Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book XXX

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BOOK XXX.

THE EMPRESS TAKAMA NO HARA HIRO-NO NO HIME.[1]

(JITŌ[2] TENNŌ.)

The Empress Takama no hara hiro-no no hime's name as a child was the Imperial Princess Uno no Sarara. She was the second daughter of the Emperor Ame-mikoto hirakasu wake.[3] Her mother's name was Wochi no Iratsume. [Also called Minodzuko hime.] She was of reserved manners and a liberal disposition. In the third year of the Empress Ame-toyo takara ikashihi tarashi hime, she was united to the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito as his consort. Although the daughter of an Emperor, she loved courtesy and economy, and was possessed of motherly virtues. In the first year of the Emperor Ame-mikoto hirakasu wake, she gave birth to His Highness the Imperial Prince Kusakabe in the palace of Ohotsu. In the tenth month of the tenth year (of the same reign) she followed the Shamon the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito to Yoshino in order to avoid the suspicious dislike of the Court, as has been related in the history of the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito. In the first year of the reign of the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito, summer, the sixth month, she followed the Emperor when he took refuge in the Eastern provinces. She addressed the troops and mingled with the throng, until at length they together formed a plan by which several tens of thousands of fearless men were separately ordered to take up their posts in all the most defensible positions. In autumn, the seventh month, the Mino generals acting in concert with the Yamato heroes slew the Imperial Prince Ohotomo and sent his head to be shown at the Fuha Palace. In the second year she was raised to the rank of Empress-consort. The Empress-consort (XXX. 2.) from the beginning until now had assisted the Emperor in pacifying the Empire. It constantly happened that in the conduct of business, her ready advice on Government matters was of the greatest assistance.[4]

In the first year of Shuchō, on the ninth day of the ninth month, the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito died. The Empress-consort presided over the Court and exercised control.

Winter, 10th month, 2nd day. The Imperial Prince Ohotsu's treason was discovered and he was placed under arrest. There were arrested at the same time Wotokashi, Yakuchi no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, Hakatoko, Yuki no Muraji, of Lower Shōsen rank,[5] and also the Ohotoneri Omi-maro, Nakatomi no Ason, Tayasu, Kose no Ason, a Silla priest named Hèng-sin, with Tobari, Toki no Michi-dzukuri, and others, more than thirty persons in all, who had been led astray by the Imperial Prince Ohotsu.

(XXX. 3.) 3rd day. Death was bestowed on the Imperial Prince Ohotsu in his house at Wosada. He was twenty-four years of age. His consort, the Imperial Princess Yamanobe, hastened thither with her hair dishevelled and her feet bare, and joined him in death. All who witnessed sighed and sobbed.

The Imperial Prince Ohotsu was the third child of the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito.[6] His demeanour was noble and his language refined. He was beloved by the Emperor Ame mikoto hirakasu wake. When he grew to manhood he showed an eminent talent for learning, and was very fond of writing. The practice of composing Chinese verses had its origin with Ohotsu.

29th day. An Imperial decree was issued as follows:—"The Imperial Prince Ohotsu has been guilty of treason and has led astray officials and people, so that We, within the curtain, had no alternative.[7] The Imperial Prince Ohotsu has now perished. His followers deserve the same sentence as the Prince, but We pardon them all. Toki no Michi-dzukuri is however, banished to Idzu." It was further decreed, saying:—"We cannot bring ourselves to inflict punishment on the Silla priest Hèng-sin, who was an accomplice in the Imperial Prince Ohotsu's treason. He is therefore exiled to the temple of the province of Hida."

11th month, 16th day. The Imperial Princess Ohoku, who had been sent to attend at the shrine of Ise, returned to the capital.

17th day. There was an earthquake.

12th month, 19th day. On behalf of the Emperor Ame no (XXX. 4.) Nunahara oki no Mabito, a universal great assembly was held in the following five Temples, viz., of the Great Palace, of Asuka, of Kahara, of Toyora in Woharida, and of Sakata.

26th day. Presents of cloth and silk stuffs of various values were made to the orphans, to the childless and widowed, and to the aged people of the capital.

Intercalary 12th month. The Viceroy of Tsukushi sent as tribute common people, both men and women, of the three countries of Koryö, Pèkché, and Silla, and also sixty-two priests and nuns.

In this year a serpent and a dog copulated. Presently they both died together.

(A.D. 687.) 1st year,[8] Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries, proceeded to the Palace of temporary interment and made lament. The Nagon[9] Miaruji Fuse no Ason perforrfied the ceremony of pronouncing a eulogy. When the eulogy was over they all raised a lament. Next the common people made lament. Upon this Mabito, Ki no Ason, and others of the High Stewards of the Palace, made offerings of food. When this was done, the Uneme of the Steward's Department raised a lament. Then music was performed by the officials of the Department of Music.

5th day. The Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries, proceeded to the Palace of temporary interment and made lament. The common people followed and raised lamentation.

15th day. Presents of various values, of coarse silk and floss silk, were given to those residents of the capital who were eighty years of age or more, to invalids whose cases were grave, and to poor persons who were unable to support themselves.

(XXX. 5.) 19th day. Norimaro, Tanaka no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, with Karita, Mori no kimi, of Tsui-dai-ni rank, and others were sent to Silla to announce the Emperor's decease.

3rd month, 15th day. Fifty-six immigrants from Koryö were settled in the province of Hitachi. They were given lands, received an allowance of grain, and made to pursue their avocations in peace.

20th day. An ornamental chaplet was offered at the Palace of temporary interment. This was called Mikage.[10]

On this day, Maro, Tajihi no Mabito, performed the ceremony of pronouncing a eulogy.

22nd day. Fourteen immigrants from Silla were settled in the province of Shimotsukenu. They were given land and received an allowance of grain, and made to pursue their avocations in peace.

Summer, 4th month, 10th day. The Viceroy of Tsukushi presented priests, nuns and common people, men and women, twenty-two persons, immigrants from Silla. They were settled in the province of Musashi, where they were granted lands and an allowance of grain, and were made to follow their avocations in peace.

5th month, 22nd day. The Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries, proceeded to the Palace of temporary interment and made lamentation. On this occasion, the chiefs of the Hayato and of Ata in Ohosumi, each accompanied by his people, advanced in turn and pronounced a eulogy.

6th month, 28th day. Criminals were pardoned.

Autumn, 7th month, 2nd day. A decree was issued as follows:—"Interest may not be received on any debts contracted during or previous to the year Kinoto Tori.[11] In cases where creditors have already the personal service of their debtors, they may not exact (additional) service (by way of) interest.[12]

9th day. Presents of various values were given to the chiefs of the Hayato and of Ata in Ohosumi, 337 persons in all.

8th month, 5th day. Offerings[13] of food were made at the Palace of temporary interment. On this day (nothing but) fine boiled rice[14] was offered.

6th day. The aged people of the capital, both men and (XXX. 6.) women, all drew near and made lamentation west of the bridge.

28th day. The Empress sent Ohoshima, Fujihara no Ason, of Jiki-dai-shi rank, and Ohotomo Kibumi no Muraji, of Jiki-dai-shi rank, to invite together 300 Riu-zō and Dai-toku[15] to the Temple of Asuka, and to present to each a priestly robe,[16] saying:—"This was made of the august garments of the Emperor Ame no Nunahara oki no Mabito." The language of the Imperial message was so pathetic that it may not be set forth in full.

9th month, 9th day. A national feast of vegetable food[17] was given in the Temples of the capital.

10th day. A maigre entertainme. nt was given at the Palace of temporary interment.

22nd day. Silla sent Prince Kim Sang-him, Kim Sal-mo, of Keupson rank, Kim In-syul, of Keupson rank, and the Tè-sya So Yang-sin to petition the Emperor (for advice) regarding the Government of that country and to offer tribute. The student-priest Chi-ryu arrived along with them. The Viceroy of Tsukushi having informed Sang-nim and his colleagues of the Emperor's decease, they all on that same day put on mourning, and with their faces turned to the East made obeisance three times, and three times raised lamentation.

Winter, 10th month, 22nd day. The Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries, as well as by the Governors of provinces, and the Kuni no Miyakko, together, with common people, both men and women, began the construction of the Oho-uchi Misasagi.

12th month, 10th day. Tomi, Michi no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-san rank, was appointed Imperial Envoy for the entertainment of the Silla guests.

This year was the year Hinoto I (24th) of the Cycle.

(A.D. 688.) 2nd year, 1st month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries, went to the Palace of temporary interment and made lamentation.

2nd day. A company of priests made lament at the Palace of temporary interment.

8th day. A public great congregation[18] was held in the Temple of Yakushi.

23rd day. The decease of the Emperor was formally (XXX. 7.) announced to Kim Sang-nim and his colleagues. Kim Sang-nim and his colleagues thereupon made lament three times.

2nd month, 2nd day. The Viceroy presented the tribute from Silla. It consisted of such things as gold and silver, thin silks, cloth, skins, copper, and iron—more than ten articles in all. There were also presented separately such things as images of Buddha, all kinds of coloured fine silks, birds, and horses, more than ten articles in all. Sang-nim's presents were gold and silver, coloured stuffs, and all manner of rarities, altogether more than eighty articles.

10th day,. Sang-nim and his colleagues were entertained in the Tsukushi Government House, and received presents of various values.

16th day. A decree was issued, as follows:—"In future, on all days of national mourning it is absolutely necessary that abstinence should be practised."[19]

29th day. Sang-nim and his colleagues took their departure.

3rd month, 22nd day. An ornamental chaplet was offered at the Palace of temporary interment. Ohoshima, Fujihara no Ason, pronounced a eulogy.

5th month, 8th day. Tök-na-ri, Kyöng-su of Pèkché was transferred to the province of Kahi.

