Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Kent/Notes on the Churches C-D
58. Canterbury. In the Saxon Chronicle this city is called "Dorwitceaster," as well as "Cantwarbyrig;" by Bede " Doruvernis." It was burned A.D. 754, (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 56.) The churches of the Holy Trinity (the cathedral) and St. Augustin's, i.e. the abbey, are mentioned in (D. B.), but not how many the city contained. Indeed, generally, the towns (of the three counties included in this work) are but slightly alluded to in the Survey. The cathedral was originally styled Christ's Church, (see below); but, when rebuilt by Archb. Lanfranc, it was dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Having been partially destroyed by fire, it was restored and enlarged, when the name was changed back again to Christ's Church, A.D. 1128 or 1130. (Somner's Canterbury).—N.B. For an account of the edifice, as well as of the above alterations, and of others it has undergone, the reader is referred to Professor Willis's very interesting (Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral.)
Augustin, having established his archiepiscopal see in the royal city (Canterbury) recovered therein, by king Ethelbert's assistance, a church formerly built by the Roman believers, which he consecrated in the name of God the Saviour, and appointed as the seat of himself and his successors. He also erected a monastery not far from the city towards the east, wherein, at his entreaty, Ethelbert constructed the church of the Apostles Peter and Paul. (Bedæ Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum, lib. 1, cap. 33.) The monastery arose previous to A.D. 605, the date of Ethelbert's charter. A church of St. Pancras also is stated to have been built by Augustin. In the time of Archb. Dunstan the name of St. Augustin was added to those of St. Peter and St. Paul, which eventually completely absorbed the latter names as the common appellation of the monastery. (Notes to the above chapter of Bede, Oxford, 1846.) St. Mary's Church was erected A.D. 618 by Eadbald, son of Ethelbert, at the instance of Laurence, archbishop. Another church, St. John's, afterwards Christ's Church, is stated to have been built in 746, temp. K. Eadbert, by Cuthbert, archbishop. (Lambarde, who does not give the authority for his assertions, but at the commencement of his work names the records, whence he obtained his information.) For notice of the existence of the church of St. Mary, A.D. 804, see the quotation from Somner in the Note on Liminge. "Twenty churches were antiently in this city and the suburbs thereof; seventeen whereof, viz. St. Alphage, St. Andrew, St. Mary Bredman, St. Mary Breeden, Holy Cross Westgate, St. George, St. Margaret, St. Mary Magdalen, St. Mary Northgate, St. Mildred, St. Peter, All Saints, St. Mary Castle, St. Edmund, St. John, St. Mary Queeningate, and St. Michael, were in the city. And the other three, viz. St. Dunstan, St. Martin, and St. Paul, were in the suburbs. All which parishes are still in being, except St. Mary Castle, St. Edmund, St. John, St. Mary Queeningate, and St. Michael, which are demolished." (Kilburne, 301.)
Sir Henry Ellis (Observations on Domesday Book) says, that Archb. Lanfranc founded St. Augustin's Abbey not long before the survey, viz. A.D. 1084. It is manifest, however, that Lanfranc's act could be only the recognition, or at most the reconstruction, of an old foundation, because, in addition to the above citation from Bede, Thorpe (Registrum Roffense) informs us, that King Edgar granted land at Plumsted to the monastery of St. Augustin; and Hasted (referring to Dec. Script. col. 2247) states, that Kennington near Ashford was given to it in 1045; in confirmation whereof we find, that (D. B.) describes "Chenetone" among the possessions of St. Augustin's, and as being "held by the Abbot himself." However (D. B.) itself is conclusive evidence of the existence of St. Augustin's Abbey in the time of the Confessor. For which see the Note on Badlesmere. There is reason to believe the existence also of a Saxon monastery dedicated to St. Mildred, of which the last Abbot was named Alfwic. (Monast. I, 128, Num. iv, and Ib. VI, 1619.)
Canterbury is affirmed to have contained, of religious houses; St. Augustin's, Christ's Church, St. Sepulchre's (a nunnery), St. Gregory's, the White Friars, St. Mildred's on the south side of the city, "long since (but not lately) an abbey:" and of hospitals; those of St. James, St. Laurence for sick monks, St. Nicholas, St. Thomas, and St. Mary's without the walls. (Lambarde.) Beside the preceding, (Val. Eccl.) names the hospital of St. John Northgate, and one for poor priests.
Where St. Mary's, already alluded to, or any other very ancient churches, beside the cathedral, St. Augustin's, and St. Martin's without, were situated, is not known now; and most probably the face of the city has been totally altered, especially by the furious ravages of the Danes temp. K. Ethelred; which supposition is confirmed by the fact, that several of the existing churches are dedicated to comparatively modern saints, as Sts. Alphage, Dunstan, Edmund. Within the walls twelve parish churches now remain, and five have been demolished; in the suburbs are three churches, and one has been destroyed. Of the desecrated churches within the walls there are vestiges of only two; namely, St. John's, "the remains of it were for a long time used as a malt-house, or in tenements, and continue so at present;" St. Michael, Burgate, which is "included within the precincts of the priory, now of the dean and chapter. (note.) The remains of this church have long since been converted into a dwelling-house.—Some of the ancient walls of the church are still remaining." (Hasted.)
St. Mary Breadman.—Brass, small, Rob. Richmond, rector, 1524. (Hasted.)
St. Mildred's.—"At the west end of the south aisle there is a very fair Roman arch remaining over the window, and by all appearance the work of those times." (Hasted.)
Holy Cross, Westgate.—The present church was built temp. K. Richard II; licence to purchase ground for the purpose is dated 10th March, 3d of K. Richard II, i.e. A.D. 1330. (Hasted.)
In the suburbs, St. Martin's; which will appear separately below.
