Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Kent/Notes on the Churches S-Z

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278. Saltwood.—With Saltwood the chapel of Hithe is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.)—The font is inclosed in a case of carved oak. Brasses: John Verien, once rector of Sandhurst; Tho. Brokhill Esq. and wife, 1437. (Hasted.)—(Val. Eccl.) names the hospital of St. Bartholomew (see Hithe), and also a park at Saltwood. There are considerable remains of the castle.

279. Sandhurst.—Though this place is not mentioned in (D.B.) (see the Note on Newenden) yet in a list of donations to the cathedral church of Canterbury, printed by Somner, "Sandherst" occurs together with several other places, which were given by K. Offa A.D. 791. For an extract from an early record, whence we learn that this parish may have possessed a church in the eleventh century, see the quotation from (Cod. Dipl.) in the Note on Lewisham. The church consists of square western tower, nave with north and south aisles, chancel, a private chapel at the east end of the north aisle, north and south porches. The body of the building is transition from E.E. to Dec.; the south aisle is perhaps Dec.; the north aisle is Perp., the chapel containing windows in different styles. The north porch, which is of brick, is late Perp. There is an unusual arrangement in this building, in the tower having a small aisle on both the north and the south sides, though the latter is no longer visible in consequence of a modern addition there. The church of Seaford in Sussex is another instance of such an arrangement. Sandhurst church was an excellent specimen of the style, in which it was constructed, but has been grievously mutilated. The stone mullions were removed from all the windows, except those of the private chapel; and part of the chancel was rebuilt with brick, beside recent alterations, the former having been effected beyond memory. Not very many years ago there were, and may be now, in the chancel, good examples of paving tiles of various dates, beginning with E.E. The north wall of the chancel retains an ambry. Between the two chancels was a little wood-work of unusually early date, which was removed a few years ago. Beside that above stated, other reparations have been made with brick. In the windows of the northern, or "Betterinden," chancel are some remains of coloured glass, including the figure of a knight in armour, supposed to be that of the founder, De Betterinden, owner of the estate surrounding the church.

Behind the house of Bourne farm is a large field, called "Bourne Town Field," but now part of the estate of Conghurst, of which the house and principal portion are in the adjoining parish bf Hawkhurst, to which field is attached a traditionary tale, such as may be found in many other places; for instance at Waldron in Sussex; which see. It is related, that this spot was originally fixed on for the site of the parish church, but that every night the work performed in the preceding day was pulled down, and the materials conveyed to the place, where the church now stands, and where the parties concerned eventually erected the building, overcome by the pertinacity, with which their first intention was opposed. As it is, the church is very inconveniently located, completely on one side of the parish; but in Bourne Town Field it would have been still more in an angle, nearer to the boundary, and quite removed from the far larger portion of this extensive parish.

280. Sandwich.—A.D. 1031 as soon as Canute had returned to England, he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury the port of Sandwich, and all the issues from either side of the port; so that, when the sea was at its utmost height, if a vessel should be tossing about as near as it could approach the land, and any one should stand in the vessel, having in his hand a small axe, called by the English "a taper axe," which he was able to throw upon the land, the right of the ship became due to the ministers of Christ's church. (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 153.) The following is another report of the same transaction: " Cnud, rex Anglorum, dedit ecclesiæ Christi portum de Sandwic, et omnes exitus ejusdem aquæ ab utraque parte fluminis, ita ut natante navi in flumine cum plenum fuerit, quam longius de navi potest securis parvula super terrain projici, debet a ministris ecclesise Christi rectitudo navis accipi, nullusque," &c. (Text. Roff. 37.) The charter of Cnut,[1] dated A.D. 1023 (eight years therefore earlier than stated in Chron. Sax.) thus expresses his donation: " Concede eidem aecclesiae" (scil. Christi in Dorobernia) "ad uictum monachorum portum de Sanduuic et omnes exitus eiusdem aquae ab utraque parte fluminis cuiuscunque terra sit, a Pipernaesse usque ad Mearcesfleote, ita ut natante naue in flumine cum plenum fuerit quam longius de naui potest securis paruula quam Angli uocant tapereax super terrain proiici, ministri aecclesiae Christi rectitudines accipiant, nullusque omnino homo habeat aliquam consuetudinem in eodem portu, exceptis monachis aecclesiae Christi." (Cod. Dipl. IV, 21.)