6th month, 11th day. There was an Imperial decree, ordering that all prisoners throughout the Empire who had been guilty of capital crimes should have their punishment mitigated by one degree, and that those who were in prison for lighter offences should be all pardoned. Orders were given to the Empire that for this year (only) half the commuted taxes should be levied.

Autumn, 7th month, 11th day. By reason of the drought; there was great praying for rain.

20th day. The Pèkché priest Dōzō was commanded to pray for rain. Before a morning had passed, rain fell plentifully throughout the Empire.

8th month, 10th day. Offerings of food were made, and lament raised at the Palace of temporary interment. On this occasion Yasumaro, Ohotomo no Sukune, pronounced a eulogy.

(XXX. 8.) 11th day. Prince Ise, of Jō-dai-shi rank, was commanded to announce the state to be observed at the funeral.

25th day. The King of Tamna sent his Minister Kara with tribute of the productions of the country.

9th month, 23rd day. Kara, Minister of Tamna, and his companions were entertained at the Government House of Tsukushi, and received presents of various values.

Winter, 11th month, 4th day. The Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries, as well as by the guests from the frontier lands, went to the Palace of temporary interment and made lamentation. On this occasion offerings of food were made, and the Tate-fushi[20] dance performed.

The Ministers each advanced in turn and pronounced a eulogy, setting forth the circumstances of the services rendered by their ancestors.

5th day. More than 190 Yemishi brought tribute on their backs, and in this fashion pronounced a eulogy.

11th day. Miaruji, Fuse no Ason, and Miyuki, Ohotomo no Sukune, pronounced eulogies alternately.

Chitoko, Tahema no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, in a eulogy recited the succession to the throne of the Imperial ancestors. When this ceremony was finished, the Emperor was buried in the Ohouchi[21] Misasagi.

12th month, 12th day. Two hundred and thirteen Yemishi, men and women, were entertained under the tsuki tree west of the Temple of Asuka. Ranks were bestowed on them, and they received presents varying in value.

(A.D. 689.) 3rd year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The Empress gave audience to the ten-thousand lands [22] in the Front Hall.

(XXX. 9.) 2nd day. The Department of Great Learning presented eighty staves.[23]

3rd day. Maro and Kanawori, sons of Shiriko, of Mu-dai-shi rank, Yemishi of Kikafu in the district of Utamu in the province of Michinoku, begged permission to shave off their hair and become priests. The Empress gave order, saying:—"Maro and the other, although young, are of refined tastes, and their wishes are limited; so much so that they desire nothing but vegetable food and to observe the precepts.[24] In accordance With their request, let them renounce the world and practise religion."

7th day. A banquet was given to the Ministers, and presents of raiment were bestowed on them.

8th day. Norimaro, Tanaka no Ason, and his companions, who were sent as Envoys to Silla, returned from thence.

9th day. The Empress gave orders to the Governor of the province of Idzumo to send up to the capital men of the frontier lands who had met with stress of weather.

On this day there were presented to Dōshin, a Yemishi of Koshi, who was a Buddhist priest, an image of Buddha, one baptismal banner, one bell and one begging bowl, coloured silks, five feet of each kind, five bundles of floss silk, ten tan of cloth, ten mattocks, and one saddle.

Abada no Mabito no Ason, Viceroy of Tsukushi, and others presented to the Empress 174 Hayato,[25] with fifty fathoms of cloth, six ox hides, and fifty deer-skins.

15th day. The civil and military officials brought presents of firewood.

16th day. A meal was given to the public functionaries.

18th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

20th day. The Empress arrived from the Palace of Yoshino.

2nd month, 13th day. The Empress gave orders that reliefs should be sent for the Barrier Wardens of Tsukushi who had completed their term of years.

26th day. Prince Takeda, of Jō-kwō-shi rank, Nemaro, Hashi no Sukune, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, Maro, Ohoyake no (XXX. 10.) Ason, Fubito, Fujihara no Ason, Sakurawi, Tahema no Mabito, of Mu-dai-shi rank, Yamamori, Hodzumi no Ason, Omimaro, Nakatomi no Ason, Tayasu, Kose no Ason, and Yasumaro, Ohomiwa no Ason, were made judges.

3rd month, 24th day. There was a great amnesty for the Empire. But those crimes which were not pardoned in ordinary amnesties were excepted from this amnesty.

Summer, 4th month, 8th day. Immigrants from Silla were settled in the province of Shimotsukenu.

13th day. His Highness the Prince Imperial Kusakabe died.

20th day. Silla sent Kim To-ha, of Keupson rank, and others on a mission of condolence for the decease of the Emperor Oki no Mabito. Silla sent up at the same time the student-priests Mei-sō, Kwan-chi, etc. Separately Silla sent a present of a gold-copper[26] image of Amida, a gold-copper image of Kwan-ze-on Bosatsu, and an image of Dai-sei-shi[27] Bosatsu, together with coloured silks and brocades.

22nd day. Prince Kasuga died.

27th day. Orders were given to the Local Governors that their labourers should be allowed four holidays in the month.

5th month, 22nd day. Nemaro, Hashi no Sukune, was directed to convey to the Condolence Envoys from Silla, Kim Tona, of Keupson rank, and his colleagues, an Imperial message, as follows:—"The Ministers of the Council of State, by order of the Empress, make this communication. In the first year of the reign, Norimaro, Tanaka no Ason and others were sent to announce the decease of the late Emperor. Then Silla said that the persons charged to receive an Imperial message (XXX. 11.) had always had the rank of So-phan. This should also be the case on the present occasion. For this reason Norimaro and his colleagues were unable to deliver the Imperial message which was entrusted to them. Now if former matters are gone into, there is the case of the decease of the Emperor who once ruled the Empire from the Palace of Naniha,[28] when Kose no Inamochi and his colleagues were sent to announce it. On that occasion Kim Chhyun-chhyu, of Yé-son[29] rank, received the Imperial message, so that if it is said that an official of the rank of So-phan should receive the Imperial commands, this would be at variance with former precedent.

Again, when the Emperor who ruled the Empire from the Palace of Afumi[30] died, Kim Sal-yu, of II-kil-son rank, was sent to offer condolence. But now an official of the rank of Keupson offers condolence, which again is contrary to precedent. Moreover Silla has always addressed the Emperor saying:—'Our country, since the reigns of the remote Imperial ancestors of Japan, is a land which does service, never allowing the oars of its ordered ships to become dry.' Yet now but one ship is sent, which is contrary to the ancient rule. And further in addressing the Emperor Silla has said:—'Since the reign of the remote Imperial ancestor of Japan, we have done service with pure hearts.' But you have not been careful to be thoroughly faithful in the performance of the functions originally entrusted to you. You have broken your true faith and have had wilful recourse to arts of flattery. Therefore your tribute and the separate presents are sealed up together and returned to you. However, the generous affection shown to you since the reign of the remote Imperial ancestor of this country will not be discontinued. Be therefore more and more diligent, more and more watchful, and discharge the duties entrusted to you with fear and trembling. The Celestial Court will have a still more generous affection in case the laws are honoured and observed. Do you, Tona and the rest, receive this Imperial message and deliver it to your King."

6th month, 1st day. Garments were presented to the Viceroy of Tsukushi and others.

2nd day. The Imperial Prince Shiki, Sukuna-maro, Sami (XXX. 12.) no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, Mugohe, Hata no Ason, Muma-kahi, Iyobe no Muraji, of Gon-kwō-shi rank, Okina, Mitsugi no Imiki, Ta-uchi, Ohotomo no Sukune, of Mu-dai-san rank, Tayasu, Kose no Ason, and others were appointed Commissioners for the choice of good words.[31]

29th day. Presents of rice, varying in value in each case, were given to Hsü Shou-yen, Sa Hung-k'o, and others of the Land of Great Thang.

20th day. The Empress commanded the Viceroy Ahada no Mabito no Ason and others to give the student-priests Mei-sō and Kwan-chi each 140 kin of floss silk to send to their teachers and friends in Silla.

23rd day. The Silla Condolence Envoys Tona and his colleagues were entertained at Wo-gohori[32] in Tsukushi and were given presents, varying in the case of each.

29th day. A book of legal enactments[33] in twenty-two volumes was distributed to all the Local Governors.

Autumn, 7th month, 1st day. In accordance with his request, the Buddhist priest Jitoku, Yemishi of Michinoku, was granted a gold-copper image of Yakushi Butsu and a gold-copper image of Kwanze-on Bosatsu, a bell, a dish,[34] a precious curtain, an incense burner, and a banner.

On this day, the Silla Condolence Envoys Kim Tona and his colleagues took their departure.

15th day. Orders were given to the Mayors of the Right (XXX. 13.) and Left divisions of the capital and to the Governors of the provinces to build places for the practice of archery.[35]

20th day. The false Palace guard, Kashihabara no Hiroyama by name, a man of the district of Shibukaha in the province of Kahachi, was banished to the province of Tosa. The rank of Tsui-kwō-san was conferred on Tora, Mibu no Muraji, the Palace guard who arrested the false Palace guard Hiroyama.

23rd day. Presents were given to Yatsurina and others, Yemishi of Koshi, varying in value in the case of each.

8th month, 2nd day. The public functionaries assembled in the Department of the Shintō religion, where an Imperial message was communicated to them respecting matters of the Gods of Heaven and Earth.

4th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

16th day. Hunting and fishing were prohibited in the sea of Muko in the province of Settsu for a distance of 1000 paces, for a space of 20,000 shiro on the plain of Nagino in the district of Ate in the province of Kiï, and for a space of 20,000 shiro on the plains of Minono in the district of Iga in the province of Iga. Keepers were attached to these places in the same way as to the Sea of Takashi in the district of Ohotori in the province of Kahachi.

17th day. The Ministers received rewards, varying in the case of each.

21st day. The Empress gave orders to the Governor-General[36] of Iyo, Norimaro Tanaka no Ason, and his colleagues, saying:—"Let the white swallow caught in the district of Mike in the province of Sanuki be set at liberty."