The Austin Priory, or Hospital of St. Gregory, was founded A.D. 1084, by Archb. Lanfranc. (Monast. VI, 614.)—The Hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr, or Eastbridge, was founded by Thomas à Becket temp. K. Henry II; and to this establishment Cokyn's Hospital, standing near, was afterwards united. (Ib. VI, 691.) —That of St. John Baptist, called Northgate Hospital from its situation without that gate, owes its origin to Archb. Lanfranc. A.D. 1084. (Ib. VI, 763.)—The hospital of St. Laurence in the south-east suburb of the city was founded by Hugh, abbot of St. Augustin's, A.D. 1137, for leprous monks. (Ib. VI, 763.)—St. Mary's Hospital was instituted before 1224 by Simon de Langton, archdeacon of Canterbury. (Ib. VI, 763.)
A.D. 1011, Canterbury was besieged and taken by the Danes, who made prisoner the archbishop, and murdered him the following year at London, because he would promise them no money, and forbade any thing to be given for his ransom. (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 141, 142.)
In the city wall at Worthgate, now walled up, which was the ancient road from Castle street to Chilham, is a Roman arch. (Nichols's Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, I, 1790.)
59. Capel.—Is only a chapelry to Tudely, the vicar of which place is instituted thereto "with the chapelry of Capel annexed." (Hasted and Clergy List.) However Capel is styled a vicarage; but the parish evidently was formed out of Tudely, which nearly or quite surrounds it.
The north wall of the church is covered with plaster, but seems ancient, judging from a small, narrow, round-headed window, remaining therein; the rest of the building is of different dates, the south side being very modern brickwork. The church is dedicated to St. Thomas the Martyr (see Kilburne), and is mentioned, 7th of K. Edward II, together with Shipbourne, as chapels attached to the church of Tonbridge (Reg. Roff.) See the Note on the latter place.
60. Capel le Ferne.—This cure is annexed to Alkham. The church is small, though it has a tower, with no exterior indications of a chancel, which is formed internally by a screen of three E.E. arches, extending between the north and south walls, the wall above being perforated by an opening (shaped like the upper portion of a large pointed-arched window) over the centre arch. The chancel contains a piscina and two sedilia. In the north wall of the nave, immediately westward of the chancel screen, and close beneath the wall plate, is a small triangular window, of singular shape, resembling one formed of portions of a large window. It is similar to, but more acute-angled than, the example in Bloxam. (Goth. Archit. 221.)—Hasted states that this place is called Capel de Ferne, alias Mauregge, alias St. Mary le Merge.
61. Challock.—This place is marked as occurring in (A.D. 1291), being most probably intended by the chapel mentioned with the church of Godmersham, because in (Val. Eccl.) the same church is described "with the chapel of Challok annexed" thereto. This union still subsists.
62. Charing.—This church comprises chancel, another to the south, north and south transepts, nave, south porch, and square west tower, with battlements and stair turret. This is a mixed church, containing E.E., Dec., late Perp., and seventeenth century, "Anno Doni. 1620 Ann regni Jacobi xviiio," and 1629, portions. The building has been much altered by early repairs and additions. The vestry, north of the chancel, seems an ancient addition altered. There are three sedilia in the chancel, two partially filled up. The outer faces of the piers and some capitals of the arches between the two chancels are concave. The south transept was enlarged a.d. 1812, when the wall was faced with bricks. There are many carved ends of oak benches, but late.
Of the archiepiscopal palace there are considerable remains, showing Dec., if not E.E. work; but many are mere shapeless fragments. The palace adjoined the churchyard on the northern side.
(A.D. 1291), "Ecclia de Cherringg cum capella." In (Val. Eccl.) the chapel of Egerton is mentioned together with the rectory of Charing, the vicarage being named separately. The same record notices also the chantry of Burlay as in Charing.
63. Charlton, near Dover—This church was rebuilt in 1820.
64. Charlton, near Greenwich.—To this church belonged (according to Text. Roff. 230) the chapels of "Chitebroc" and "Combe." For the account of the former see the Note below on Kidbroke. The latter may be recognised in West Combe, which manor, together with that of East Combe, actually lies within the parish of Greenwich. See the Note there. For mention of Combe in a document of a.d. 1044, refer to the Note on Lewisham.
65. Chart.—About a.d. 762 the abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, afterwards St. Augustin's, exchanged half the profits of a mill at Chart with a royal ville or manor called "Uuyth," on condition that the occupant of Chart should have pasture and pannage for a herd of hogs in the forest of Andred. "Possessio quedam est terre in regione que uocatur Cert, monasterii scilicet beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum, quod situm est (ad) orientem civitatis Dorouernis. In hac autem terra habetur molina, cuius quippe semis utilitas, id est dimidia pars molendinæ, a possessoribus prefati monasterii ac terre hums ad uillam regalem que uocatur Uuyth tradita est; pro hac uidelicet conditione at que commutatione, ut homo ille qui hanc terrain, in qua molina est, tributario iure tenet, unius gregis porcorum pascuam atque pastinationem in saltu Andoredo iugiter haberet." (Cod. Dipl. I, 132.) To which of the Charts this charter may apply is uncertain, but apparently the royal ville can be no other than Wye, of which the name is spelled Wy in (D. B.)
Great Chart.—Brasses: Will. Sharpe and five wives, 1499; Tho. Twisden and wife; man praying. (Hasted.) See Godeselle, below.
66. Chart, Little.—A church of chancel, nave, north aisle (the private chapel of the Darell family, whose seat, Cale Hill, stands in this parish), south porch, and square west tower with battlements and stair turret, similar to so many others of Mid-Kent. There are E.E., Dec., Perp., and some late Perp. portions. The windows contain many small remains of coloured glass. In the Darell chapel are a Perp. screen, and an alabaster effigy of a knight in armour, with a collar of SSS. Here, as in numerous other instances, the nave and chancel are older than the tower, which last and the porch seem of the same date. The east end of the chancel has been rebuilt.