"The borough of Sandwich was appropriated to the clothing of the monks. When the archbishop received it, it rendered 40,000 herrings for the food of the monks" (which payment is declared to continue): " Sandwicie (burgum) est de vestitu monachorum; quando recepit archiepiscopus reddebat—xl millia de allecibus ad victum monachorum." (D.B.) This town had four churches, of which that of St. James has been destroyed. In the eight century Domneva founded a monastery here, which was wasted by the Danes, rebuilt, and again destroyed by the French; out of its ruins was erected the church of St. Mary. A house for white Carmelite friars was founded by Henry Cowfield (a German, Hasted) A.D. 1272. (Kilburne.)—The church of St. Clement has a central tower, ornamented on the sides with three arcades, but the (twenty) stalls (mentioned by Harris), have been removed. The seal of the priory was in the possession of the corporation; it was "of copper, of an oval form." Hospitals: St. John's existed in 1287; the seal was kept by the corporation; it was oval, of lead. St. Thomas's, alias Ellis's, founded about 1392 by Thomas Ellis (Elys) draper, of Sandwich. St. Bartholomew's, founded about 1244 by Sir Henry de Sandwich (though some evidences state it to be earlier). The chapel, at a short distance, is "a large and handsome edifice," containing the effigy of a knight in armour on an altar-tomb, intended probably for Sir H. de Sandwich. The seal is a small oval. "Barton's chantry was founded in some chapel in or near David's gate." A house of lepers once existed here, called "The Maldry." (Hasted.) The following account will probably be deemed more authentic than Hasted's above. The hospital of St. Bartholomew was founded by Thomas Crompthorne and his wife Maud in 1190. That of St. Thomas by Thomas Haling, clerk, William Swan, clerk, John Goddard, and Richard Long, among whom the name of Elys does not appear. Concerning this foundation Tanner refers to "Pat. 16 Rich. II, p. 1, m. 32," (which date would be A.D. 1393), and another temp. K. Edward IV. (Monast VI, 764.)

281. Sarre.—Was united to St. Nicholas (date not given) after which the church was suffered to decay, and no vestige now remains. (Hasted.) It may have existed in 1526, being named in (Val. Eccl.) under the estimation of the possessions of Leeds priory.

282. Seale.—A church of chancel, nave, south aisle with chancel and porch, and square west tower with battlements and stair turret. A perfectly plain tiebeam supplies the place of a chancel arch. The tiebeams of the nave, with wall-pieces resting on corbels, are moulded. Of the three piers between the nave and the aisle two, of which one is engaged in the western wall, arc E.E., the third is Perp. The south door is Dec. Of the windows some, in the north side, are Dec., some Perp., some debased Perp. Those of the tower are Perp. The outer wall is of rubble masonry, the southern containing the frame of a small pointed-arched window. South of the south chancel is a vestry of some antiquity. The porch is Perp. By the side of the entrance of the porch is a stoup, and above the entrance a niche, both mutilated. Brass, in the chancel, Will, de Bryene, 1395, in armour, of which the joints are not marked. Scale ranks only as a curacy annexed to the vicarage of Kemsing, though it has vastly outgrown its original condition, the population of the parish exceeding 1600. (Clergy List.)

283. Seasalter.—"In eodem Borowart Lest jacet parvum burgum, nomine Seseltre, quod proprie pertinet coquinse archiepiscopi. In the same Last of Borowart lies a small borough, by name Seseltre, which properly belongs to the archbishop's kitchen." (D. B.) A great change must have taken place, since this, now, very insignificant place was styled a borough in 1086.—After a violent storm, 1 January, 1779, on the seashore, about half a mile west from the present church, were discovered the stone foundations of a large building, lying due east- and west, the supposed remains of the ancient church of Seasalter. Many human bones were likewise uncovered at the same time. (Hasted.)

284. Sellinge.—There is no clue, whereby to ascertain the locality of the second Domesday church. That of Smeeth appears the nearest to Sellinge at present, but is annexed to Aldington in (Val. Eccl.), and therefore is probably the chapel named with Aldington in (A.D. 1291).—Brass : John Bernys, and wife, 1440. (Hasted.)

285. Sentlinge.—According to (Hasted) this name applies to a manor in South, now called St. Mary, Cray ; which parish therefore, if Hasted's opinion is well founded, possessed a church in the eleventh century, and, if so, most probably on the spot occupied by the present building, though it is here described under another name.

286. Sevenoaks.—See the Note on Rochester for an early allusion to this church, where the name is spelled "Seouenaca." (Val. Eccl.) describes the chapel of St. John in this parish, "capella Sancti Johannis ibidem;" but where it stood I know not. Also in the same record under "Senock" the parks of Otford and Knowle are mentioned. Tanner says, that William Sennock, who, when an infant, had been exposed in the street of this place, whence his name, became Lord Mayor of London, and, A.D. 1418, founded a hospital and a free-school here; with the addition to this account, that there was in the place a more ancient hospital, dedicated to St. John Baptist. (Monast. VI, 765.)

Seal of the Grammar School, Sevenoak

287. Sevington.—(Hasted) takes no notice of the Domesday description of "Seivetone," which occurs in a short paragraph, comprising besides only the names of Estefort and Essetesford (Ashford) in two portions, and Essella (Eastwell ?): whence it may be inferred, that he did not know to what place to apply the passage. On full consideration I would assign it to Sevinton, not simply from the similarity of the names (and certainly they sound, though they may not read, much alike), but also from the evident connection of " Seivetone" with Ashford, from which town Sevington is distant only two miles. I have therefore attributed the Domesday name and church to Sevington. "A priest" likewise is specified in this manor, which contained "a mill of tenpence" (therefore stood upon a small stream) "and eight acres of meadow.—Ibi æcclesia, et presbyter, et unum molinum de x denariis, et viii acræ prati." (D.B.)

287. Sheldwich.—In addition to what was said in the Note on Luddenham I would suggest, that the two names "Cildresham" and "Shildriceham" may mean the same place, the variation being not greater than constantly occurs in (D.B.); and after attentively regarding the manner, in which these names are connected with others, respecting the application of which there can be little, or no, doubt, I am disposed to believe, that they do signify the same spot, and that spot Sheldwich. See also the Note on Faversham.

