the Tabascan Princess. — Palenque, the vast group of ruins. — The "Palenque Cross." — The ancient Xibalba. — Peten and Flores, land of the Itzaes. — The deified horse. — Tizimin, the white tapir. — The mysterious city. — An aboriginal centre of civilization 155
X.
VERA CRUZ AND JALAPA.
River Coatzcoalcos. — Tehuantepec. — The Inter-oceanic Railroad. — Vera Cruz, a lovely city from the sea. — Isla delos Sactificios. — Castle of San Juan de Ulua. — Peak of Orizaba. — Mountain of the Star. — The Mole. — Zopilotes, or vultures. — Board of health. — The Plaza. — Tramways. — Sights often described. — Vomito, or yellow fever. — The customs officials. — Dutiable articles. — Vera Cruz, the great Gulf State. — here Cortes landed. — Jalapa, a refuge from heat and fever. — The mule-car. — The great Spanish highway. — Puente Nacional. — Santa Anna's hacienda. — Rinconada. — The ubiquitous engineer. — Cerro Gordo, a reminiscence of the American army. — The hamlet. — Gardens of Jalapa. — The mountain views. — Corn and coffee. — The bewitching Jalapeñas. — Jalap. — Vanilla. — Down the hills to the hot country 173
XI.
FROM COAST TO CAPITAL.
The great Mexican Railway. — The Llanos. — Fire-flies. — Soledad. — Paso del Macho. — Chiquihuite. — Bridge of Atoyac. — Barrancas and ravines. — Cordova and the coffee district. — A diversion from the track of travel. — Details of coffee culture. — Introduction of the cinchona. — The coffee of Liberia, the West Indies, and Mexico. — Barranca of Metlac. — The tunnels. — The Valley of Orizaba. — Products of two zones. — Coffee and cane, grapes and mangos. — Orizaba, the "Joy of the Water." — Encinal. — The gorge of Infemillo. — The cross on the precipice. — La Joya, the Jewel. — Maltrata. — The region of pines. — The mountain's mouth. — Eight thousand feet above the coast. — Esperanza, the Mexican Hope. — The Great Plateau. — San Marcos. — Tlascala. — Huamantla. — Apizaco. — Soltepec, the highest point on the line. — Apam, the Pulque District. — The American Maguey. — Haciendas. — Otumba. — Valley of Mexico. — At the gates of the capital 194
XII
CITY OF MEXICO.
Adrift. — Hooper. — A country to suit all complexions. — A friend to the rescue The room en the roof-top. — Robbers. — The Mexican dwelling. — The Patio. — The Azotea. — Cortes again. — First entry into Mexico. — Expulsion. — Investment. — Capture. — The new city built on the old. — Plaza Mayor. — Aztec Teocalli. — The first Cathedral. — The Sagrario. — Recent exhumations. — A magnificent temple and its golden treasures. — A relic of Spanish dominion. — Golden lamps and statues. — Those days of old. — Descriptions by other writers. — City and suburban tramways. — In the Cathedral towers. — The Zocalo. — The Flower Market. — The National Palace. — Meteorological Observatory — The astronomer's Elysium. — A relic of royalty. — The Municipal Palace. — Sombreros and Sarapes. — The Alameda. — A view too vast for description. — The wall of mountains. — Lake Tezcoco. — Historic hills. — Physical facts confirm old chronicles. — The "enchanted city." — The causeways. — Floods. — The birds of the lakes. — The city in danger. — The Great Tajo of Nochistongo. — Imperfect drainage. — Filth and malaria 221
XIII.
A RAMBLE AROUND THE CITY.
Population of the City of Mexico. — Latitude and elevation. — Climate. — Seasons. — Divisions of time. — The siesta. — A noble charity, Monte Piedad. — Pawn-shops. — Mexican fop and his resources. — The Mineria, or School of Mines. — Mexican courtesy. — Calle San Francisco. — Hotel Iturbide. — The Escandon and porcelain house. — Convent of San Francisco. — Methodist mission work. — The great library. — Book-stalls. — Rare and ancient volumes. — Old houses. — Humboldt's house. — The great scientist's work in Mexico. — The Mint, Casa de Moneda. — A coinage reckoned by billions. — Amount coined up to 1883. — An honest dollar. — The Palace of the Inquisition. — A savor of heretics. — The hospitals. — Panteon (cemetery) of San Fernando. — An abode of illustrious men. — The irrepressible conflict. — Church of San Hypolito. — Leap of Alvarado. — Aqueduct of San Cosme. — American cemetery. — Tacuba and the tree of Noche Triste. — Virgin of Remedios 244
XIV.