67. Chart, next Sutton.—"Ibi tres arpendi vinese, et parcus silvaticus bestiarum. There are three arpents of vineyard, and a park of wild animals." (D.B.)
68. Chartham.—(Val. Eccl.), "Ecclia de Chartham cum capella de Horton;" i.e., Horton Parva, now desecrated. See the Note there. The church is described as large and handsome, with transepts, and a tower at the west end. It contains the brass of a Septvans in armour and cross-legged. (Hasted.) This figure is noticed by Mr. Boutell (in his Monumental Brasses and Slabs, Lond. 1847, 33, 34, 43.) Rickman pronounces this "a very curious church, of early Dec. character, with very fine windows, of singular and beautiful design," &c. Chartham was given to Christ's Church (the cathedral), Canterbury, by Alfred, a nobleman, about A.D. 970. (Lambarde.)
69. Chatham.—The present parish church of Chatham is a very modern erection. "In this parish standeth yet a poore show of that decaied hospital of St. Bartholomew, the foundation whereof was layde by Gundulphus, the bishop" (Lambarde.) The hospital of St. Bartholomew still exists, though no longer appropriated for lepers, the establishment consisting of four brethren, one of whom officiates as chaplain. The only building belonging to it is the chapel, situated south of the High street of Chatham, not far from the border of the parish toward St. Margaret's, Rochester. The larger portion of the chapel is modern, but the east end is ancient, being an apse, with three round-headed windows, and probably the only remains of the original structure of Bp. Gundulph. Within is a recess, once containing a piscina, of E.E. character. Though always moderately endowed, this hospital was formerly of sufficient consideration to possess a burying ground, the "cemeterium sancti Bartholomei" being mentioned in a deed dated "die Edmundi regis anno regni Edwardi tercii post conquestum vicesimo primo—on the day of King Edmund" (Nov. 20), "in the twenty-first year of the reign of Edward the Third after the conquest" (of England by Norman William.) (Reg. Roff. 215.) The above date would be A.D. 1347.
70. Chelsfield.—Beneath an arch is an altar tomb of Rob. de Brun, rector, on which are brasses of the Virgin, St. John, &c., 1417. Brasses: Will. Robroke, rector, 1420; Alicia, wife of Thos. Bray, and four sons, 1510. (Reg. Roff.)—From the (Textus Roffensis, 230-1,) it appears that there was at some early period a chapel to Chelsfield called Fearn Berga. This, no doubt, was Farnborough. See the Note there.
71. Cheriton.—An E.E. church. (Rickman.) It merits examination.
72. Chesilhurst.—This church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and square west tower, with a shingled spire. The chancel has recently (1849) been rebuilt, with the addition of a vestry on the north side. The south aisle and porch are new, though the latter only replaces a former porch. The font is square with round-headed arches slightly sunk in the sides, of Weald marble. The interior of the church is Perp., containing some good screen work. The north wall is ancient; the windows are late Perp. insertions. The tower is of uncertain date, apparently altered and added to. At the side of the south door a mutilated stoup has been preserved.—Brasses: Alan Porter, rector, 1452; Custume, wife of John Grene, 1476; seven daughters of James Walsyngham and wife Elinor, 15 . . (the parents and four sons lost.) (Reg. Roff.)
73. Chilham.—(Val. Eccl.), " Ecclia de Chilham cum capella de Molaisshe;" Molash, which latter remains annexed.—The spot, where the castle stands, is said to have been the residence of King Lucius, A.D. 182, and since then of the Saxon kings of Kent. (Kilburne.) Respecting the above sovereign we are informed, that A.D.. 189 he wrote to Eleutherius, bishop of Rome, expressing his desire to become a Christian, which accordingly he did, and that his people continued in the orthodox faith up to the reign of Diocletian. (Gibs. Chron. Sax., 8.) Bede places the intercourse between Lucius and Eleutherius somewhat earlier.—This reported conversion of the British king and his people may appear to many a mere fable; but Dr. Lappenberg, as the result of his examination of our oldest historical records still in existence, considers the circumstance not improbable, notwithstanding some confusion in the surviving documents alluding to that period of time. In particular, Dr. L. (in his Hist. of Engl. under the An. Sax. Kings, I, 49), as I understand Mr. Thorpe's translation, deems it an argument in favour of this tradition, that its fabulous nature was not objected to the remnant of the ancient British Christian church by the Anglo-Saxons converted by Augustin and his coadjutors, during their vehement disputations respecting the proper time for the celebration of Easter, about A.D. 608. So far were the Anglo-Saxon Christians from questioning this alleged fact, it is by writers of that very party alone that the recollection of it has been preserved in a complete form.
74. Chillenden.—The north door of this church has a circular arch with zigzag mouldings; the south door also has a similar arch, but plain. (Hasted.) The walls are late Norm. with Perp. windows inserted.
75. Chislet.—The church of this place is styled one "of twelve shillings: Ibi æccla de xii solidis." (D. B.) It is also stated, that "there are three arpents of vineyard: Ibi sunt iii arpenni vineæ." (D. B.)—Partly in this parish, partly in Hoath stood Ford House, the most ancient seat belonging to the see of Canterbury, having been bestowed by Ethelbert, king of Kent. It was demolished about 1658. (Nichols's Biblioth. Top. Brit., I.) According to (Val. Eccl.) there was formerly a park at Chislet, we may suppose attached to Ford House.