289. Shipbourne.—Is deemed a chapel to Tonbridge. It is a donative, but the name appears in (Val. Eccl.)—From the return to a brief of K. Edward III, A.D. 1333, it appears, that a church existed at Shipbourne at that period. (Reg. Roff.) And refer to the Note on Rochester for an earlier allusion to it, taken from (Text. Roff. 231). But it is specially styled a chapel in sundry documents preserved in the (Registrum Roffense).

290. Sholdon.—A chapelry to North Bourne.—At Cotmanton, (of which part of the demesnes are within the adjoining parishes of North Bourne and Walmer, and the residence "divides the two parishes of Sholdon and North Bourne") was a chapel, a little eastward of the mansion. "The ruins of this chapel remained till within these few years. By the stone walls, which were entire, it appeared to have been a building of some beauty and symmetry of architecture, consisting of a nave and south aisle, separated by a row of elegant, slight pillars, supporting pointed arches; beyond them was a chancel, circular at the east end, and vaulted over with stone. The whole of it is now pulled down, and the foundation erased, so that the very site of it is no longer visible." It is mentioned in a deed dating 1st of K. Edward I. (Hasted.)

291. Shoreham.—The church consists of chancel, nave, south aisle ranging eastward with the chancel, north aisle the length of the nave, and square west tower with pinnacles on the top. (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Sorham, note, cum capella;" most probably Otford, which, as a chapel, is joined with Shoreham in (Val. Eccl.)

292. Shorne.—Altar-tomb and effigy of Sir Hen. de Cobham, "le uncle," in mail, and cross-legged; he was sheriff temp. K. Edward I and K. Edward II. Brasses: John Smith, 1337; John Smith, and with Marion, 1457; Will. Pepyr, vicar, 1468; man and woman. (Reg. Roff.)

293. Sibertswold.—This parish was united to Colred by Archb. Whitgift, A.D. 1584, and the union consolidated by Archb. Sancroft in 1680. (Hasted.)

294. Sittingbourne.—A small portion of this church is E.E, the remainder later, of different dates. For the account of a tomb and remarkable effigy here, consult (Archæol. Journal, IV, 81).

295. Smarden.—The church comprises chancel, nave, north and south porches, and square west tower with battlements and stair turret. The chancel contains a piscina and three sedilia, all cinquefoil-headed. On each side of the chancel arch, which is very bad modern work, are two ranges of trefoil ogée-headed corbel tables,[2] the northern terminating in either heads human or animal, or else foliage ; the others in a Dec. resemblance to a peculiar E.E. decoration. These are generally in excellent preservation, still retaining traces of colour, and would be highly ornamental, were they not, like the entire interior of the building, thickly coated with whitewash. In the north wall of the nave, near the eastern end, are some remains of E.E. work, said to be an ancient font, or part of one. Sundry appearances in the walls indicate an alteration of the present structure from the original. At the entrance of the churchyard an old house forms a lychgate.

296. Smeeth.—Is annexed, as a perpetual curacy, to the rectory of Aldington. (Clergy List.)

297. Snargate.—This church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels, south porch, and square west tower with battlements. The building is chiefly E.E., with Dec. and Perp. portions. The side chancels are separated from the remainder of the church by timber and plaster partitions, not of recent date. The entrance to the southern is in the northern angle of the east wall; that to the other in the north wall. The latter chancel contains a square-headed piscina, the approach to the roodloft, and the foot of the ancient stone altar. In the high chancel is a trefoil-headed, piscina in the east wall. The pavement retains very many encaustic tiles.

298. Snodland.—Brasses: John, "films Lancastrie heraldi," 1441; Tho. Dalby, rector, 1472; Roger Perot, 1486; Edw. Bischoptre and wife, 1487. (Reg. Roff.)

299. Southfleet.—The church contains six stalls. (Hasted.) Altar-tomb of John Sedley, and wife. Brasses: John Urban, and wife, 1420 ; John Tubney, rector, Archdeacon of St. Asaph, and bishop's chaplain. (Reg. Roff.) The memorials of Joan Urban, 1414, and of John Tubney are noticed in (Monum. Brasses, 122, 114.)

300. Speldhurst.—Brass: Will. Waller, wife, and eight children, 1555. (Reg. Roff.)—At Groombridge in this parish a chantry was founded, 38 of K. Henry III, by William Russell and his wife Hawise. (Harris.) This was subsequent to the first establishment of the chapel, which, according to (Kilburne) is dedicated to St. Charles. Compare Note on Groombridge.

301. Stalisfield.—This is stated to be a cross church, and to contain the stone effigy of a man in armour (Hasted) "with a long beard." (Harris.)

302. Stanford.— This name does not occur in (A.D. 1291), where however we find "Ecclia de Ostinhangre;" respecting which matter consult the Note above on Ostenhanger. Stanford is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.), but as a chapel attached to Liminge, (which is its present character) and in the deanery of Eleham, whereas the same record describes Ostenhanger, now only part of the parish of Stanford, as a rectory, and belonging to the deanery of Limpne.