23rd day. The Empress witnessed archery.

Intercalary 8th month, 10th day. The Empress gave orders to the Local Governors, saying:—"This winter the registers of population are to be made up. Not later than the 9th month, let vagabonds be sought out and arrested. As to the militia, let those of each province be divided into four parts, and (XXX. 14.) having selected one of these, cause the men to be trained in warlike exercises."

27th day. Prince Kahachi, of Jō-kwō-shi rank, was made Viceroy of Tsukushi. He was granted arms and received presents. The rank of Jiki-kwō-ichi was bestowed on Shima, Tajihi no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-ni rank. His fief was increased by 100 houses, which were added to his former grant.

9th month, 10th day. Maro, Iso no Kami no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-san rank, Mushina, Ishikaha no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, and others were sent to Tsukushi to deliver patents of rank and also to inspect the new castle.

Winter, 10th month, 11th day. The Empress visited the Castle of Takayasu.

22nd day. Komaro, Shimotsukenu no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, represented to the Empress his desire to set free 600 slaves. His petition was granted.

11th month, 22nd day. Ihanari, Takata no Obito, of Tsui-kwō-ni rank, was complimented in the market-place on his proficiency in the use of the three weapons,[37] and presents were given him.

12th month, 8th day. The game of suguroku[38] was prohibited.

(A.D. 690.) 4th year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. Mononobe no Maro[39] no Ason set up great shields.[40] Nakatomi no Ohoshima no Ason, Minister of the Department of the Shintō religion, recited (a prayer invoking) blessings from the Gods of Heaven. When this was over, Shikofuchi, Imbe no Sukune, delivered to the (XXX. 15.) Empress-consort the divine seal, sword and mirror.[41] The Empress-consort accordingly assumed the Imperial Dignity.[42] The Ministers and public functionaries ranged in order, made obeisance in rotation,[43] and clapped their hands.

2nd day. The Ministers and public functionaries presented their respects at Court with the same state as at the New Year's audience.

Tajihi no Shima no Mabito and Fuse no Miaruji no Ason[44] presented their congratulations to the Empress on her accession to the throne.

3rd day. A banquet was given to the Ministers in the inner precinct.

7th day. A banquet was given to the Ministers in the inner precinct, and presents of clothing given them.

15th day. The public functionaries presented firewood.

17th day. There was a general amnesty throughout the Empire. It did not apply, however, to those criminals who are excepted from ordinary pardons.

One grade of rank was granted to all persons who already held official rank.

Widows, orphans, lone persons, sufferers from grave illness, and those who from poverty were unable to support themselves were granted presents of rice, and exempted from commuted taxes and forced labour.

20th day. One hundred tokibe[45] were appointed to the Department of Justice.

23rd day. Offerings were distributed to the Gods of Heaven and the Gods of Earth in the Home provinces. Moreover, the lands and houses allotted for their service were augmented.

2nd month, 5th day. The Empress went to the embankment of Wakinokami and inspected the horses of the Ministers and Daibu.

11th day. A Buddhist priest of Silla named Chön-kil, Peuk Cho-chi, of Keupson rank, and others, fifty persons in all, (XXX. 16.) immigrated to Japan.

17th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

19th day. A feast of vegetarian food was given within the inner precinct.

25th day. Hö-man, of Han Nama rank, and other Silla men, twelve persons in all, who had come as immigrants, were settled in the province of Musashi.

3rd month, 20th day. Rice of the Shima Palace was given to those inhabitants of the capital and the Home provinces who were eighty years of age and upwards. Each person had twenty sheaves, and those who had official rank received in addition two tan of cloth.

Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. Envoys were sent to worship the great abstinence Deity of Hirose and the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

7th day. Presents of rice were made to 5031 old men and old women of the capital and Home provinces. Each person had twenty sheaves.

14th day. An edict was issued, as follows:—"Let all public functionaries and people of the Home provinces be divided into nine classes according to the number of days in which they have done service. In the case of those who have official rank, reckoning is to be made for six years, and not longer, and in the case of those of no rank, for seven years only. In accordance with the regulations for the examination of public service, let those of the first four classes receive cap-rank in proportion to their merits, their services, and the importance of the House to which they belong. Their court costume shall be dark purple for those from the rank of Jō-dai-ichi down to that of Kwō-ni, bright purple for those from the rank of Jō-dai-san to that of Kwō-shi, for the eight Shō[46] grades bright purple, for the eight Jiki grades dark red, for the eight Gon grades dark green, for the eight Mu grades light green, for the eight Tsui grades deep blue, and for the eight Shin grades light blue. Apart from this, those of Jō-kwō-ni or higher rank may wear all manner of thin silk gauzes, etc., of one breadth and one kind, while those from the rank of Jō-dai-san to that of Jiki-kwō-shi may wear all manner of thin silk gauzes, etc., of one breadth and two kinds. Both the higher and lower ranks should ordinarily wear girdles of variegated silk and white (XXX. 17.) trousers. Other matters to remain as usual."

22nd day. By reason of a drought, rain was begun to be prayed for in various places.

5th month, 3rd day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

10th day. Twenty-one immigrants from Pèkché, men and women, arrived.

15th day. Discourses on "dwelling in peace"[47] were begun in the inner precinct.

6th month, 6th day. The Empress visited Hatsuse.

25th day. All persons whatever, possessed of official rank, were summoned, and the order of their rank and their ages proclaimed.

Autumn, 7th month, 1st day. The Ministers and public functionaries put on the new Court costume for the first time.

3rd day. Offerings were distributed to the Gods of Heaven and the Gods of Earth.

5th day. The Imperial Prince Takechi was made Dajō-daijin, the rank of Shō-kwō-san was granted to Tajihi no Mabito, and he was made Udaijin. New appointments were also made to all the eight Departments of State and the bureaus.

6th day. New appointments were made of viceroys and governors of provinces.

7th day. An Imperial Order was made that the Ministers, public functionaries, and all persons holding official rank should in future put on their Court costumes in their own houses, and so present themselves before the opening of the gate.

9th day. An Imperial edict was issued, as follows:—"When those occupying the higher places at a Court assembly see a Prince of the Blood, the usual ceremony is to be observed; when a Daijin and a Prince appear, every one should stand up before the Hall; if two or more Princes appear, every one should get down from his seat and kneel."

14th day. An Imperial edict was issued, as follows:—"When those occupying the higher places at a Court assembly see a Daijin, they should move their seats and kneel down."

On this day alms of coarse silk, raw silk, floss silk, and cloth were given to 3363 priests of the seven temples who had taken part in the "retreat."[48] Separately alms were bestowed, on behalf of the Prince Imperial, on 329 priests of three temples who had taken part in the "retreat."

18th day. Envoys were sent to worship the Great Abstinence (XXX. 18.) Deity of Hirose, and the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

8th month, 4th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

11th day. Silla immigrants were settled in the province of Shimotsukenu.

9th month, 1st day. An edict was addressed to the governors of all the provinces, as follows:—"In preparing the returns of population, let the house-regulations be attended to."

11th day. A decree was issued, as follows:—"As We are about to make a tour in the province of Kiï, let no land-tax or poll-tax be collected for the year in the capital."

13th day. The Empress proceeded to Kiï.

23rd day. Three priests who had gone to the Land of Great Thang for study, named Chi-shiu, Gi-toku, and Jō-gwan, and a private soldier named Ohotomobe no Hakama, of the district of Upper Yame in the province of Tsukushi, returned to Tsukushi in the train of the Silla Escort Envoy, Kim Ko-hun, of Tè-na-ma rank.

24th day. The Empress returned from Kiï.

Winter, 10th month, 5th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

10th day. Chi-shiu and the other priests who had been to Thang for study arrived in the capital.

15th day. Messengers were sent to Prince Kahachi, Viceroy of Tsukushi, and his colleagues with the following order:—"In entertaining the Silla Escort Envoy, Kim Ko-hun, of Tè-na-ma rank, and his colleagues, let the precedent be followed of the Escort Envoy, who escorted up the student Wohi, Hashi no Sukune, and his companions. The attentions paid them and the presents given them must follow strictly the edict."

22nd day. An Imperial order was given to Ohotomobe no Hakama, a private soldier of the district of Upper Yame in the province of Tsukushi, saying:—"You were taken prisoner by the Thang troops in the seventh year of the reign of the Empress Ame toyo-takara-ikashi-hi-tarashi-hime during the campaign undertaken for the assistance of Pèkché. At length, in the third year of the Emperor Ame mikoto hirakasu wake, the four men Hoto Hashi, no Muraji, Oyu, Kohori no Muraji, (XXX. 19.) Satsuyama, Tsukushi no Kimi, and Gen Jitsu-ni,[49] Yuge no Muraji, wished to inform the Emperor of the designs of the men of Thang, but, as they had neither clothing nor provisions, they were, to their sorrow, unable to carry out their purpose. Upon this you, Hakama, said to Hashi no Hoto and the others, 'I should like to return to our own Court along with you, but for want of clothing and provisions we cannot all depart together. I pray you, sell me as a slave, and use the money to buy food and clothing.' Acting on your proposal, Hoto and his companions were enabled to communicate with the Celestial Court, and you alone remained in a foreign land for the space of thirty years until now. We are pleased with the loyalty and patriotism which led you to sell yourself, and thus display your fidelity. As a mark of distinction for this meritorious service We therefore grant you the rank of Mu-dai-shi, with five pieces of coarse silk, ten bundles of floss silk, thirty tan of cloth, 1000 sheaves of rice, and four chō of rice-land, to be continued to your great-grandchildren, and your relations of thd three classes[50] are exempted from forced labour."

29th day. The Imperial Prince Takechi inspected the site for the Palace of Fujihara. He was accompanied by the Ministers and public functionaries.

11th month, 7th day. Presents were given to the Escort Envoy Kim Ko-hun and his colleagues, of varying value in the case of each.