76. Cliffe.—Here were formerly (if not now are) two inscriptions "in Saxon letters" round "coffin-like" grave-slabs. (Reg. Roff.)—The church is described by Harris as then containing six stalls.—Among the communion plate is (or was) "a very curious and antient patine, of silver gilt. In the centre, most beautifully embellished with blue and green enamel, is represented the Deity sitting with his arms extended, and supporting his Son on the cross, with an olive branch in his left hand, and the gospel in the right. Round the verge or rim of the patine is the following inscription, in the antient text letter, curiously ornamented with sprigs of roses between each word, alluding to the subject. Benedicamus Patrem et Filium cum Spiritu Sancto." (Nichols's Bibl. Top. Brit., I.)
Several persons conceive Cliffe to have been the spot formerly known as Cloveshoo, where two Synods or Councils are recorded to have been held, viz., A.D. 742 (or a few years later), and 822. (Gibs. Chron. Sax., 55, 70.) Bede (Hist. Eccl, lib. iv, c. 5) gives the resolutions of a Council at Hertford, A.D. 673, of which one was, that all present agreed to meet once a year at "Clofeshoch." Others consider Cloveshoo to have been Abingdon in Berkshire, of which the old name was "Sheovesham." See the "Nominum locorurn explicatio" (ad loc) of Gibson (Chron. Sax.), and the notes to 191 and (the last at) 353 of Bede (Hist. Eccl., Oxford, 1846.)
Abingdon is stated to have been so named from Aben (Aben-dun, or the hill of Aben), who, his father having been murdered by Hengest, took refuge in this place, where he resided as a hermit, until disgusted by the concourse of people attracted to him by the fame of his sanctity, when he retired for greater solitude to Ireland. (Hist. of the Founders of Abingdon Abbey, in the Cott. Library, quoted in Monast. I, 511.) The spot was previously called Scovechesham. (Registers of Abingdon, in the Cott. Libr., Monast. I, 512.) The name just given slightly differs from that quoted above, but not more than commonly occurs in ancient records; however, whichsoever may be the most correct form, I doubt whether Cloveshoo must not be sought elsewhere than at Abingdon. "Clofeshoas" is repeatedly named in the documents preserved by Kemble (Cod. Dipl.), but, so far as I have observed in the first five volumes, with no indication of its locality. The Gentleman's Magazine, (August 1844) contains a letter (153 to 155) signed W. Chapman, wherein it is contended, that Clifton Hoo in Bedfordshire is the spot, known in ancient times as Cloveshoo, and where the councils above noticed were held in the eighth and ninth centuries. If we may judge from the present similarity of the names, it is not improbable that Mr. Chapman may be right. Dr. Lappenberg, (I, 225), places " Clofeshoo in Oxfordshire," but gives neither his authority nor the modern name of the spot. A recital of the transactions of one of the synods at Cloveshoo, about the end of the eighth century, describes the adjustment of a dispute relating to a dependency of Christ's Church, Canterbury, which appears, from the contents of the document, to have been situated in Bedfordshire, but there is no intimation of the position of Cloveshoo itself. (Cod. Dipl. V, 58, &c.)
Somewhere in the parish of Cliffe there seems to have been a chapel, called, with reference to the mother church, "West Cliffe;" because, in a very ancient enumeration of churches in the diocese (see the Note on Rochester) to "Clive " in a marginal note "West Clive" is annexed, the latter name being subsequently included in a list of chapels. (Text. Roff. 230.) The manor of West Clyff near Rochester is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.)
77. Cliffe, St. Margaret's at.—This place being named "Sancta Margarita" in (D.B.), and stated to be held as a prebend, it is a tolerably certain indication, that a church then existed there, though none is spoken of.
This Norm. Church is in parts highly ornamented, and is likely to repay examination.
78. Cliffe, West.—Is so called from its situation with respect to St. Margaret's at Cliffe.—The church is very small, and is asserted to have had service only monthly. (Hasted.)79. Cobham.—In the chancel of the church are (or were) ten stalls. (Harris.)—The Brasses are numerous, viz.: John de Cobham, founder of the church, holding in his hand a model of the building; Dame Margaret, wife of the preceding; John de Cobham, 1354; Tho. de Cobham and wife Maud, 13 .. (3d of K. Rich. II, 1380); Dame Jone de Cobham; two females, Cobhams; Reginald Braybrook, 1405; a son of the last; Johanna de Cobham, wife of Regin. Braybrook, and ten children, 1433; Sir Nich. Hawberk; his son John; John Broke, wife Marg., and eighteen children, 1506; Tho. Brooke, wife Dorothea, and eleven children, 1529; Will. Taunerr, first master of the college, 1418; Will. . . . . . master, &c. 14 . .; John Sprottle, master, &c. 1498; John Gladwyn, master, &c.; a priest (Reg. Roff.) For remarks upon some of these memorials see Boutell (Monumental Brasses, 53, 82,83,138, and Appx. A.)
The college or chantry was founded 13th April, 1389; dissolved 31st of K. Henry VIII; and re-founded under the will of Sir Will. Brooke, Knt. who died 6th March, 1596, being completed in 1598. (Reg. Roff.)
80. Colred.—(A.D. 1291), "Ecclia de Colrede et Popeshale;" which latter place is an ancient manor in the parish of Colred, in (D.B.) called "Popeselle" and "Popesale." Popyshall appears also in (Val. Eccl.), where it is stated to have been appropriated to the priory of Dover; wherefore most probably the chapel shared the fate of that establishment.—Popeshall Chapel is mentioned in a document dating in 1274. " The foundations of this chapel or church are still to be seen at a small distance from the manor-house." The church of Colred stands within an ancient entrenchment on the summit of a hill. (Hasted.)—The vicarage is consolidated with Sibertswold.—Under West Langdon will be found a notice of the chapel of Newesole. To the document, wherein it is named, no date is appended, but it belongs perhaps to the very commencement of the fourteenth century. Newesole (according to Hasted) is now merely a farm in the parish of Colred, vulgarly called Mewsole, though he records the mention, in certain Christ's Church MSS., of " the Abbot of Langdon's chapel at Newsole," adding, "but there are no remains of a chapel existing, nor any tradition leading to it." (Hist. of Kent, fol. V, 12, and note a ).