303. Stansted.—" Wrotham et capella de Stanstede." (Val. Eccl.) This place, originally a chapelry in the extensive parish of Wrotham, was constituted a parish by Act of Parliament, A.D. 1647, which enactment however became void at the Restoration, when Stansted reverted to its former condition. Plaxtole was in precisely the same situation; but since the avoidance of the rectory of Wrotham in 1846, Stansted appears in the (Clergy List) of 1850 as a rectory, patron the Archb. of Canterbury, though Plaxtole still stands as a perpetual curacy in the gift of the rector of Wrotham.

304. Staple.—This place is still attached to Adesham. The church comprises western tower, nave, and chancel, with a north aisle, and a chancel thereto shorter than the principal one. There is also a modern south porch. The entrances to the chancels have no arches. The high chancel is transition from E.E. to Dec. Of the remainder of the building some windows are Perp., some earlier, and some modern. The north chancel is sadly modernised, but is separated from the aisle by a good plain Perp. wooden screen. The chancels communicate by an arch. Parts of the walls appear to be older than the windows.

305. Staplehurst.—Some of the windows at least of this church are Dec. The south door retains a quantity of ancient iron-work, comprising, among other ornaments, several fish; but the whole is much decayed.—The Free Chapel of "Newestedde," mentioned in (Val. Eccl.) together with that of Bokinfeld in Brenchley, was situated at Newsted in this parish. It was erected by Hamon de Crevecceur (temp. K. Henry III), its privileges and endowments were confirmed 41 of K. Edward III, and the chapel was suppressed 1 of K. Edward VI. (Hasted.)

306. Stelling.—A chapelry to Upper, or Great, Hardres.—At Wadehall in this parish was a chapel founded by Will, de Haut, 1 of K. Edward I, A.D. 1272-3. (Harris.)

307. Stockbury.—This church consists of chancel, nave with north and south aisles, the latter having a private chancel, north porch, and western tower. The south aisle has been contracted in width during the Perp. period, which gives that chancel the semblance of a transept, and a different arrangement produces a corresponding effect in the opposite side. The building generally is E.E. The chancel contains some superior carving, of which a representation is given in Gloss, of Architect, pi. 30, ed. 1845. There was a castle here formerly, which is supposed to have stood adjoining to the churchyard, but the only existing vestiges are some inequalities of the ground, and some portion of the ditch.

308. Stoke.—Licence was granted to John Malmeyns to have a chantry at his mansion house of Malmeyns on account of the distance from the parish church, A.D. 1303. (Reg. Roff. 622.)—The Domesday description of Stoke gives a curious illustration of the (occasional) proceedings of those times. "This manor did and does belong to the bishopric of Rochester, but in King Edward's time Earl Godwin bought it of two men, who held it of the bishop, which sale took place without his knowledge. But afterwards, when King William was on the throne, Archb. Lanfranc sued for it against the Bishop of Bayeux, and thus the church of Rochester now possesses it.—Hoc manerium fait et est de episcopatu rofensi. Sed Godvinus comes T.R.E. emit illud de duobus hominibus, qui eum" (sic) "tenebant de episcopo, et eo ignorante facta est hsec venditio. Postmodum vero regnante Wilielmo rege dirationavit illud Lanfrancus archiepiscopus contra baiocensem episcopum, et inde est modo saisita rofensis æcclesia." (D.B.) The ancient name of this place was "Andscohesham," if the following passage is genuine and rightly applied. "Ego, Eadberht, rex cantuariorum, donavi aliquem partem terrae—in regione, quæ vocatur Hohg, in loco qui dicitur Andscohesham, &c." (Text. Roff. 64.) This is considered by Hearne to signify Stoke, doubtless it means some place in the hundred of Hoo; but compare the Note on Cliffe for the account of the not very dissimilar name, Sheovesham. The date of the above deed is considered by Mr. Kemble (Cod.Dipl. I,103) to be A.D. 738.

309. Stonar.—The church no longer exists, but the place is appreciated in (Val. Eccl.) as a rectory, and the name still appears as such.

310. Stone near Dartford.—This is a very fine mixed church, both the E.E. and the Dec. portions being extremely rich. The chancel is surrounded by panels with Weald marble shafts and very good mouldings. There is a curious E.E. door on the northern side of the nave, and a late Perp. chapel on the northern side of the chancel. In the vestry is a good monument of the age of K. Henry VIII.—Brasses: John Lambarde, rector, in the centre of a cross fleuree, 1408; (from Weever) John Sore well, rector, 1439. (Reg. Roff.) Mr. Boutell, speaking of the former "beautiful effigy," gives the name Lambarde, and the date 1418. (Monum. Brasses, 119.)

311. Stone near Faversham.—The ruins of this very small church are still visible in the fields north of the turnpike road, less than half a mile westward from Ospringe, opposite the turning to Doddington. It is said to have been a chapel to Teynham. (Hasted.) The (Clergy List) retains the name as a perpetual curacy."—In the walls are several Roman bricks; and in the midst of the south wall is a separate piece of a Roman building, about a rod in length, and near three feet high, composed of two rows of Roman tiles of about fourteen inches square each, and on them small stones, hewn, but of no regular size or shape, for about a foot high, then tiles again, and so on alternally." At Elwarton is said to have been a chapel, called that "of our Lady of Eylwarton;" but no date is given. (Hasted.)