THE MEXICANS AT HOME.
The author's position in regard to the Mexican. — How the 10,000,000 population is divided. — Views of Señor Cubas. — The Aborigines, Creoles, Mestizos. — The Indian, his peculiarities and costume. — The great number of tribes and languages. — Who are the Creoles? — Family life. — Morals. — The Mestiz s. — Their origin. — Representative Mexicans. — Their dress and characteristics. — The Lepero, a true proletarian. — The offspring of misery. — On feast-days. — A born thief. — The Empeño. — Pawning American garments. — Nothing safe out of doors that one man can lift. — How a Lepero pawned a cloak, — and another a church organ. — Their sanguinary disposition. — The Mexican race described by various authors. — Their utter turpitude. — Their many virtues. — Why they love the French. — Because the Frenchman is gushing. — Why they should be shy of foreigners. — Because the foreigner is mercenary. — Summary by a distinguished writer: gentle, hospitable, benevolent, brave. — To which the author subscribes 271
XV.
FEASTS AND FESTIVALS. — MEXICAN MISSIONS.
The Devil in Mexico, and his methods. — Ancient Gods of the Mexicans. — Religious rites. — How the Aztecs were converted. — The sway of the Church. — Its rise and fall. — Its lost opportunity. — Beginning of Protestantism. — The Bible in Mexico. — First missions. — The first martyr. — Growth of the mission movement. — A mission map. — Statistics. — Politics and politicians. — Society. — Customs and courtships. — Policemen. — Serenos, or watchmen. — The gentle Mexicans. — The Aguador, or water-carrier. — A picturesque person. — Clandestine meetings. — Playing the bear 291
XVI.
A DAY IN THE MUSEUMS.
The Mexican Museum. — Museo Nacional. — Sacrificial Stone. — Chaacmol. — Huitzilopochtli. — Temple of the War-god. — The Gods of Aztlan. — Pictures of Viceroys. — Picture-writing. — A benevolent government. — The foreign archæologist. — Mañana. — Founding of the Museum. — Early history. — Its officers and their labors. — Annals of the Museum. — Montezuma's Shield. — The Sacrificial Stone. — The Calendar Stone, its history and its meaning. — Portrait of Cortés. — Armor of Alvarado. — Feather pictures. — Aztec art. — Mexican "rag figures." — Types of people. — The Aguador, Cargador, and Carbonero. — Institute of San Carlos. — A look through the Academy. — Paintings by old masters. — Velasco's "Valley of Mexico." — Parra's "Las Casas." — The "Massacre in the Temple" 305
XVII.
THE MARKETS AND FLOATING GARDENS.
A stride through the markets. — Products of every zone. — The omnipresent baby. — Where the flowers are sold, — and where they come from. — A redeeming trait of the Aztec character. — Inborn taste for flowers. — Beauty a begging. — Bridge of La Viga. — The American Venice and its gondoliers. — To the Floating Gardens. — Guatemotzin. — Among the Chinampas. — How Floating Gardens are formed. — What are grown on them. — A wonderful lake. — A sunken city. — Chalco. — An ancient town. — Food-supplying insects. — "Cakes like unto brick-bats." — The Axayacatl. — The lizard-frog. — The American Aloe, or Maguey. — Pulque, and how it is made. — Aguamiel, or honey-water. — Analysis of pulque. — The princess who invented a drink. — The Mexican tipple. — A precursor of cocktails. — Meat markets. — Perambulating butcher-shops. — A clamorous crowd. — Universal depravity of the milkman. — Don Felipe and his cow 327
XVIII.
THE GRAND PASEO, CHAPULTEPEC, EL DESIERTO, AND GUADALUPE.
The Alameda. — Statue of Carlos IV. — The Grand Paseo. — A magnificent avenue. — Glorietas. — Statues to Columbus, Cortés, Guatemotzin. — A resort of wealth and fashion. — The need of Mexico. — No American hotel. — The future American quarter. — The new City of Mexico. — The ancient quarries. — Marble baths. — Maximilian's scheme. — Chapultepec. — The Castle. — Molino del Rey. — Montezuma, his cypress, his harem, and his bath. — The Aqueducts. — Ancient rock carvings. — The battles of '47. — Dolores. — Tacubaya. — San Angel. — The gambling centre. — Shepherds and cut-throats. — The Carmelite Convent. — Chartering a diligence. — The Meson. — The man with No hay. — "Trot out your donkeys." — A sad procession. — The Monks' Paradise. — Pearls, crowns, and golden chains. — Balaam and his Burro. — The donkey brigade. — The Shrine and Virgin of Guadalupe. — The stone ship 349
XIX.