81. Cosmus, St.—About A.D. 1100 this church was appropriated to Eastbridge Hospital, St. Thomas's, in Canterbury. The vicarage was founded (in 1375) and endowed by Simon Sudbury, Archb. of Canterbury. (Harris.) The vicarage remains in the gift of the master of Eastbridge Hospital. (Clergy List.)
82. Cowden.—This church comprises chancel, nave, north aisle (erected A.D. 1837), south porch, and a small shingled spire upon the west end of the nave. The building seems to have been extensively repaired, probably in the Dec. period, like others in this sandstone district, which comprehends part of both Kent and Sussex. There is no tower, the spire being elevated upon a substantial framework of remarkably fine timber, and admirably constructed upon arches, of which two cross at right angles, bearing a resemblance to stone groining. Like Ashurst, Hartfield Sussex, and others, the place of the chancel arch is supplied by a tie-beam. The wall-plates project beyond the face of the wall, and are ornamented with carving, in addition to the mouldings. In the east window have lately been placed seven beautiful small pictures on glass, square and not in colours, brought from the continent; supposed to have belonged originally to a convent in Germany. The chancel contains a cinquefoil ogée-headed piscina. There are also two similar recesses in the north and south walls of the nave just without the position of the chancel screen, as indicated by the roodloft door, still existing in the north wall though built up. The above-mentioned recesses may imply small altars to have been near them, but the circumstance is very unusual. In the western gable is a circular foliated window, not in the centre. The porch is good Perp. In the churchyard are two iron grave slabs, 1726 and 1730, probably from the foundry formerly worked in the parish. The registers of Cowden are perfect from the early date of A.D. 1566.
83. Cowling.— A.D. 960 this church was given by Queen Edgiva, daughter of the lord of the manor of Cowling, to the church of Rochester. (Kilburne.) Part of the old castle is yet standing.
84. Cranbrook.— Here is a large church consisting of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels shorter than the central one, south porch, and large square west tower with battlements and stair turrets. Both aisles have battlements, and the northern a stair turret also. Part of the north wall is more ancient than the remainder, the masonry being rubble. Perhaps some E.E. work exists; beside which there are Dec. and Perp. portions, the latter prevailing in the nave and windows. The porch and lower part of the tower have groined roofs. The great east window contains much coloured glass, principally fragments collected from elsewhere, and placed there in utter confusion. The north window of the chancel also retains a little. In the chancel are a grave slab once enriched with a cross fleurée in brass, and part of another, both bearing Longobardic inscriptions. In the south chancel is a piscina with a flat-sided arch. There are a few brasses of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The old nave roof has been removed, but the slender bearing shafts belonging to it still remain attached to the walls. This church, like very many others, is sadly disfigured by whitewash.— At Milkhouse Street, a populous hamlet in this parish (near which stand the remains of Sisinghurst Castle), a chapel, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was founded and endowed by John Lawless, toward the end of the reign of K. Henry VI; which was suppressed 37th of K. Henry VIII. (Hasted.) Some scanty ruins of the chapel were removed about 1831 or 1832, when a new church was erected upon the spot.—Cranbrook is styled a Perp. church by Rickman.
85. Crays, The.—Four crays, that is, four manors, or so many portions of the manor, of that name are mentioned in (D. B.); but it is impossible to identify that, wherein the church, noticed in (D. B.), was situated, except that it was not “Sud,” South, “Craie,” which is now called St. Mary. Compare also the Note in Sentlinge below. In the list of churches, which is quoted in the Note on Rochester, among the Crays will be found “Rodulfes Craei,” which, it will be perceived, must signify either Foot's or St. Paul's Cray, probably the latter.
Foot's Cray.—Hasted styles the church “a small mean building;” but adds “seemingly of high antiquity.” On an altar tomb are effigies of a man and a woman, the first much mutilated. Philipott calls them Sir Simon de Vaughan and lady. (Reg. Roff.)
86. Cray, St. Mary.—Merely a chapelry to Orpington, the rector of which possesses the patronage.—Brasses: Isabel Cossale, in a shroud; Richard Avery, and three wives, 1558. (Reg. Roff.)
87. Cray, St. Paul's.—This place is supposed by Hasted to be the manor which was held of Bishop Odo by Anschitill de Ros, where (D. B.) names a church.
88. Crayford.—Though the Domesday name “Erhede” greatly resembles Erith, the description appears most suitable to Crayford, and the church is assigned accordingly. In the Survey Erhede is stated to be not only the property of, but occupied by, the archbishop, and to include three mills of rather high value: “Ibi æccla et tria moldina de l solidis et vi denariis. In totis valentiis T. R. E. valuit xii libras, et tantundem quando receptum erat. Modo xvi libras et tamen reddit xxi libras. There is a church and three mills of fifty shillings and sixpence. The whole value in the time of King Edward was twelve pounds, and the same when it was received. Now sixteen pounds, and yet it pays twenty-one.” (D. B.) It comprised four sowlings of land. The above particulars certainly apply much better to Crayford, than to Erith. The former manor belonged to the archbishop up to the time of K. Henry VII, if not K. Henry VIII (Hasted), and the benefice has remained to the present day in the gift of the archbishop; also mills were more likely to exist at Crayford, as several now do, on the river Cray, than at Erith on the banks of the Thames. See the Note on Erith.—Crayford is called Gard in many old documents.—On the river Cray here was formerly a mill for manufacturing plates for armour. (Harris.)—In this parish are numerous deep pits in the chalk, presumed to have been excavated by the aboriginal inhabitants.—A.D. 457 Crayford was the scene of an engagement between the Britons, and the Angles under Hengest and his son Æsca, in which the former, were defeated with the loss of four of their leaders (or 4000 men according to Florence of Worcester), and they, flying in consternation to London, ceded Kent. (Gibs. Chron. Sax., 13.)