312. Stone in Oxney.—At the vicarage is preserved, and had been so "time out of mind" in Stone church, an altar of stone, with a basin hollowed in the top, and the figure of an ox carved on the sides, three feet four inches high. It had been turned out of the church, and used as a horse-block, whereby it became cracked, but was repaired, and placed in the vicarage garden. (Hasted.) This altar still, September 1849, continues at the vicarage ; and long may it remain in safety in the spot, since the interest of this relic of ancient times would be diminished, if it were removed elsewhere. The figures, carved upon the stone, will perhaps be recognized by most persons as a confirmation of the apparent meaning of the appellation, Oxney; oxen eye, that is, oxen island. Only one side of the altar is now tolerably perfect, the others being greatly decayed. The iron ring, represented in the woodcut, at the foot of the altar is supposed to have been used for securing thereto the victims for sacrifice. Some persons yet living can recollect the vestiges of what probably was the iron lining to the basin in the upper part of the altar. Private information, from the same party who kindly supplied the above account and the drawing, states, that Roman bricks, or tiles, were recently discovered in sinking a well near the vicarage.

Roman Altar at Stone in the Isle of Oxney

313. Stourmouth .—It is clear, that this place is intended by the "Ecclia de Sturnine," in the deanery of Bridge, of (A.D. 1291), because it is called "Stormuth" in a note at the bottom of the page. In the Saxon Chronicle (Gibson's ed. 87) it is styled "Sturemuthan."—Brass: Tho. Mareys, rector, 1475. (Hasted.) The church is named in a deed temp. Archb. Anselm and Bp. Gundulph. (Text. Roff. 167.)

314. Stowting.—At various periods Roman coins, and recently, namely, A.D. 1844, Anglo-Saxon remains have been discovered here: (see "A brief Account of the Parish of Stowting, &c.," by the Rev. Fred. Wrench, rector, pp. 12, 8vo, London, 1845.)

315. Strood.—Formerly a chapelry to Frinsbury, and still only a curacy. Bp. Gilbert Glanville founded a hospital here about the beginning of the reign of K. Henry III. (Lambarde.) The hospital of St. Mary in Strode called Newarke occurs in (Val. Eccl.)

316. Sturrey.—Part of this church is Earliest English, if not Tr. Norm. The chancel appears to be late Norm.; the north side early Perp.; the north porch late in the same style; the south side Perp.

317. Sundridge.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and square west tower with shingled spire. Of the chancel two side windows are closed on account of monuments. It contains a double piscina with an intervening shaft, and in the north wall is fixed a portion of a Dec. monument. The side chancels reach about half-way up the central. The entire body of the building seems to be E.E. The clerestory windows are quatrefoils opening into the aisles. All the other windows are Perp., as is also the tower arch. The tower is very massive. The porch has been altered and enlarged. A Perp. addition on the north side of the north chancel was probably intended for a vestry. A door in the north aisle is disused. The whole church has been copiously repaired at various periods. Brasses Rogerus Isly, 1429; a civilian, name lost; male and female figures with six sons and three daughters ("thirteen children, fragments of arms remaining those of Isley." Reg. Roff.) The churchyard is entered by a lychgate. Stone effigies of a man and a woman, Philipott says John Isley, 1484. Brass: man "in a somewhat singular habit." (Reg. Roff.)—"In digging near Combe Bank" (a mansion in this parish) "were discovered many Roman urns of an antick shape and figure." (Philipott's Kent, 332, fol. 1659.)

318. Suttonnear Dover.—A perpetual curacy only. The chancel of the church terminates in an apse. The north and south doors are surmounted by round arches. Part of the church was destroyed by an earthquake 6 April, 1680. (Hasted.)

319. Sutton at Hone.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Suthone, note, cum capella;" probably Wilmington, which see, especially since we find "Sutton cum capella de Wilmington" in (Val. Eccl.) This church is named with the chapels of Kingsdown and Wilmington A.D. 1253. (Reg. Roff. 654.)—Hasted states, that this manor, though mentioned separately in (D.B.) (I have failed in recognising any mention whatever of either this place or Wilmington) is so named in old records, as if in some measure an appendage to Dartford; which assertion certainly derives some confirmation from the observation in (D.B.), that "Hagelei" (Hawley in Sutton, Hasted) "is affirmed to have been taken away from Dartford: Testant quoque (sc. homines de hundredo) quod Hagelei de isto manerio ablata est." (D.B. II.)—The church is principally Dec., some of the work being early, with a small portion Perp. Sutton at Hone possessed a hospital temp. K. Richard I, or K. John. (Monast. VI, 669.) About the same period, or rather earlier, a commandery of knights hospitallers also existed here. (Tanner in Monast. VI, 804.)