POPOCATAPETL.
The two huge peaks. — An active volcano. — The Smoking Mountain. — A comparison. — Volcano of Jorullo. — The Morelos Railroad. — San Lazaro. — Amecameca. — Iztaccihuatl. — The dead giantess. — A holy hill. — Sacro Monte. — An ascent of Popocatapetl. — Warnings. — In disguise. — A Volcanero. — A practised phlebotomist. — Ten thousand feet up. — "Are you armed?" — The black crosses. — Pious murderers. — The dark forest. — Lost. — Cuidado! — Coyotes and Pumas. — At last! — Don Domingo. — Rancho of Tlamacas. — Sulphur and ice. — Pico del Fraile. — Disheartening stories. — Baffled tourists. — A deep Barranca. — Shifting sands. — La Cruz. — Limit of vegetation. — A sublime spectacle. — The White Woman. — Description by Cortés. — Valley of Mexico. — Orizaba. — At the snow line. — Enveloped in fog. — Climbing the cone. — Above the clouds. — Advice. — My "guides." — Value of coca. — The Crater. — The God of Storms. Eighteen thousand feet above the sea. — The finding of sulphur. — Scientific investigation. — Minute description of the crater. — Sulfataras. — Sulphur vents. — A storm in the upper regions. — Photographing against odds. — Battle-field of the elements. — A test of endurance. — The slide down the cone. — A misstep. — The field of ashes. — Sunset. — Popocatapetl compared with other high mountains 371
XX.
A JOURNEY IN A DILIGENCE.
The Mexican Diligence. — American battle-fields. — Churubusco and the Pedregal. — Cruz del Marques. — Cuarnavaca, home of Cortés. — Mexican missionaries. — The vast Barrancas. — Scenes of past fights. — Palace of Cortes. — Gardens of Laborde. — Artificial lakes. — Hunting in a plantain grove. — Sugar and coffee. — El Castillo. — Ruins of Xochicalco. — The Caverns. — Strange sculptured forms. — Cacahuamilpa. — A Mexican Mammoth Cave. — The saloon of the dead. — A subterranean wonder. — Gardens of Maximihan. — Staging it by torchlight 396
XXI.
THE MEXICAN RAILWAY MOVEMENT.
A chapter to read or skip. — Explanation of Map. — History of the great railway movement. — List of Concessions granted up to 1884, with subsidies, length, and obligations. — Territory traversed by the railways. — The Mexican Railway. — The "Central," the railway back-bone of the Mexican Plateau. — Its charter and obligations. — Cities on its line. — Topography and resources of region penetrated. — A Mexican's estimate of its agricultural and mineral wealth. — The initial movement. — Rapid progress, northward and southward. — Crossing the Rio Grande. — Exit from the Valley of Mexico. — Enthusiastic receptions. — Triumphant advance. — Track completed and road-bed graded. — The "Mexican National." — Short line to Texas and New Orleans. — Subsidy of $7,000 per kilometre. — Cities tributary to this line. — Triumph over difficulties. — An adventure with a pay train. — $30,000 in silver. — Length of line completed. — A rival of the Burro. — Morelos Railroad. — The Transcontinental Route. — Grand banquet. — A terrible accident. — Difference between rainy and dry season. — Railway building, Mexican and American methods contrasted. — At the wrong end. — General summary. — Will these roads pay.? — The bands that bind our sister 416
XXII.
A RIDE THROUGH A MINING REGION.
"Mucho polvo." — The face of nature dusted. — "Si, Señor." — An involuntary clay-eater. — Pachuca. — Señor Medina, discoverer of the Patio Process. — The Anglo-Spanish mining fever. — Mines in Bonanza. — $90,000 per share. — $4,000,000 in four years. — San Rosario mine. — $100,000,000 from a single mine. — The castle of the silver king. — A mine three hundred years old. — How miners steal the ore. — Abandoned mines. — Those silver hills. — Millions and billions. — The mining laws of Mexico. — Their impartial and just workings. — Mining terms. — Requirements for denouncing a mine. — Real del Monte. — The English venture. — $20,000,000 output, $16,000,000 income. — Veins miles in length, worked for 350 years. — Giant's Causeway of America. — The Cascade of Regla. — Basaltic columns. — How a muleteer became a Count. — A silver footpath. — 500,000 pounds of silver. — The Patio Process. — Silver dust and mud. — A wasteful process. — The Arrastre. — My Mozo. — Obsidian and Obsidian Mines. — San Miguel. — The Saxony Process. — Chilenos. — Ojos de Agua. — Total product of Mexican mines over $4,000,000,000. — Richest regions in the Republic. — The cavern of silver. — A field of doubtful profit. — Miners on the rampage 446
XXIII.