89. Crundale.—The church contains a "memorial" (brass?) of John Spratt, rector, 1466. Many, supposed, Roman remains were discovered in this parish in 1703. (Harris.)
90. Cudham.—Brass: Alys, wife of Water Walys, 1503. (Reg. Ron .)
91. Cuxton.—The (Text. Roff. 106) records a grant of this place, with other lands, to the priory of Rochester, from King Ethelwolf, son of King Egbert, A.D. 880, wherein the church is specially named: "In illo loco que (sic) dicitur Cucolanstan, atque ecclesiam Sanctæ (sic) Michaelis Archangeli." It is however to be noted, that this deed (which is printed in Cod. Dipl. ii, 109) is by Mr. Kemble considered spurious.
92. Darent.—This church is partly late Norm., partly E.E., partly of later date. The Norm, portion has some singular little ornaments in the heads of the windows. In the walls are many Roman bricks, which had been previously used. Mr. Bloxam however deems at least the chancel of Darent church to be early Norm. (Goth. Archit. 118, 121, ed. 1846.) The east end of the chancel is vaulted with stone, and above the vaulting is a small chamber. For another remarkable example of a second story in the chancel see the account of Compton, Surrey. The font is curious, containing scenes and figures in eight compartments under semicircular arches. (Bloxam, ut sup. 133.)
For the notice of Hilles Chapelry, now part of this parish, see the Note on St. Margaret's, Darent.—It is stated (Cust. Roff.) that formerly a chapel existed also at South Darent, now comprised in the parish of Horton Kirby; but the quotation from (Reg. Roff.), describing St. Margaret's chapel, may suggest a suspicion that the latter and South Darent might be only two names for the same edifice. This, as the Note will show, seems to have been the opinion of Hasted. However, in the list of churches extracted from (Text. Roff.), and given below under Rochester, "Suthderente" is mentioned separately from "Derente," to which latter also "Helle" is attached as a chapelry. 93. Dartford.—"There are two hithes, that is, two ports. Ibi ii hedæ, i.e. ii portus. The Bishop of Rochester holds the church of the manor, and it is worth sixty shillings; beside this there are yet three chapels. Æcclesiam hujus manerii tenet episcopus de Rouccestre, et valet lx solidos: extra hanc sunt adhuc ibi iii æcclesiolæ." (D. B.) The church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles extending eastward as far as the chancel, a new south porch, and a square west tower. The building has been vastly altered from its original state to meet the necessities of the increased population. It contains, or did contain recently, a Dec. screen. Brasses: Rich. Martyn and wife, 1402; Agnes, wife of Will. Hesilt, and of Tho. Molyngton, 1454; wife of Thomas Rothele, and four children (T. R. and one wife lost) 1464; "man with two coats of arms" (wife and part of inscription lost), "1077" (sic!) (Reg. Roff.)—The priory was founded by K. Edward III (Tanner); in 1355, for white Augustinian nuns (Hasted.) The foundation was enlarged by K. Richard II. K. Henry VIII converted the priory into a residence for himself. (Kilburne.)—The hospital, or almshouse, of the Holy Trinity was founded at Dartford A.D. 1452 by John Bamburgh and others. Also a spittal-house here, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, is mentioned in 1330. (Monast. VI, 720.)—Hasted states, that in 1080 the manor of Dartford extended over Wilmington, in which case one of the three chapels might stand there, and perhaps another at Sutton.—About A.D. 1350 there was a chapel of St. Edmund at Dartford, which seems to be called also St. Edward's. (Reg. Roff., 314.) At Stanpit in this parish a chapel or chantry was founded by Tho. de Dertford (Harris); who gives neither date nor authority.
94. Davington. The church of this parish (a small but interesting edifice), part of the ancient priory, is private property, consequently entirely without endowment, and exempt from all ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The priory of Davington, "alias Anington," was founded, for black nuns, by K. Henry III, about the second year of his reign; and escheated to the crown before the general suppression, because the proper number of inmates was not maintained. (Lambarde.) But this statement hardly agrees with the fact, that (Val. Eccl.) mentions a prioress of Davington. The nunnery was founded (according to Kilburne) by K. Henry II about the second year of his reign, and confirmed by K. Henry III in his thirty-ninth year. Another account still is, that the foundation was the work of Fulke de Newenham, A.D. 1153, for twenty-six nuns. To this establishment belonged in 1384 the churches of Hercheghe (Harty?) Nyewyngham (Newnham) and Dauyngton. Neither prioress nor nuns remained in 27th of K. Henry VIII. (Monast. IV, 288.)
95. Deal.—The old church, though much modernised in extremely bad taste, retains some relics of the ancient work in different styles.
96. Debtling.—Is named (in Val. Eccl.) as a chapel to Maidstone. The church is ancient, but poor, containing however a well-known magnificent Dec. lectern. In the churchyard stands, as a grave stone, a large stone cross, similar to one in Goodneston near Wingham churchyard, but of superior design. Harris mentions, that there was in the church the bust of a man upon a portion of a grave stone.