11th day. In compliance with an Imperial order, the use of the Yüan-kia and I-fêng calendars was begun.[51]

12th month, 3rd day. The Escort Envoy Kim Ko-hun and his colleagues took their departure.

12th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

14th day. The Empress returned from the Palace of Yoshino.

(XXX. 20.) 19th day. The Empress went to Fujihara, and inspected the site for the Palace. All the Ministers and public functionaries accompanied her.

23rd day. Presents were given to the Ministers and officials of lower rank, varying in value in the case of each.

5th year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. Ranks were bestowed on the Princes of the Blood, the Ministers,[52] the Princesses of the Blood, the Princesses, and the lady officials of the Palace.

7th day. Presents of eatables, drinkables, and clothing were given to the Ministers. Rich presents varying in value in the case of each were made to Yö Syön-kwang, of Shō-kwō-shi rank, and to Wön-pong, Nyang-no, arid Nam-chyön, of Jiki-dai-shi rank, Princes of Pèkché.

13th day. An increase of 2000 houses was made to the fief of the Imperial Prince Takechi, which, added to his previous fief, made 3000 houses. To the Imperial Prince Hodzumi, of Jō-kwō-ni rank, there were given 500 houses; to the Imperial Prince Kahashima, of Jō-dai-san rank, 100 houses, which, added to his previous fief, made 500 houses; to the Udaijin, Tajihi no Shima Mabito, of Shō-kwō-san rank, 300 houses, which, added to his previous fief, made 500 houses; to the Pèkché Prince Chyön-kwang, of Shō-kwō-shi rank, 100 houses, which, added to his previous fief, made 200 houses; to Fuse no Miaruji no Ason, of Jiki-dai-ichi rank, and to Ohotomo no Miyuki no Sukune, 80 houses, which, added to their previous fiefs, made 300 houses. Others received additions to their fiefs which varied in amount for each.

14th day. An edict was made, as follows:—"Masaru, Tsukushi no Fubito, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, ever since his appointment twenty-nine years ago as Secretary to the Viceroy of Tsukushi, has been upright and faithful, and has not been guilty of any remissness. He is, therefore, granted a sustenance-fief of 5000 houses, fifteen pieces of coarse silk, twenty-five bundles of floss silk, fifty tan of cloth, and 5000[53] sheaves of rice.

16th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

23rd day. The Empress returned from the Palace of Yoshino.

2nd month, 1st day. The Empress addressed a decree to (XXX. 21.) the Ministers, saying:—"In the reigns of the former Emperors ye erected Buddhist Halls and Scripture (Sutra) Treasuries, and practised the six monthly fasts.[54] The Emperors from time to time sent Ohotoneri to inquire after the welfare of the priests, and the same has also been done in Our own reign. Let us therefore with zealous hearts continue to uphold the Buddhist faith."

On this day patents of rank were bestowed on officials.

3rd month, 3rd day. A banquet was given to the Ministers in the Western Hall.

5th day. The Empress inspected the horses both of the State and of private persons in the Imperial park.

22nd day. An edict was issued, as follows:—"If a younger brother of the common people is sold by his elder brother, he should be classed with freemen: if a child is sold by his parents, he should be classed with slaves: persons confiscated into slavery by way of payment of interest on debts are to be classed with freemen, and their children, though born of a union with a slave, are also to be all classed with freemen."

Summer, 4th month, 1st day. An edict was issued, as follows:—"Slaves who have been manumitted in the time of the ancestor of a House, and already struck off the register of slaves, may not be claimed again as slaves by members of that House."

Kudara, Kami no Sukuri, Doctor of the University, was granted 1000 sheaves of the greater tax-rice, as an encouragement to his learning.

11th day. Envoys were sent to worship the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose, and the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

16th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

22nd day. The Empress returned from the Palace of Yoshino.

5th month, 21st day. Syun-mu-mi-chă of Pèkché was commended for his services during the year Midzunoye Saru, was granted the rank of Jiki-dai-san, and received presents of coarse silk and cloth.

6th month. Sleet[55] fell in forty places in the capital and provinces.

(XXX. 22.) 19th day. An edict was issued, as follows:—"This summer profuse rain has fallen beyond measure, and We fear that certainly injury will be caused to the grain-crops. Our anxiety of the night lasts until the morning, as We ponder where the blame for this lies. Now We command you, our Ministers and functionaries, to prohibit the use of strong drink and animal food, to compose your hearts and repent of your sins. Moreover let the priests of the Temples of the capital and of the Home provinces read the Sutras for a space of five days. It may be hoped that this will have some effect."

The rain had lasted from the fourth month until this month.

20th day. A general amnesty was proclaimed throughout the Empire. Thieves and robbers were, however, excepted.

Autumn, 7th month, 3rd day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino. On this day, Norimaro, Tanaka no Ason, Governor of the province of Iyo, and others presented three kin and eight riō of silver and a basket of ore of Mount Mimŭma-yama in the district of Uwa.

7th day. A banquet was given to the Ministers and presents of Court dress made them.

12th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

15th day. Envoys were sent to worship the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

8th month, 13th day. The Empress commanded eighteen Houses [Oho-miwa, Sazaibe, Iso no Kami, Fujihara, Ishikaha, Kose, Kashihade be, Kasuga, Kamitsukenu, Ohotomo, Ki, Abe, Saheki, Uneme, Hodzumi, Adzumi, Heguri, and Hata] to deliver to her the records of the tombs[56] of their ancestors.

23rd day. Envoys were sent to worship the Wind-gods of Tatsuta, and the Gods of Suha[57] and Minuchi, in Shinano.

9th month, 4th day. Hsü Shou-yen and Sa Hung-k'o, of (XXX. 23.) Great Thang, Professors of pronunciation, and Mal-sǎ and Chyön-sin, of Pèkché, Professors of writing, received presents of twenty riō of silver each.

9th day. The Imperial Prince Kahashima, of Jō-dai-san rank, died.

23rd day. The posthumous rank of Jiki-dai-ni was granted to Ohome, Saheki no Sukune, and also a contribution made for his funeral expenses.

Winter, 10th month, 1st day. There was an eclipse of the sun.

8th day. A decree was issued, as follows:—"Let the houses set apart for the care of the misasagi of former Emperors be five or more in number; in the case of others, viz. princes of distinguished merit, let three houses be allotted. If the misasagi houses are insufficient, let the want be supplied by peasants, whose forced labour shall be remitted, and who shall be changed once in three years."

13th day. Long-life places,[58] each of 1000 paces, were instituted in the Home and other provinces.

On this day the Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

20th day. The Empress returned from Yoshino.

27th day. Envoys were sent to perform a service for the tranquillity of the new capital.[59]

11th month, 24th day. The festival of first-fruits[60] was held. Ohoshima, Nakatomi no Ason, Minister of the Department of the Shintō religion, recited the (prayer invoking the) blessing of the Heavenly Deities.

25th day. Bed-clothes[61] were presented to the Ministers.

28th day. Thin silks were given to all from the rank of Minister down to that of Secretary. They varied in value for each.

30th day. An entertainment was given to the officials of the Shintō Department from the Chief down to the Kamibe, and also to the Governors and others, including common people, both men and women, of the districts of the provinces of Harima and Inaba which had furnished (the rice used at the festival). They received presents of thin silk of various values for each.

12th month, 2nd day. Toku Ji-chin,[62] of Mu-dai-san rank, Doctor of Medicine, and Mokuso, Chō-mu, Shataku, and Manjiu, Professors of exorcism, were given presents of twenty riō of silver each.

8th day. A decree was issued, as follows:—"To the Udaijin let there be given four chō of land as a site[63] for a house, to those (XXX. 24.) of the rank of Jiki-kwō-ni and above, two chō, to those of the rank of Jiki-dai-san and below, one chō. From the Gon grades down to officials who have no rank, let the number of inhabitants of their fiefs be taken as a guide, first class fiefs having one chō, second class half a chō, and third class a quarter of a chō. Princes shall follow the same rule."

(A.D. 692.) 6th year, Spring, 1st month, 4th day. The Imperial Prince Takechi was granted an additional fief of 2000 houses, making, along with his previous one, a total of 5000 houses.

7th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers, and they received presents of garments.

12th day. The Empress inspected the road to[64] the new capital.

16th day. An entertainment was given to officials from the Ministers down to those of initial rank.

27th day. The Empress visited Takamiya.

28th day. The Empress returned from Takamiya.

2nd month, 11th day. Orders were given to the officials, saying:—"It is Our intention to proceed to Ise on the third day of the third month. Take note of this Our purpose, and get ready all the necessary clothing."

The priests Hō-zō and Dō-ki, Professors of the Yin and Yang, received presents of twenty riō of silver each.

19th day. Orders were given to the Board of Punishments to release short-sentence prisoners.

On this day, the Chunagon, Takechi-maro, Miwa no Ason, of Jiki-dai-ni rank, presented a memorial in which he made bold to remonstrate roundly with the Empress for her proposed visit to Ise, which he said would interfere with the time for agricultural operations.

3rd month, 3rd day. Prince Hirose, of Jō-kwō-shi rank, Chitoko, Tahema no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-san rank, and Yumibari, Ki no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, were appointed to take charge of the Palace during the Empress's absence. Upon this the Chunagon, Takechi-maro, Miwa no Ason, divested (XXX. 25.) himself of his cap-rank and delivered it up to the Court, reiterating his remonstrance, and saying:—" During the season of agricultural operations the (Imperial) chariot should not be moved."

6th day. The Empress did not yield to his remonstrances, but at length proceeded to Ise.

17th day. The Empress bestowed cap-rank on the Miyakko of the sacred districts[65] through which she had passed, and on the Miyakko of the provinces of Iga, Ise, and Shima. These places were also released from commuted taxes and forced labour for this year. Moreover the commuted taxes and forced labour for the year were remitted in the case of the horsemen provided for the Empress's service, the baggage-coolies of her officials, and the labourers employed in constructing temporary Palaces. There was a general pardon for the Empire, which, however, did not comprise thieves and robbers.