TOLTEC RUINS AND PYRAMIDS.
Northward out of the valley. — The bull-fight. — The great Canal. — Railroad building with Mexicans. — Huts of aloes leaves. — Tula, City of the Toltecs. — Ruins of Indian cities. — A very old church. — Toltec remains unearthed. — A chance for archaeologists. — God of the Air. — The City of the Gods. — Teotihuacan. — Pyramids of the Sun and Moon. — The road of the dead. — A Treasure-chamber. — Heads of clay and terra-cotta. — Egyptian pyramids. — Tezcoco, the Athens of Anahuac. — A hunt for a missionary. — On his blind side. — A quiet city. — More ruins. — Tienda and Fonda. — Brigantines of Cortés. — Palace of the Hungry Jackal. — Ruins of reservoirs 469
XXIV.
TLASCALA, PUEBLA, AND CHOLULA.
Apizaco. — Chieftains of Tlascala. — Banner of Cortés. — Convent of early times. — Old bells. — Ancient font. — The first pulpit in New Spain. — The Meson. — The ever-present Cross. — City of Puebla. — A centre of priestly power. — "Pay or pray." — The City of the Angels. — A miracle somewhere. — A gorgeous cathedral. — Mexican onyx. — Translucent tecalli. — Church treasures. — A sanctimonious city. — Libraries and paintings. — A wonderful market. — Alarming telegrams. — The disappointed agriculturist. — A "holy terror." — Mexican versus vulture. — Pawning a plough. — Stealing the teeth from a harrow. — Untrustworthy people. — Pyramid of Cholula. — The Feathered Serpent. — Old conventual structure. — The man with a butterfly net. — A naturalist's privileges. — A safeguard in Mexican travel 492
XXV.
SIX WEEKS IN SOUTHERN MEXICO.
The Place of Pomegranates. — City of the Miztec Gods. — Cerro Colorado. — The Grant-Romero Railway. — A Sunday bull-fight. — A skirmish with fleas. — The Organ Cactus. — Nopal, or Prickly-pear. — A sugar plantation. — The drunken musicians. — Dominguillo. — A house and a cow-yard. — Zapotecs and Miztecs. — The buried golden throne. — Valley of Oaxaca. — Horseback and muleback. — The triple valley. — Fruits and cabinet woods. — Indian opposition to immigration. — A man to the square foot. — Antequera the Beautiful. — The home of distinguished men. — Institute of Oaxaca. — The Museum. — Monte Alban. — Hedges of cactus. — Cochineal culture. — An industry of the past 514
XXVI.
THE WONDERFUL PALACES OF MITLA.
Mitla. — A Mexican giant. — Astonished Mozo. — Cannibal Indians. — Tlacolula. The Zapotec dwelling of the dead. — Elaborate ornamentation. — Peculiar mosaics. — The Pillar of Death. — Blocks of porphyry. — Egyptian characters. — Idols of clay. — Grecques. — A sanguinary battle. — Montezuma's daughter. — The buried chamber. — St. John of the Drunkards. — The Alcalde, and his badge of office. — The giant tree of Tule. — A find of copper axes. — That fabled mine of gold. — Gorged with ruins. — The mines of Montezuma. — Don Santos Gomez. — Our frisky mule. — A Caballero's equipments. — The Mexican horse and its caparison. — The Sarape, Manga, and Poncho. — Saddle, bits, and bridle. — Sabre and pistols. — An aboriginal garment. — Off for the hills. — Indians of the Sierras. — Unsophisticated people. — The Cabildo, or King's House. — "Mexican Connection." — Six weeks in the saddle. — A bolt for the coast. — Smitten with fever. — Small-pox and vomito. — Unanswered telegrams. — A ravaged town. — On the Yucatan shore. — A "Norther." — Death on shipboard. — Havana 531
BOOK III.