97. Denton,near Gravesend.—Notwithstanding that this place possessed a church at the period of the Domesday Survey, it is not named in either (A.D. 1291) or (Val. Eccl.); wherefore perhaps it was early deserted, though no information has been obtained when the church or chapel might be desecrated. It is stated, that this parish lies about two miles eastward from Gravesend; that, having been given to the church of Rochester in Saxon times, it had been unjustly usurped by Odo, earl of Kent, but was restored by K. William I; and was finally bestowed by K. Henry VIII upon the Dean and Chapter of Rochester. (Kilburne.) Harris reports that it contained only one house at the commencement of the eighteenth century.
98. Deptford.—Called “West Grenewych” in (A.D. 1291), where Greenwich is East G. The name of Deptford appears in (Val. Eccl.) Part of this parish lies in the county of Surrey. (Kilburne.)
99. Dimchurch.—The tower of the church has “an antient circular arch ornamented.” (Hasted.) In this parish the site of a Roman pottery was recently ascertained.
100. Doddington.—In deference to Hasted's opinion the Domesday church at “Dodeham” is admitted to belong to Doddington, but there are difficulties. That Doddington is described in (D. B.) under the name of Dodeham is undisputed; and, though the parish is now in the hundred of Teynham, in the eleventh century it might have been, as is stated of Dodeham, in that of Faversham. But to Dodeham, possessing a church, was annexed “half a fishery of three hundred herrings; dimidium piscariæ de ccc allecibus” (D. B.): the existing parish of Doddington being some miles, in a straight line, from the water, with other parishes intervening, that immediately adjoining in that direction being Newnham, which seems more likely to have been included in Norton manor, than in that of Dodeham. From the above account however it is perhaps probable, that the last-named manor originally was more extensive, than the present parish of Doddington.
The church of Doddington, externally very unpromising, has some peculiarities, which render it deserving of notice. It consists of chancel, nave, south aisle with a chancel coextensive with the other, and a south porch, the apology for a tower being modern with the upper part constructed of wood. The piers and arches between the nave and aisle being Norm., it may be presumed that the outer walls are as early. The chancel seems to be Tr. Norm., as are the arches and pier between that and the south chancel. At the east end are four small round-headed windows, three below and one above; and in the south-west pier of the chancel is an opening with a double squint, affording a view of the altar in either chancel. At the west end of the chancel, in the north wall, is a window containing in the eastern splay a small niche for an image with a small stone desk below it, and in the opposite side an ambry. The south chancel is of later date than the aisle, being E.E., with large double-lancet windows in the east end, of which the lower portions have been built up. Some Dec. and Perp. windows have been inserted. There are trifling remains of coloured glass, a Perp. screen, and other woodwork, but all the latter, including poppy-heads, has been painted. In the south chancel are some old grave slabs, of which one or more may have been inverted; another has a cross with an inscription in “Lombard” characters. The south door and lock are ancient. A door in the north wall is closed up, and there seems to have been some alteration about the western end of the north wall.
According to Harris Doddington was formerly a chapelry to Lenham, while Hasted states to Teynham.
101. Dover.—“Three churches” are specified here in (D.B.) as if there might have been more, and “the canons of St. Martin's Dover,” are mentioned; yet the place is styled “villa,” which Spelman says signifies the same as manor. “In the domain of St. Martin's seven bondmen pay sixty shillings for providing shoes for the canons: reddunt lx solidos ad calicamenta canonicorum." (D. B.)—(A.D. 1291) names the churches of St. Peter, St. James, and St. Nicholas; (Val. Eccl), beside the above, those of St. Mary, and St. John Baptist.
Lucius, the first Christian king of the Britons, built a church within the castle, and Eadbald, son of Ethelbert first Christian king of the Saxons (between A.D. 616 and 640), erected a college in the same, which a successor, Wigghtred, in 691 (A.D. 629, Matt. Westm.), removed to the town, and called St. Martin's. This was suppressed and refounded by K. Henry II, when it was called the priory. (Lambarde, who speaks likewise of the Maison Dieu, and of a hospital at Dover, as well as of a house of Templars, which last was suppressed by K. Edward II.) "There have been seven churches in the town, and five of them, viz., St. John, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Martin le Grand, and St. Martin the Less, are demolished," (Kilburne); who adds, that the Maison Dieu was founded by Hubert de Burgh: (in the beginning of K. Henry III. Hasted.)
Differing on the subject from Kilburne, Hasted says there were only six churches in Dover, of which he describes the sites. St. Martin le Grand was taken down 28th of K. Henry VIII. St. Nicholas ; "now used as a stable. The crypt of the church is now used as cellars for the houses;" was desecrated at the same period. St. John's shared the same fate; it must have possessed a crypt, an "undercroft" being mentioned in a will of A.D. 1513. St. Peter's "seems to have been in use in the year 1611." (Hasted.)
The Monasticon refers the erection both of the castle of Dover and of a church or chapel therein to the time of the Roman occupation of Britain, on the authority of ancient documents quoted therein, stating the above facts, together with the foundation of the college of St. Martin in the said church, whence it was afterwards removed to the church of St. Martin in the town. The following extract is the commencement of a Brief, 14 K. Edward II, which recapitulates the history of this foundation. "Quarant et sept annz avant la Nativite de nostre Signieur Jesu Christ, quant Cassibalan regna en Bretagne qi ore est appelle Engleterre, Julius Caesar vint de Rome, et valeit conquerre Bretagne, si come il avait conquis Gol, Espaigne, et autres pais plusieurs. Une foiz et autre foiz Kassibalan l'en chacea; mes a la tierce foitz Julius Caesar le vanqui sur Berhamdune entre Canterberie et Doure per l'eide Androgen qui fust duk de Kent et de Londres. Mais apres Androgen les fit accorder, issint que le roy Cassibalan de morast rey, si come avant; mes q'il rendist a Rome chescun an de chescun mesuage en sa terre un denier. Adonques Julius Caesar fit un tour pour le tribut lesuisdit reposer la ou le chastell de Doure esta, et encore est cele tour illoeques pres du menster, et est berefrai pur les grantz seyns. Apres la Nativitie notre Signeur l'an seisante douszisme regna en Bretaigne Arviragus, celi ne voleit estre sujet à Rome, mes destint le tribut, et enforcea le chastel de Doure de fosses, et de mins, et de garnesture. . . . L'an de la Grace cent et sessante vintisme regna en Bretaigne Lucius, celi devint Christien desouz le Pape Eleutherie, et servi Dieu et avancea sainte eglise quant il pouit: entre ses autres benefaitz fist une eglise en le dit chastell ou les gentz de la ville puissant avec son sacraments, et pertant est l'eglise la premiere eglise du Rome, &c." (Monast. IV, 528, 533, 535.)