19th day. Fifty sheaves of rice for each person were presented to men and women of eighty years of age and upwards, common people of the province of Shima, through which the Empress passed.

20th day. The hnperial chariot[66] returned to the Palace. Wherever it had reached, the officials and people of the district were assembled, and care was taken to reward their diligence and to have musical performances.

30th day. By an Imperial decree, the commuted taxes and forced labour for this year were remitted to those houses from which horsemen had been provided for the Empress's service in the provinces of Afumi, Mino, Wohari, Mikaha, and Tōtōmi, to the baggage-coolies and to the labourers employed in constructing temporary Palaces in every province. An Imperial decree was also made that three sheaves of rice for each man, and two for each woman, should be given to all poor and distressed common people in the Empire.

Summer, 4th month, 2nd day. The posthumous rank of Jiki-dai-ni was bestowed on Tomokuni, Ohotomo no Sukune, and a contribution made towards his funeral expenses.

5th day. With the exception of common people of the four Home provinces,[67] the men who had acted as baggage-coolies were exempted from commuted taxes and forced labour for the year.

19th day. Messengers were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

21st day. Mattocks from the Naniha Treasury were given to all persons of official rank, from Princes of the Blood down to the rank of Tsui-kwō-shi. These gifts varied in each case.

(XXX. 26.) 25th day. By an Imperial edict all prisoners and persons under sentence of lighter banishment were pardoned and discharged.

5th month, 6th day. Three brothers, named Kahasemaro, etc., fishermen of Agoshi, inhabitants of the district of Muro in the province of Kiï, who had supplied the Empress's table during her stay in the temporary Palace of Ago, were granted exemption for ten years from commuted taxes and forced labour, and from miscellaneous corvées. Further, eight boatmen had their commuted taxes and forced labour remitted for the year.

7th day. The Governor of the province of Sagami presented a pair of fledgling red crows, saying that they had been caught in the district of Miura.

12th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

16th day. The Imperial chariot returned to the Palace.

17th day. Daibu were sent as messengers to the celebrated mountains, and to the hills and rivers, to pray to them for rain.

20th day. Chitoko, Fumi no Imiki, was granted the posthumous rank of Jiki-dai-ichi, and a contribution made towards the expenses of his funeral.

23rd day. Prince Naniha, of Jō-kwō-shi rank, and others were sent to perform a service for the tranquillity of the site of the Palace of Fujihara.

26th day. Envoys were sent to make offerings to the Great Gods of the following four places, viz.: Ise, Yamato, Sumiyoshi, and Kiï, and to announce to them the erection of the new Palace.

Intercalary 5th month, 3rd day. Great floods. Commissioners were sent to visit the districts and provinces, one after another, making loans to those who, having met with disaster, were unable to support themselves, and allowing them to fish and cut wood in the hills and forests, the ponds and marshes.

An Imperial order was given that the Kin-kwō-miō Sutra should be expounded in the capital and in the four Home provinces.

4th day. The Buddhist priest Kwan-sei was given a present of fifteen hiki of coarse silk, thirty bundles of floss silk, and fifty tan of cloth, and he was commended for having made white lead.[68]

(XXX. 27.) 13th day. The Great Gods of Ise addressed the Empress, saying:—"Let the commuted taxes and forced labour for the province of Ise be remitted for this year. That being so, the thirty-five kin of red silk yarn forwarded by the two districts of the Gods should be reduced in value from next year."[69]

15th day. An Imperial order was given to Prince Kahachi, Viceroy of Tsukushi, and the rest, saying:—"Let priests be sent to Ohosumi and Ata to propagate the Buddhist religion." He was further made to sead up to the capital the image of Amida, made by the Great Thang Chief Envoy Kuo Wu-ts'ung, for the Emperor who lived in the Palace of Ohotsu in Afumi.

6th month, 9th day. The senior officials of the districts and provinces were commanded each to pray to the celebrated mountains, and to the hills and rivers for rain.

11th day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to the four Home provinces to pray for rain.

21st day. Official rank was granted to eight labourers, and they were commended for their diligence and absence of remissness in the construction of the Ohouchi Misasagi.[70]

30th day. The Empress inspected the site of the Fujihara Palace.

Autumn, 7th month, 2nd day. A general amnesty was granted throughout the Empire. But this pardon did not apply to those guilty of the ten[71] crimes, nor to thieves and robbers.

Shikofuchi, Fuse no Ason, Governor of the province of Sagami, and others, with the Vice-Governor of the district of Miura, and Kusu, Kashima no Omi, who had caught the red crows, had rank and presents bestowed on them. Moreover the commuted taxes and forced labour were remitted to the district of Miura for three years.

7th day. A banquet was given to the Ministers.

9th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

11th day. Envoys were sent to pray to Hirose and Tatsuta.

28th day. The Imperial car returned to the Palace.

(XXX. 28.) On this night Mars and Jupiter approached and receded from one another four times in the room of one pace, alternately shining and disappearing.

8th month, 3rd day. Criminals were pardoned.

17th day. The Empress visited the country-house of the Imperial Princess Asuka, and on the same day returned to the Palace.

9th month, 9th day. Daibu were despatched to the four Home provinces, to attend to the distribution of rice-lands.

14th day. The Department of the Shintō religion laid before the Empress four volumes of sacred treasures,[72] nine keys, and one wooden stamp.

21st day. The Governor of the province of Ise presented two auspicious stalks of rice.

The Governor of the province of Echizen presented a white moth.

26th day. An Imperial decree was made, saying:—"Whereas a white moth has been caught on the shore at Uragami in the district of Tsunuga, the fief of the God of Kebi is increased by twenty houses, making a total, with those already attached to his shrine, of —.

Winter, 10th month, 11th day. Mikata, Yamada no Fubito, was granted the rank of Mu-kwō-shi. He had formerly gone to study in Silla as a priest.

12th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

19th day. The Imperial car returned to the Palace.

11th month, 8th day. Silla sent Pak Ök-tök, and Kim Sim-sal, of Keupson rank, etc., as tribute-bearers. Presents (XXX. 29.) were made of various values to Oyu, Okinaga no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, and to Tsura, Kahachi no Imiki, of Mu-dai-ni rank, etc., whom it Was proposed to send as Envoys to Silla.

11th day. Pak Ök-tök, of Silla, was entertained, and received presents in the official building of Naniha.

12th month, 14th day. Hsü Shou-yen and Sa Hung-k'o, Professors of (Chinese) pronunciation, received grants of rice-land, four chō being given to each.

24th day. Daibu were sent to deliver the tribute from Silla to the five shrines of Ise, Sumiyoshi, Kiï, Yamato, and Unatari.[73]

(A.D. 693.) 7th year, Spring, 1st month, 2nd day. The rank of Jō-kwō-ichi was bestowed on the Imperial Prince Takechi, and that of Jō-kwō-ni on the Imperial Princes Naga and Yuge.

On this day an Imperial edict was issued directing that the common people of the Empire should wear yellow clothing and that slaves should wear black.

7th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers and Daibu.

13th day. Presents were given to all persons of official rank in the capital and in the Home provinces of the age of eighty years and upwards. Each person received one wadded sleeping garment, two hiki of coarse silk, two bundles of floss silk, and four tan of cloth.

15th day. The posthumous rank of Shō-kwō-san was granted to Syön-kwang, Prince of Pèkché, and a contribution made towards his funeral expenses.

16th day. Presents of cloth of various values were made to the men and women of the capital of the age of eighty or upwards, and to poor and distressed persons.

A priest of Funase named Hō-kyo was given three chō of rice-land.

On this day, men of Aya gave a performance of Arare-bashiri.[74]

(XXX. 30.) 2nd month, 3rd day. Silla sent Kim Kang-nam, of Sason rank, and Kim Yang-wön, of Han-na-ma rank, to announce the mourning for the King.[75]

10th day. Prince Kinunuhi and his colleagues, the Commissioners for the construction of the capital, were ordered to bury the bodies which had been dug up.

30th day. Thirty-seven castaways from Silla, named Muchă, Monyé, etc., were handed over to Ök-tök and his party.

3rd month, 1st day. There was an eclipse of the sun.

5th day. A sustenance-fief of thirty houses was granted to Kudara, Kami no Sukuri, Doctor of the University, of Gon-kwō-ni rank, for the promotion of Chinese learning.

6th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

11th day. The rank of Jiki-dai-ni, and a contribution for funeral expenses, were granted to Ohoshima, Fujihara no Ason.

13th day. The Empress arrived from the Palace of Yoshino.

16th day. Presents of coarse silk, floss silk, and cloth of various values were given to Oyu, Okinaga no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, and Kogimi, Ohotomo no Sukune, of Gon-dai-ni rank, whom it was proposed to send as Envoys to Silla, and also to the student priests Bentsū and Shinyei.

Moreover, a present was made for the funeral expenses of the King of Silla.

17th day. An Imperial decree was issued directing that the cultivation throughout the Empire of such vegetable productions as the mulberry tree, hemp, pears, chestnuts, and greens,[76] should be encouraged, as auxiliaries to the five grains.

Summer, 4th month, 17th day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the shrines and to pray for rain. Moreover, Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose, and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

(XXX. 31.) 22nd day. Ohotomo no Wobito, Vice-President of the Inner Treasury, was by an Imperial decree convicted of dishonest practices, reduced two grades in rank, and dismissed from the office he then held. Two clerks named Oisome no Ohoku and Uno no Ohotomo were also convicted of dishonest practices, reduced one grade in rank, and dismissed from the office which they then held. An auditor named Kose no Muraharu, who, although he derived no personal advantage from it, was privy to the theft, and allowed it to be committed, was therefore reduced in rank by two grades and dismissed from his office. Oisome no Ohoku, however, was pardoned, on account of his zealous services during the campaign of the year Midzunoye Saru. But the proceeds of the dishonest practices were confiscated according to law.