THE BORDER STATES.
XXVII.
BY RAIL TO NORTHERN MEXICO.
Again en route for Mexico. — A change of scene. — Three thousand miles by rail. — Kaleidoscopic changes. — Through ticket for the Aztec Capital. — Across Texas in a hotel car. — San Antonio. — The Alamo. — Old Missions. — Town of Laredo. — An old Presidio. — Chaparral. — The stock craze. — Texan heroes. — On the Border. — The great Gould System of Railways, and its Mexican connections. — The National Railway. — Close competition in bridge-building. — A dusty place. — The gateway to the Land of Gold. — Corpus Christi. — The Oriental Road. — Señor Milmo and his Mésa. — Pat Mullins for short. — Palo Blanco. — Bustamente. — Monterey, the beautiful city. — An "Invalid's Paradise." — Delightful climate. Dirty inhabitants. — Taylor's battle-ground. — The new health resort. — Hot springs of Topo Chico. — La Mitra and La Silla. — Bathing by proxy. — Bull-ring and cock-pit. — Border Ruffians. — The North American invasion. — Opposition to the Saxon immigrant. — Bishop's Palace. — El Gringo. — Murders on the line. — Mexican justice. — Police. — Americans in the calaboose. — Saltillo. — Buena Vista. — Enchanted Valley. — San Luis Potosi. — A piece of gold. — A Conducta 553
XXVIII.
ALONG THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY.
Coal-fields of the Pecos and Rio Grande. — The "Sunset Route." — Southern Pacific. — Midnight connections. — Spofford Junction. — Eagle Pass. — Truly an open house. — "Not that kind of a hair-pin." — Over the Rio Grande again. — Piedras Negras. — The great Natural Portal. — Up a telegraph-pole. — A lively chase. — The International Railway. — Sabinas Valley. — State of Saltillo and its minerals. — Track-laying extraordinary. — A feeble protest. — A new industry. — Exciting times for engineers. — The calaboose in prospect. — "Fools caught in Mexico." — Murdered by Kickapoos. — In Texas again. — Devil's River. — Painted Caves. — Prairie-dogs and antelope. — El Paso. — A growing city. — Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railroad. — A model newspaper. — Paso del Norte. — An old church. — Vineyards and gardens 577
XXIX.
CHIHUAHUA, THE GREAT FRONTIER STATE.
Over the Central Railway. — The Medanos. — Casas Grandes. — Ancient ruins. — Caravan journeys. — Montezuma. — Rumors of Apaches. — A desert region. — A vast Hacienda. — Chihuahua. — Approach to the city. — The great church. — American hotels. — Ruined convent. — Silver mines of Santa Eulalia. — Don Enrique's Hacienda. — Smelting companies. — The Alameda. — "Americans" born in Ireland. — Who commit the murders. — Silver mines of Batopilas. — Lumps of silver. — Scanty market supplies. — Hot Springs of Santa Rosalia. — Valley of Rio Florida. — Frontier of Durango. — Route of the Central southward. — Cerro Mercado. — The Iron Mountain. — Pottery of Guadalajara. — Over land by mule team. — Cathedral of Guadalajara. — The Chihuahua dog. — Protestant Mission 601
XXX.
SONORA AND THE APACHE COUNTRY.
Indians of the Haciendas. — A meeting with General Crook. — A moonlight ride to the Apache camp. — Armed captives. — Inveterate gamblers. — White men outwitted. — Adepts at poker and monte. — The price of blood. — Murdered men's money. — Our Indian policy. — The white boy captive. — Scouting in the Sierras. — Crook's desperate venture. — Map of the Apache country. — Did Crook capture the Indians? — or the Indians capture Crook? — Why they sent in their squaws and pappooses. — Another dip into Mexico — Arezuma, land of gold. — Sonora, land of surprises. — The Sonora Railroad. — Benson. — Nogales. — Tombstone. — Magdalena. — Hermosillo. — The Hill of Bells, Cerro de las Campanas. — Orange and citron groves. — The Dark-eyed Señorita. — Is she a myth? — Guaymas. — Gulf of California. — A natural Dutch oven. — Not quite so bad as painted. — A vast navigation scheme. — Sleeping in the streets. — Pearls and pearl fisheries. — The gold excitement of Lower California. — Down the Sea of Cortés. — Yaqui and Mayo Indians. — Natives of Shark Island. — Water-carriers and their donkeys. — Adios! 627

INDEX 659