Toward the end of the eighth, or the commencement of the ninth, century a synod was held at Aclea, or Aeclea, the identification of which place has not been accomplished hitherto. Wilkins (Concilia, I, 153) has a very short notice of this council, for which Spelman is his authority. He states, that a MS. in the public library of Cambridge gives A.D. 788 as the date of the council; but Florence of Worcester 781; whereas the period inferred from the Saxon record described below is A.D. 810, a considerable variation from both the Cambridge MS. and the chronicler. Spelman conjectures Aclea to have been in the bishopric of Durham, because he finds there two places, one called Aclea simply, the other Schole Acle; "una Aclea dicta simpliciter, altera scholaris Aclea (Schole Acle) nuncupata;" but the latter term at least seems quite different from that, of which the verification is in question. Kemble's Cod. Dipl. (II, 19) contains a document, which appears to throw some light upon this obscure point. The charter begins by reciting the decision of the assembly at "Aeclea," then mentions, that, notwithstanding this decision, the evil it was designed to repress had been revived thirty-four years afterwards, and that, in consequence, another meeting of spiritual and secular persons was summoned at Canterbury A.D. 844, King Ætheluulf and others being named as present. The matter in debate is declared to have been an unjust claim to certain property really belonging to Christ church, Canterbury, and to the monasteries at Folkstone, Dover, and Liminge: "familiam aecclesiae Christi, et familiam aet Folconstane, familiam quoque at Dobrum, necnon et familiam aet Liminge." The estate is specially described as having been that of Osuulf, "duke, and prince of the province of East Kent; dux atque princeps prouinciae orientalis Cantiae." The question therefore concerned Kent alone, and seems to have been the sole cause of the original council of Aeclea being convened; under which circumstances what so likely, as that the synod sate within the boundaries of that province? or at any rate in the immediate vicinity thereof? I am aware of no modern name in the county precisely, or nearly, answering to that of Aeclea; but the "Hagelei" of (D.B.), alluded to above, signifying Hawley in Sutton at Hone, is not so great a variation, after an interval exceeding two hundred years, and under a different race of people, that it might not mean the same spot as Aeclea, when we consider moreover how utterly careless our forefathers were as to orthography.—We are informed of another Aclea, where, A.D. 851, King Æthelwulf and his son Æthelbald obtained a great victory over the Danes. (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 75, and Asser's Alfred by Wise, 6.) This place is distinctly asserted to be situated in Surrey, and may be recognised in Ockley (that is Oak ley); Aclea being thus explained by Asser, "id est, in campulo quercus." The parish of Ockley lies a short distance from Dorking, southward. However this seems scarcely so probable a spot for the synod, as some other in, or nearer to, Kent, for the reasons offered above.

320. Suttons, The.—There is nothing in (D.B.) whereby to distinguish East Sutton from Sutton Valence. (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Sutton, cum capella;" from what will follow probably the church was at Sutton Valence, and the chapel at East Sutton.

East Sutton.—At the request of the prior and convent of Leeds, to which priory this church belonged, this cure was united to Sutton Valence (but no date is given). (Hasted.) It continues so annexed. When (Val. Eccl.) was compiled, the chapel belonged to Maidstone College, the parsonage to Leeds priory.—Sutton church contains a Brass of Sir Edw. and Lady Filmer and eighteen children in one large plate (Monum. Brasses, 23.)

321. w:.—This, as well as East Sutton, is mentioned in Val. Eccl. under the priory of Leeds.—The incumbent is inducted to the vicarage of Sutton Valence with the chapelry of East Sutton annexed. (Hasted.) Some small remains yet visible indicate the former existence here of a castle, but of which little, if anything, is known.

322. Swanscombe.—In the fourth edition of the Glossary of Architecture this church is stated to be an example of Anglo-Saxon construction: the only one existing in the county of Kent. Such may be the case, but the following description, the result of my examination, will show my opinion, that the fact is ' doubtful. The church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, north porch, and square west tower with shingled spire. The piers and arches between the nave and aisles are Tr. Norm. Under the tower arch is part of a Dec. screen, possibly removed from the chancel arch. The east ends of the north and south walls of the chancel have been rebuilt; in the ancient portion on each side is a small Norm, window, and, besides, two lancets in the north wall. The east window of the north aisle is closed with bricks, much brick having been used elsewhere in repairing the building. The lower part of the tower is evidently earlier than the remainder. In the south wall, not far from the ground, appears the mark of a rather wide roundheaded window, of which the arch is formed with bricks (Roman?) and at the angles of this ancient portion is an imperfect resemblance of "long and short work," the long stones being large, and the entire character of the work like that of the porch of Bishopstone church, Sussex; which see.

323. Swingfield.—This place continues merely a curacy, and was styled "capella" in (Val. Eccl.) Weever, quoted by Harris, states the existence in this church of a crosslegged effigy in armour.—A preceptory here is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.)—A house of sisters of the order of St. John of Jerusalem was founded at Swinfield, probably this place. A preceptory of Knights Templars certainly existed at Swingfield before A.D. 1190; though the property afterwards passed to the Knights Hospitallers (to whom belonged the preceptory, named in Val. Eccl.) (Monast. VI, 804.) The hospital of the Holy Cross at Swinestree in Kent is spoken of, and Tanner deems it doubtful whether Swingfield is not the place intended. (Ib. VI, 765.)