5th month, 1st day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

7th day. The Empress arrived from the Palace of Yoshino.

15th day. A public (Buddhist) great-congregation was held within the inner precinct.

6th month, 1st day. By an Imperial order the Koryö priest Pok-ka was restored to the laity.

4th day. The rank of Jiki-kwö-shi was bestowed on Hirome, (XXX. 32.) Hikeda no Ason, Karita, Mori no Kimi, Maro, Kose no Ason, Omi-maro, Fujihara no Ason, Tayasu, Kose no Ason, Ikemori, Tajihi no Mabito, and Maro, Ki no Ason, in all seven persons.

Autumn, 7th month, 7th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

12th day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

14th day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the various shrines and pray for rain.

16th day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the various shrines and pray for rain. On this day the Empress arrived from Yoshino.

8th month, 1st day. The Empress went to the site of the Palace of Fujihara.

17th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

21st day. The Imperial car returned to the Palace.

9th month, 1st day. There was an eclipse of the sun.

5th day. The Empress went to the Peak of Tamu no Mine.

6th day. The Imperial car returned to the Palace.

10th day. On behalf of the Kiyomibara[77] Emperor a public great-congregation was held within the inner precincts. All prisoners were released.

16th day. The posthumous rank of Jiki-kwō-san was granted to Konoma, Kaya no Imiki, and a contribution made for his funeral expenses. In this way his services in the campaign of the year Midzunoye Saru were rewarded.

Winter, 10th month, 2nd day. It was decreed that from this year onwards there should be inspections of the arms kept in store by all, beginning with the Princes of the Blood down to persons of initial rank. Those of Jō cap-rank down to Jiki cap-rank were each to have one suit of armour, one sword, one bow, one set of arrows, one elbow-pad,[78] and one saddle-horse. (XXX. 33.) Those of Gon cap-rank to Shin or initial cap-rank were each to have one sword, one bow, one set of arrows, and one elbow-pad. Such were to be their provision.

23rd day. The Jin-nō[79] Sutra was begun to be expounded in the hundred provinces. This came to a close after four days.

11th month, 5th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

7th day. Presents were given to the Prince and Prime Minister, etc., of Tamna, of various values.

10th day. The Imperial car returned to the Palace.

14th day. The Priests Hō-yen, Zen-ō, and Shin-gi were sent to the district of Yasu in the province of Afumi, to try the spring of cordial[80] waters.

23rd day. The rank of Jiki-dai-shi was bestowed on Sukuna-maro, Hikeda no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, and he was granted a sustenance-fief of fifty houses.

12th month, 21st day. Professors of the art of war were sent to give instruction and training in the various provinces.

(A.D. 694.) 8th year, 1st month, 2nd day. The rank of Shō-kwō-shi was granted to Miaruji, Fuse no Ason, of Jiki-dai-ichi rank, and to Miyuki, Ohotomo no Sukune, with an increase of 200 houses to the fiefs of each, amounting with those held by them previously to five hundred houses. They were also constituted the senior members of their Houses.

7th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers.

15th day. The Empress received presents of firewood.

16th day. An entertainment was given to the public functionaries.

17th day. The men of Aya gave a performance of Arare-bashiri.

Those of the fifth rank and upwards had archery.

18th day. Those of the sixth rank and downwards had archery. After four days it came to an end.

19th day. The men of Thang gave a performance of Arare-bashiri.

21st day. The Empress visited the Palace of Fujihara, and returned to the Palace on the same day.

(XXX. 34.) 23rd day. The ranks of Mu-kwō-shi, etc., were conferred on seven men of Great Thang and two Sushen (Manchus).

24th day. The Empress visited the Palace of Yoshino.

3rd month, 1st day. There was an eclipse of the sun.

2nd day. Maro, Ohoyake no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, Yashima, Utena no Imiki, of Gon-dai-ni rank, and Honjitsu, Kibumi no Muraji, were appointed Governors of the mint for (copper ?) cash.[81]

11th day. An Imperial edict was issued, as follows:—"In all cases where persons of no official rank are appointed as District Governors, the chief officials shall receive the rank of Shin-kwō-ni, and the assistants that of Shin-dai-san."

16th day. The Empress made an edict, as follows:—"In the seventh year of our reign, the year Midzunoto Mi of the Cycle, a spring of cordial waters bubbled up at Mount Tsuga-yama in the district of Yasu in the province of Afumi. Persons afflicted with all manner of diseases went to stay at the Temple of Yasudera, and great numbers were healed. Therefore four chō of rice-land and sixty tan of cloth are granted to it, and the district of Yasu is exempted for this year from commuted taxes and forced labour, and from miscellaneous corvées. The local authorities, from the chief down to the clerks, are advanced one grade in rank. To those who first made proof of the spring of cordial waters, viz. Kadono no Hatsuki and the daughter of Kudara no Tsurara, these are given two hiki of coarse silk each, ten tan of cloth, and ten mattocks."

22nd day. Offerings were presented at the various shrines.

23rd day. Presents of coarse silks and cloth, varying in value in the case of each, were made to the officials of the Department of the Shintō religion from the chief down to the Hafuri, in all 164 persons.

Summer, 4th month, 5th day. The posthumous rank of Jō-dai-shi was conferred on Prince Kahachi, Viceroy of Tsukushi, and a contribution made towards his funeral expenses.

7th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

13th day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

(XXX. 35.) 14th day. The Empress arrived back from the Palace of Yoshino.

17th day. A contribution was sent towards the funeral expenses of the Doctor of Law[82] Dō-yen.

5th month, 6th day. The Ministers and Daibu were entertained within the inner precincts (of the Palace).

11th day. One hundred copies of the Kin-kwō-myō Sutra were sent and deposited in the various provinces, to be read without fail when the moon of the first month was in her first quarter. The fees (to the priests) were to be defrayed from the public revenues[83] of the province.

6th month, 8th day. A white copper-pheasant was presented by the district of Sarara in the province of Kahachi. The Governor and Vice-Governor of the district of Sarara received each a grade of rank and presents, and the rank of Shin-kwō-ni was granted to Karakuni, Osakabe no Miyakko, who had caught it. He also received presents.

Autumn, 7th month, 4th day. Inspectors[84] were sent to the provinces.

15th day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

8th month, 17th day. One hundred and four priests were made to enter religion for the sake of the Imperial Princess Asuka.

9th month, 1st day. There was an eclipse of the sun.

4th day. The Empress proceeded to the Palace of Yoshino.

22nd day. Prince Mino, of Jō-kwō-shi rank, was appointed Viceroy of Tsukushi.

Winter, 10th month, 20th day. The rank of Shin-dai-shi (XXX. 36.) was bestowed on a man of the district of Araki, in the province of Hida, named Otokunibe no Otohi, who had caught a white bat. He also received a present of four hiki of coarse silk, four bundles of floss silk, and ten tan of cloth, and his house was exempted from all forced labour whatever during his life.

11th month, 26th day. There was an amnesty for criminals, from those guilty of capital crimes downwards.

12th month, 6th day. The Empress removed her residence to the Palace of Fujihara.

9th day. The public functionaries paid their respects at Court.

10th day. Presents of various values were made to all from the Princes of the Blood down to the Governors of districts, consisting of coarse silk, floss silk, and cloth.

12th day. A banquet was given to the Ministers and Daibu.

(A.D. 695.) 9th year, Spring, 1st month, 5th day. The rank of Jō-kwō-ni was conferred on the toneri of Imperial Princes.

7th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers and Daibu within the inner precinct (of the Palace).

15th day. Firewood was presented to the Empress.

16th day. An entertainment was given to the public functionaries.

17th day. There was archery lasting for four days.

Intercalary and month, 8th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

15th day. The Imperial car returned to the Palace.

3rd month, 2nd day. Silla sent Prince Kim Nyang-nim, the Po-nyöng[85] Pak Kang-kuk, of Sal-son[86] rank, and Kim Chyu-han and Kim Chhyung-syön, of Han-na-ma rank, to present a memorial regarding the government of their country, to offer tribute and to bring presents.

11th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

14th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

22nd day. Hakase, Fumi no Imiki, of Mu-kwō-ni rank, Shimo-osa[87] no Morota, of Shin-kwō-san rank, and others were sent to Tane[88] to obtain the barbarians' dwelling-place.

Summer, 4th month, 9th day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods (XXX. 37.) of Tatsuta.

17th day. The posthumous rank of Jiki-kwō-san was conferred on Yemishi, Kamo no Ason, and a contribution made towards his funeral expenses. [His original rank was Gon-dai-ichi.] The posthumous rank of Jiki-dai-shi was conferred on Akamaro, Fumi no Imiki, and a contribution made towards his funeral expenses. [His original rank was Dai-san-chiu.]

5th month, 13th day. An entertainment was given to the Hayato of Oho-sumi.

21st day. The Empress witnessed wrestling by the Hayato at West[89] Tsuki no moto.

6th month, 3rd day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the shrines of the capital and the four Home provinces and pray for rain.

16th day. Honorary gifts of various values were made to all high officials who were eighty years of age or more, or who were affected by chronic disease.

18th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

26th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

Autumn, 7th month, 23rd day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

26th day. Presents were made of various values to the Envoys whom it was proposed to send to Silla, viz. Kenu, Wono no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-shi rank, Hakatoko, Yuki no Muraji, of Mu-dai-ni rank, and others.

8th month, 24th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

30th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

9th month, 4th day. The prisons were visited, and those persons were released who were suffering sentences of minor banishment or imprisonment.

6th day. Kenu, Wono no Ason, and his colleagues started for Silla.

10th month, 11th day. The Empress went to Yonahari in Uda.