The priory of St. Martin was originally filled with twenty-two secular canons, but the archbishop having found the old members guilty of great irregularities, he ejected them, and about A.D. 1130 K. Henry I granted the establishment to the archbishop and Christ's Church Canterbury for placing there regular Augustin canons. (Monast. IV, 528.) A hospital for lepers, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, was commenced at Dover about A.D. 1141. (From Tanner, in Monast. VI, 764.) The hospital of St. Mary or Maison Dieu was founded by Hubert de Burgo, Earl of Kent, in the beginning of K. Henry III's reign. (Monast. VI, 655.)
The remains of St. Martin's Priory, now a farm-house, consisting of Tr. Norm, work, and of the Maison Dieu still contain some interesting portions of the ancient buildings. For a notice of the old church in Dover Castle see Bloxam (Goth. Archit., 40, &c., ed. 1846.)
Dover was burned during the Norman invasion. "In ipso primo adventu ejus (scil. Wilielmi regis) in Angliam fuit ipsa villa combusta." (D.B.) It is also stated that there was a mill at the entrance of the harbour, which caused nearly all vessels to be wrecked. "In introitu portus de Douere est unum molendinum, quod omnes pene naves confringit per magnam turbationem maris, et magnum damnum fecit regi et hominibus, et non fuit ibi T. R. E." (D.B.)
"The opinion generally received, that Dover Castle was first built by the Conqueror, though followed by Ellis (Introd. I, 223), appears to me erroneous. See also Hasted's Hist. of Kent, IX, 480." [This reference must be to the small, not the folio, edition of Hasted: A. H.] "William of Poitiers describes the 'castrum Dovera,' in relating its surrender by the townsmen to Duke William. [The same author says even more to the purpose: 'Hinc Doveram contendit .... quod locus ille inexpugnabilis videbatur. At ejus propinquitate Angli perculsi, neque naturae vel operis munimento, neque multitudini virorum confidunt. Situm est id castellum in rupe mari contigua,' &c. T.] Hence he marches to Dover .... because that place seemed impregnable. But the Angles, disturbed by his vicinity, trust to neither the defence of nature or art, nor to the multitude of (their) men." (Thorpe's Lappenberg, II, 249, note i.) See also the allusion (Ib. 268) to the story of Harold promising on oath to deliver "the castle of Dover" with its appurtenances "to the custody of Norman soldiers."
Under the year 1048 the Saxon Chronicle gives, in the following anecdote, an illustration of the manners of the time. "Then came Eustace (Count of Boulogne) from the parts beyond sea, and going to the king, transacted his business with him, and then returned home. When he reached the eastern side of Canterbury he refreshed himself and company with food, and proceeded to Dover. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he put on his harness, as did his companions, and approached the town. On arriving there they selected lodgings in what houses they pleased: but one of them declared he would pass the night under the roof of a certain householder, though against his will, and wounded the householder; though finally the latter slew him. Eustace then mounted his horse, as his companions did, and attacking the householder, killed him within his own walls; and afterwards going through the town, slew partly within and partly without (the walls?) above twenty men. The citizens also slew nineteen of the other side, and wounded very many. But Eustace, escaping with a few, returned to the king, and gave him a partial account of their adventures. Whereby the king being highly incensed, sent Earl Godwin with a command to enter Dover hostilely; for Eustace had told the king, that the citizens were more in fault than himself. But the matter was not so; nor was the earl willing to go to Kent, deeming it odious to destroy their own people." (Gibs. Chron. Sax., 162.)
102. Down.—"This church is esteemed as a chapel to the church of Hayes, the rectors of which are now instituted to the rectory of Hayes with the chapel of Down annexed. The rector of Orpington, who is patron of the church of Hayes, possesses the patronage of Down in right of his rectory, with which it is from time to time leased out by him." (Hasted.) This statement is erroneous, for Down is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the rector of Orpington. (Clergy List.) Brasses : Tho. Petle and wife Isabella ; John Petle and wife Christiana. (Reg. Roff.)
103. St. Dunstan's.— The church consists of nave and south aisle, with a chancel to each, tower at the west end of the aisle, north porch, and a small Dec. chapel in a very unusual position, namely, on the north side of the nave, westward of the porch. The north and east walls seem Norm, with later windows inserted; the tower is Perp. The Norm, walls contain a few fragments of Roman bricks. The south chancel is of brick, and belongs to the Roper family. In the vault beneath a leaden box with an iron grating, placed in a recess, contains a single skull, which is supposed to be that of Sir Thomas More. -" The altar-cloth is very curious, made seemingly before the Reformation, being of blue cloth, and having on it several figures of cherubs, and in the middle a crucifix with the figure of Christ on it, all elegantly wrought in needlework embossed with gold." St. Thomas's Hill here was so called from a chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas, which was built in a field opposite St. Dunstan's church, near the east end of the foot of the hill, and "seems to have been that built by Archb. Baldwin, A.D. 1187, upon his disappointment at Hackington." (Hasted.)