324. Sydenham.—Is only a curacy in the parish of Lewisham, the vicar of which place presents.

325. Tenterden.—The church comprises chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels (which are private property, as in numerous other instances) south porch, late Perp. vestry east of the south chancel, and large square west tower with battlements, stair turret, and pinnacles at the angles of the top. This church has been sadly mutilated. The mullions and tracery of all the windows, save those of the private chancels, have been removed. The tower resembles others of the district, but much exceeds them generally in size. A very little coloured glass remains. In the eastern gable of the nave two trefoil


headed windows, with wide internal splays, have recently been discovered and opened. They do not correspond in position. The building contains E.E., Dec., Perp., and late Perp., portions.
Tenterden Church

326. Teynham.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Tenham cum capella." The first orchards known in England were planted here, namely, 105 acres in ten parcels, of cherry, pippin, and golden rennet trees, by Rich. Harris, fruiterer to K. Henry VIII, A.D. 1533. (Lambarde.) The spot was a piece of ground called The Brennet, planted in quincunx order. (Harris.) Such are the statements given us on this subject; but, there is sufficient evidence to prove, incorrectly. It has been suggested to me, that ortgeard is a genuine Saxon word in frequent use, and doubtless the thing signified is at least as old as the term: also, that the English word often occurs long before the period of K. Henry VIII; as, for example, in Perse Plowman's Crede written temp. K. Richard II, where "Orcheyardes" and "erberes" are mentioned as constant accompaniments of a monastery. This testimony is confirmed by the very curious plan of the monastery of St. Gall in Switzerland in the ninth century, published by Professor Willis in the Archæol. Journal, (V, 85.) In this plan we find indeed no orchard, strictly so called, but fruit trees are placed in regular order all round the cemetery, and the contiguous inclosure on one side is a garden, uniformly arranged in beds for different vegetables. It is true, St. Gall was situated in a foreign country, but the founder, to whom the establishment was afterwards dedicated, was a native of Ireland, one of that "noble army" who migrated from the British Isles for the purpose of benefiting the dark parts of the European continent by their spiritual labours; and it will hardly be contended, that the model, selected for the new institution, would be the system adopted on the continent alone, and not one, with which St. Gall had been familiar in his native country. But whatever weight may be allowed to this inference, without denying the authenticity of the above-named plan it must be acknowledged, that much attention was paid in religious houses to horticulture so early as the ninth century; and, if among other nations, the custom would not be very long in travelling into England, if previously unknown there, which however could hardly be the case. The Archæol. Journal, (V, 295, &c.) contains "Observations on the state of horticulture in England in early times," which tend still farther to show, that orchards did not originate in this country with "Rich. Harris, fruiterer to K. Henry VIII," as above asserted, though possibly that cultivation may then have received considerable stimulus. As an additional contradiction to Lambarde's story it may be mentioned, that the Nonæ Roll, dating about A.D. 1341, estimates the tithe of apples in the parish of Graffham in Sussex at twenty-six shillings and eightpence. (Horsfield's Sussex, II, 96.) This large sum for the period necessarily implies extensive plantations of that fruit.

327. Thanington.—Brass: Tho. Halle, 1488 (Harris); 1485 (Hasted.) A hospital, dedicated to St. James, was founded in Thanington before A.D. 1188. (Monast. VI, 765.)

328. Thornham.—The church is not a good building, but possesses a rather rich Dec. east window, and a stoup in the north porch, in good preservation, with a cypher, w, surmounted by a crown, on a shield beneath it.—"Thornham cum capella de Aldryngton." (Val. Eccl.) See the Note on Audintone.—Upon the brow of the hill overlooking this place stand some ruins of a castle, said (by Kilburne) to have been erected by Sir Leonard Goddard, temp. K. Stephen.

329. Throwley.—A priory was founded here, A.D. 1153, by Will, de Ipre on the spot, which is now occupied by the parsonage. (Hasted.) The priory was a cell to the alien priory of St. Bertin's, and was suppressed 2 of K. Henry V. (Kilburne.)Harris mentions stalls and an altar-tomb in Throwley church.—A.D. 1367, 42 of K. Edward III, the chapel of Wylrington belonged to the vicarage of Throwley (Hasted); who assigns no locality for the chapel.

330. Tintentone.—Hasted considers (correctly I think) that Tinton in the parish of Warehorne is the place intended by "Tintentone," At the period of the Domesday Survey the hundreds seem not to have been very precisely defined; at least in the present instance there appears something like confusion. "Werahorne" is placed in "Hame" (Ham) hundred, " Tintentone" in that of "Blackeburne;" yet part of the latter manor is, elsewhere, described as in the hundred of "Adelovesbrige" (Aloesbridge), and in "Nevvecerce" (Newchurch) hundred half a yoke of land is declared to be valued, " appreciatur," in Tintentone. This however is partially explained by the circumstance, stated by Hasted, that the house of Tinton manor stands near Warehorne church, though the land lies principally in Romney Marsh. Such being the locality of Tintentone manor-house, there can be little, if any, doubt, that the Domesday church occupied the site of the existing parish church of Warehorne.

331. Tonbridge.—The chancel of the church still retains some small roundheaded windows, indicating it to be of Norm, date; but, with the exception of the northern piers and arches of the nave, which are perhaps E.E., or early Dec., the remainder of the building, which is not modern, is Perp., the east window being a very large one in that style. This window contains a few pieces of coloured glass.