12th day. The Empress arrived from Yonahari.

12th month, 5th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

13th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

Prince Hatsuse was granted the (posthumous) rank of Jō-dai-shi, and a contribution made for his funeral expenses.

(A.D. 696.) (XXX. 38.) l0th year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. The Ministers and Daibu were entertained.

11th day. The rank of Jiki-dai-shi was conferred on Nam-chyön, Prince of Pèkché.

15th day. Firewood was presented to the Empress.

16th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers and public functionaries.

18th day. The Ministers and public functionaries had archery at the South Gate.

2nd month, 3rd day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

13th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

3rd month, 3rd day. The Empress went to the Palace of Futa-tsuki.

12th day. Presents were given of coats and trousers of brocade, of dark red and deep purple coarse silks, of axes, etc., to Inari and Mushi, Yemishi of Watarijima of Koshi, and to Shirasu and Yesō, men of Sushen.

Summer, 4th month, 10th day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

27th day. The rank of Tsui-dai-ni was conferred on Mononobe no Kusuri, of the district of Kazehaya in the province of Iyo, and to Mibu no Moroshi, of the district of Kahashi in the province of Higo. Moreover, each of them received presents of 4 hiki of coarse silk, 10 bundles of raw silk, 20 tan of cloth, 20 mattocks, 1000 sheaves of rice, and 4 chō of rice-land. They were excused from the commuted taxes and forced labour due from their houses. This was by way of consolation for their long sufferings in the Thang country.[90]

28th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

5th month, 2nd day. By Imperial command the title of Imiki was conferred[91] on Tsunade, Hada no Miyakko, of Dai-kin-jō rank.

(XXX. 39.) 4th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

8th day. The rank of Jiki-kwō-shi was conferred on Ohosumi, Wohari no Sukune, and he was also given forty chō of rice-land.

13th day. The posthumous rank of Jiki-kwō-shi was granted to Momoye, Oho-koma no Muraji, and a contribution given towards his funeral expenses.

6th month, 18th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

26th day. The Empress arrived from Yoshino.

Autumn, 7th month, 1st day. There was an eclipse of the sun.

2nd day. Criminals were pardoned.

8th day. Envoys were sent to pray to the Great Abstinence Deity of Hirose and to the Wind-gods of Tatsuta.

10th day. His Highness the after[92] Imperial Prince died.

8th month, 25th day. The rank of Jiki-kwō-ichi was conferred on Homuchi, Oho no Omi, and presents given him as a reward for his services from the beginning, and for his strict guardianship of the barrier.[93]

9th month, 15th day. The posthumous rank of Jiki-dai-ichi was conferred on Ihose, Waka-zakurabe no Ason, and a contribution made towards his funeral expenses, in honour of his services from the beginning.

Winter, 10th month, 17th day. The Udaijin, Tajihi no Mabito, was granted (permission[94] to use) a carriage and a staff, and so in this way sympathy was shown on his retirement from office.

22nd day. One hundred and twenty retainers were granted to the Udaijin, Tajihi no Mabito, of Shō-kwō-san rank; eighty each to the Dainagon, Miaruji, Abe no Ason, and Miyuki, Ohotomo no Sukune, both of Shō-kwō-shi rank, and fifty each to Maro, Iso no Kami no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-ichi rank, and Fubito, Fujihara no Ason, of Jiki-kwō-ni rank.

11th month, 10th day. Thirty houses were granted as a sustenance-fief to Bendō, a priest of the Great Temple of the Great Palace.

12th month, 1st day. An Imperial order was given that the Kin-kwō-myō Sutra should be expounded, and that every year on the last day of the twelfth month ten persons of a pure life should be made to enter religion.

11th year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers and Daibu.

11th day. Presents of rice in ear of various values were given to all widowers, widows, orphans, and childless persons, to those suffering from grave disease, and (XXX. 40.) to those who from poverty were unable to support themselves, throughout the Empire.

16th day. An entertainment was given to the Ministers and public functionaries.

2nd month, 28th day. Kunimi, Tahema no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-ichi rank, was appointed Grand Tutor of the Heir Apparent,[95] Atomi, Michi no Mabito, of Jiki-kwō-san rank, was appointed Director of the Spring Palace,[96] and Ahamochi, Kose no Ason, of Jiki-dai-shi rank, Assistant Director.

3rd month, 8th day. A public great-congregation was held at the Eastern Palace.[97]

Summer, 4th month, 4th day. Ranks, from that of Jō to that of Jiki, were conferred on the selected persons (for office), discrimination being made in the case of each.

7th day. The Empress went to the Palace of Yoshino.

14th day. Envoys were sent to pray to Hirose and Tatsuta.

On this day the Empress arrived from Yoshino.

5th month, 8th day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to the various shrines to pray for rain.

6th month, 2nd day. Criminals were pardoned.

6th day. An Imperial order was made that Sutras should be read in the temples of the Home provinces.

15th day. Persons of the fifth and lower ranks were sent to cleanse out the temples of the capital.

19th day. Offerings were distributed to the Gods of Heaven and Earth.[98]

26th day. The Ministers and public functionaries began to make votive images of Buddha for the sake of the Empress's illness.

28th day. Daibu were sent as Envoys to visit the various shrines and pray for rain.

Autumn, 7th month, 7th day. At midnight, one hundred and nine habitual[99] thieves were pardoned, and four pieces of cloth given to each. But those from the outer provinces received twenty sheaves of rice each.

12th day. Envoys were sent to pray to Hirose and Tatsuta.

29th day. The Ministers and public functionaries prepared a festival for the installation[100] of Buddhist images in the Temple of Yakushiji.

(XXX. 41.) 8th month, 1st day. The Empress,[101] having decided on this measure in the forbidden precinct, abdicated the Imperial Dignity in favour of the Prince Imperial.

THE END.

    next the I-fêng calendar. The I-fêng calendar is the same as the Lin-têh calendar (664-665). For details respecting the ancient Japanese calendar consult "Bramsen's Chronological Tables."

  1. High-Heaven broad-plain princess.
  2. Jitō means "holding supreme control."
  3. Tenchi Tennō.
  4. This sentence is borrowed from a Chinese author.
  5. This rank had been abolished some years before.
  6. Temmu Tennō.
  7. The Empress is the speaker. Hence the phrase, "Within the curtain."
  8. The nengo or year periods are dropped again and the old method of reckoning by the year of the reign reverted to.
  9. More familiar in the combinations Dainagon and Chunagon. The word means Speaker, not inappropriate to his function on the present occasion.
  10. Mikage means "august shade." The wreath was supposed to represent the deceased Emperor. In a poem composed by the Empress at this time there occurs the phrase "tama-kadzura kage ni mietsutsu," i.e. "while looking on the jewel-wreath as thy shadow or representative."
  11. A.D. 685.
  12. The first mention of interest on loans.
  13. The character used denotes specially the autumnal offerings to ancestors.
  14. Cooked down to one-third its original bulk. Giles. The "Shūkai" explains this to mean "without fish or flesh." The older reading is "green food," for which the interlinear Kana is hijiki-oho, a dish prepared with hijiki, a kind of sea-weed.
  15. Riu-zō is literally Dragon-elephant (Naga in Sanskrit), and Dai-toku great virtue, corresponding to the Sanskrit Bhadanta. Both are complimentary expressions for Buddhist dignitaries.
  16. Kesa, in Sanskrit kachâya.
  17. This was the anniversary of Temmu Tennō's death.
  18. Of priests.
  19. Some make this refer to a monthly fast on the day of the Emperor's decease, others to an annual observance.
  20. Shield-measure. So called because danced with shields (and swords) in the hands of the performers. Ten persons took part in it.
  21. In the district of Takechi in Yamato, at the village of Gojō no mura. The site is five chō in length by four in width. Five houses for caretakers are allotted to it. The vault is eight feet wide and nine feet deep, and contains two stone sarcophagi. It has been plundered, like many others.
  22. "Ten-thousand lands or provinces" seems put for "everybody," "all the world," as we might say.
  23. The staves were for the purpose of driving out evil spirits, a ceremony which was performed on the first day of the Hare in each year. The "Yengishiki" mentions camellia, holly, peach, plum, etc., among the woods used for this purpose. This custom is of Chinese origin. The later custom of driving out evil spirits was by scattering beans, and was known as oni-yarahi, tsuina, or mame maki. This was practised on the last day o the year.

    Yamada, in his Dictionary, says that a man was dressed up as the demon of pestilence; he describes the ceremony gone through of driving him away, and gives other particulars which are worth consulting. See also "Sansaidzuye," iv. 27.

    Tylor quotes several examples of allied superstitious practices in his "Primitive Culture," ii. p. 199, to which may be added the following from the "Life of Sir R. Burton":—"On Sylvester night the servants went through a very usual ceremony in Trieste of forming procession and chevying the evil spirits with sticks and brooms out of the house, and inviting the good spirits and good luck to come and dwell with us." This reminds one strongly of the Japanese formula used on this occasion:—"Oni wa soto, fuku wa uchi"—"Devils out, luck in." The ceremony too is performed on the same day of the year.

  24. The ten Buddhist commandments. Vide Eitel, S'ikchâpada.
  25. I suspect that the use of the Hayato as an Imperial Guard began at this time; if this be so, the legend related of the reason why the Hayato were vassals of the Emperor (see Vol. I. p. 107) must be of comparatively recent origin.
  26. Copper with a small admixture of gold. No doubt the shakudō of modern times. See "Japanese Metallurgy," by W. Gowland, in the "Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry," June, 1896.
  27. Sanskrit, Mahânâman.
  28. Kōtoku Tennō.
  29. Probably Tè-a-son is meant. At least this was his rank above, and no Silla rank of Yé-son is known.
  30. Tenchi Tennō.
  31. Explained to be the selection of specimens of auspicious language of ancient and modern times to serve as models for addresses to the Empress. This office soon fell into abeyance.
  32. Wo-gohori means "small district," and probably means here the smaller of the two Government establishments. There was also an Oho-gohori or great district in Tsukushi.
  33. An authority quoted by the "Shūkai" states that in the first year of Tenchi's reign there was prepared a collection of enactments in twenty-two volumes, which were known to the public as the "laws of the Afumi Court." The same authority states that there was a revision of these laws in the 2nd month of the 10th year of Temmu Tennō. It is these revised regulations which are referred to in the text. The "Yengishiki," which is still extant, gives us some idea of the character of these compilations.
  34. A begging bowl is meant. The word used is sara, which is written phonetically with the characters commonly used to represent the Sanskrit Sâla, the large timber tree under which Sâkyamuni died.
  35. The interlinear Kana gives here ikusa, "war," as the equivalent of the Chinese , archery. Perhaps ikusa is derived from i, root of iru, to shoot, and kusa, a kind.
  36. He seems to have had control over the whole island of Shikoku.
  37. Bow, sword, and lance.
  38. The Chinese characters mean double-six, i.e. dice. Hepburn gives backgammon as the meaning of the Japanese word suguroku or sugoroku. Yamada's Dictionary gives the following description of it:—"Sugoroku is played by two players, with a board called kyoku, separated into twelve divisions. Twelve horses (pieces) are set in 10ws, distinguished as black and white. The dice are placed in a bamboo tube, shaken, and thrown out, and the horses moved forward the number of spaces indicated. The player who first moves his horses into the enemy's camp is the winner." There are other forms of the game. It is said to have come originally from India. See Culin's "Korean, Chinese, and Japanese Games," p. 81.
  39. Maro is probably the personal name, though out of its usual order.
  40. Or a great shield. Shields were set up as offerings to the Shintō Gods.
  41. Another rendering is "the divine tokens, i.e. the sword and mirror."
  42. The delay was no doubt in compliance with the Chinese idea of a three years' mourning.
  43. The "Yengishiki," in describing the ceremony of accession and of the festival of first-fruits, says:—"Those of the fifth rank and upwards stand up together and advance to the tablet-position in the middle of the Court, where they kneel down and clap their hands four times, eight claps each time for each. This is what is called in the sacred language Ya-hiraki-te (eight-open-hand). The Prince Imperial claps his hands first and then retires. Next officials of the fifth rank and upwards clap hands, and finally those of the sixth or lower ranks in turn." A Chinese authority states that the Japanese showed their respect for men of distinction by clapping their hands. The number of obeisances varied at different times from one up. The "tablet-position" is probably something like what I have seen in the Court in front of the Audience Hall in Söul, where slabs of stone are let into the ground with inscriptions indicating the positions to be taken up by the officials of each rank.
  44. Shima and Miaruji are the personal names.
  45. Tokibe were officers who held preliminary examinations and committed prisoners for trial.
  46. See above, p. 368.
  47. The Buddhist retirement for meditation during the rainy season, a sort of Lenten retreat. See above, p. 360.
  48. See above, p. 398, note.
  49. Apparently a Chinese name which he had taken to himself.
  50. His father and mother, brothers and sisters, and wife and children.
  51. Yüan-kia is the Chinese period from 424 to 453; I-fêng from 676 to 678. The "Sandai jitsu roku" says: "First the Yüan-kia calendar was used, and
  52. Probably Ministers is a mistake for Princes.
  53. No doubt a mistake for fifty, as the "Shūkai" suggests.
  54. On the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th, nothing was eaten after noon. On these days the Shitennō (Tchatur Mahârâdjas) visit the earth and take note of the good and evil actions of mankind.
  55. Another reading has rain, which agrees better with the time of year and with what follows. The text is in other respects doubtful.
  56. There is another, and preferable reading, which would mean simply "their ancestral records."
  57. Ya-saka-iri hime. Satow's "Handbook," p. 234.
  58. Places within which the taking of animal life was prohibited—a Buddhist institution.
  59. At Fujihara.
  60. Ohonihe.
  61. Thickly wadded garments with sleeves, worn at night instead of blankets. The practice of making presents of this kind continued up to the Revolution of 1868.
  62. A Chinese name. But whether the bearer was a Chinaman or not is not clear. I have given the Japanese pronunciation of the characters. The other names are not Japanese.
  63. Presumably these sites were in the new capital of Fujihara referred to above.
  64. Or "the roads of."
  65. Viz. Ihino, Take and Watarahi, where there were shrines.
  66. The Empress may or may not have travelled in a chariot. This phrase is simply put respectfully for the Imperial cortege, or the Empress.
  67. Yamato, Yamashiro, Kahachi, and Settsu. ldzumi was at this time reckoned as a part of Kahachi.
  68. Used as a cosmetic.
  69. The highly respectful character is used for the address of the Gods to the Empress. The interlinear Kana puts the respectful term tamaye in the mouths of the Gods. The districts referred to are Take and Watarahi.
  70. Of Temmu Tennō.
  71. Rebellion, conspiracy against the sovereign's person, treason, parricide, inhumanity (including murder and mutilation for nefarious purposes), sacrilege, unfilial conduct, discord, insubordination, and incest. Mayers, p. 350.
  72. Probably lists of the contents of the treasuries of the Shintō temples. "Shukai."
  73. In Yamato. The God worshipped was Taka-mi-dama no Mikoto.
  74. A song with dance. At the end of each stanza were repeated the words Man-hen arare, i.e. "May you live for 10,000 years." It is also called Man-zai-raku.
  75. King Sin-mun.
  76. Giles has Brassica rapa or rape-turnip The interlinear Kana has awona, which I have followed.
  77. Temmu Tennō.
  78. See Vol. I., note to p. 34.
  79. Benevolent king.
  80. The interlinear Kana has ko-zake, a kind of sweet liquor made from rice. A natural spring is meant, perhaps with some medicinal qualities. See below, XXX 34.
  81. The appointment of two mint officials with a nearly similar title is recorded in the "Shoku Nihongi" under the year 708, 2nd month. It is there stated that these officials were then appointed for the first time. The so-called first discovery of copper in Japan in this year relates only to a find of native copper in the province of Musashi. This was the occasion of the name Wadō (workable copper, not mere ore) being given to the year-period which began with 708.

    The "Nihonshi" contains a notice under the year 698 of copper being presented by the province of Inaba. This is the first historical notice of the production of copper in Japan. It is probable, however, that copper was worked long before this time in a country which is so rich in ores of this metal. The gold-copper images of Buddha referred to in Suiko Tennō's reign, p. 133, Vol. II. A.D. 605, may have been made of Japanese copper, though there is no direct evidence to this effect, and from the frequent mention of copper and other metals among the "tribute" articles brought from Corea, it is evident that imported copper was well known. The Sun-goddess Myth (Vol. I. p. 47) speaks of copper, and there is frequent mention of mirrors and bells which were made chiefly of copper.

    I think it is not too much to say that there is no positive evidence whatever in the "Kojiki" or "Nihongi" of the use of bronze in ancient Japan. The Japanese word for bronze, viz. karakane or metal of Kara, indicates that the Japanese first became acquainted with this metal as an importation from Corea. This word does not occur in the "Nihongi," but the term copper may have sometimes included the mixed metal. Besides, the more ancient specimens of bronze found in Japan do not contain lead, which is a characteristic constituent of the karakane introduced from China in later times, so that the absence of this term from the "Nihongi" is not conclusive. It is, nevertheless, curious, when we remember the frequency with which bronze is referred to in Homer, that no specific mention of this metal is to be found in the ancient Japanese records.

    The evidence of the use of bronze in Japan, however, is not confined to literature. Mr. W. Gowland has examined a number of bronze swords and other objects dug up chiefly in Kiushiu under circumstances which point to a great antiquity, and he informs me that an actual mould in which they were cast has been discovered in Chikuzen. No iron objects of equal age have been found. Those who are interested in this subject would do well to consult Mr. Gowland's "Art of Casting Bronze in Japan," contributed to the "Journal of the Society of Arts" in May, 1895.

    The case for a bronze age in Japan presented by him is a strong one, but how far the existence of the objects which he describes can be explained by the frequent commercial relations of Japan with the continent is a question on which I shall offer no opinion.

    See also Anderson's "Glyptic Art" in Introduction to Murray's "Handbook," 2nd ed, p. [109]. et seqq.

  82. Risshi, a rank in the Buddhist priesthood.
  83. There is no question of money here, everything was in kind.
  84. Jun-satsu-shi.
  85. Apparently the name of an office.
  86. The proper word is Chap-son.
  87. Shimo-osa means junior interpreter. There was a family of this name. but it is not quite clear that the name and function did not go together in this case.
  88. Viz. Tanegashima, an island off the south coast of Satsuma.
  89. Referring to its position West of the Temple of Asuha. Tsuki is the name of a tree, the Planera.
  90. They were taken prisoners in the campaign undertaken for the support of Pèkché. See above, XXVlI. 7.
  91. This was a posthumous honour.
  92. The "Shūkai" thinks that we should read Prince Imperial here. Prince Takechi is meant, who stood second in the line of succession. Hence the epithet "after."
  93. He was warden of the Suzuka barrier, on the road to Fuha, during the civil war.
  94. On account of his age.
  95. The recognition in this capacity of Prince Aru, grandson of Temmu Tennō and son of the Prince Imperial Kusakabe, afterwards Mommu Tennō, on the sixteenth day of this month, is recorded by other authors, but is somehow omitted in the "Nihongi."
  96. The Heir-Apparent's Palace.
  97. The Heir-Apparent's Palace.
  98. Shintō.
  99. There is probably something wrong with the text here. The "Shukai" offers an emendation which would mean "thieves who habitually wore the cangue."
  100. Lit. opening the eyes.
  101. She died five years later. Her body was cremated, the first instance of the application of this Indian practice to a Japanese sovereign.