About A.D. 1191 Roger de Clare granted the church of Tonbridge "cum capella, with a chapel." (Reg. Roff.) That chapel might probably be Capel, which however was originally an offset from Tudely, not Tonbridge; nevertheless in a document of A.D. 1347 the church of Tonbridge is mentioned with the chapels of Schybourne (Shipbourne) and Capel. (Reg. Roif. 128). Again there are two allusions to the same connection of the chapels of Schibourne and St. Thomas the Martyr; one (Reg. Roff. 126) without date, except the seventh year of Edward, King of England and "Duke of Aquitane," probably K, Edward II; the other (Ib. 666) is specially stated to be of the seventh year of K. Edward II (1314). The latter chapel, of St. Thomas, must have been Capel (which see) and this may probably be the "capella juxta Tunbregge, the chapel near Tonbridge," of (Val. Eccl.) which is coupled with that of Shipbourne.—A priory was founded here -by Rich, de Clare about the end of the reign of K. Henry I (Monast. VI, 393) : and dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. (Reg. Roff.) A.D. 1351 it was totally destroyed by fire. (Monast. ut sup.) The last vestiges of the priory were removed in forming a station of the South-Eastern Railway, when a coffin slab with a cross upon it, and a few other trifling relics were discovered.

Of the castle the grand entrance is still standing, containing some good work of the thirteenth century, and forming a fine object in the view from several places on the southern side of the town. So late as temp. K. Edward VI the domains of the castle comprised parks at the Posterne and Cage (the former eastward, a little south, of the town, the latter north); also the forests and chases of North Frith, South Erith, and Whitcliffe alias Wincliff wood. At South Erith is stated to have been "a great park." (Hasted, II, 330, 350, fol.) The names of "Forest Farm" and "Jeffrey's in the Forest" are still attached to farms on the right hand side of the road leading from Tonbridge to Woodsgate, in the neighbourhood of what was South Frith forest.

The Lowy is an appellation still used for a district round the town: in particular the meadows north of the river towards Leigh are familiarly called "The Lew." It is stated, that the term is properly "Leuga," and that it was derived from the circumstance of Tonbridge, with land around it to the distance of a French league (leuga) in all directions, being bestowed to satisfy a claim to a town and territory in Normandy. (Lambarde.) There is however tolerably conclusive testimony, that this story is a mere idle tale. In the first place the date of the above transaction is laid in the reign of William Rufus; whereas the Lowy of Tonbridge, written indifferently "Leuga" and "Leuua" (double u) is mentioned frequently in (D.B.), compiled under K. William I. Also the title is not confined to Tonbridge, as it would be, if originating as Lambarde affirms, but is applied likewise up to the present day at Pevensey in Sussex, comprehending nearly the whole of the contiguous rich marsh land, known as " Pevensey Level."

332. Tong.—At Puckeshall in this parish stood the hospital of St. James. (Tanner, in Monast. VI, 764.)—"Neer the mill here (about a quarter of a mile distant from this church) are the ruines of an old castle, built by Hengist the Saxon (about 1200 years since) upon this occasion, viz. This Hengist being sent for by Vortiger (king of Britain) to assist him against his northern enemies, and giving them the overthrow, obtained from that king so much ground as might be enclosed in a bull's hide (to build him a seat upon) which hide he cut into very small thongs (left fast one unto the other). And within the compass thereof built that castle (which he called Thong Castle) from whence also this parish afterwards took its name." (Kilburne.)

333. Tudely.—The nave and tower of this church have been rebuilt nearly from the ground with brick in very bad taste. The east window is apparently of the same date. Brass: Tho. Stydolf and wife, 1457.

334. Tunstall.—This church has a square western tower, nave with north and south aisles, south porch (the latter modern) chancel, and another on the southern side, the private property of the Hales family, large land-owners in the parish and neighbourhood, by one of whom it was erected in the seventeenth century, From a string-course in the interior the north wall appears to be E.E., to which style belongs the chancel also, the remainder of the building being Dec. with Perp. additions and insertions. (D.B.) mentions "a saltpan of twelve shillings, salina de xii denariis," as annexed to the manor of Tunestelle; one of the many examples of inland places having outlying portions, to enable them to partake of the benefits of contiguity to the sea.

335. Ulcombe.—In (A.D. 1291) the name is written Olecombe. "The parish church of All Saints here was made collegiate for an archipresbyter and two canons, with one deacon, and one clerk, by Steph. Langton, Archb. of Canterbury, about A.D. 1220, at the request of Ralph de S. Leodegario the patron. It was in being A.D. 1293; but seems to have dropped afterwards, and the church became again, and is now a single undivided rectory." (Tanner, Notit. Monast. Kent, LXIII, in Monast. VI, 1455); where it is stated, that, from evidence, the college must have existed so late as 5 Jan. 1425. Compare also the Note above on Olecumbe.

336. Upchurch.—This church, comprising nave and aisles, north and south porches, chancel with two aisles, and western tower, is principally of Dec. date, with a very little E.E., but contains various portions to interest. Several gravestones have been robbed of brasses. One was left, containing two half-length figures of a man and woman, the inscription being lost. Beneath the chancel is a vault, into which the descent is by a circular staircase. On the tower "is placed a square part of a spire for about ten feet, and on that an octagon for the remaining or upper part to the point of the spire at the top." (Hasted.)—Many Roman vases have been dug up, even recently, in this parish and the neighbourhood.

337. Walmer.—A perpetual curacy only. The church contains portions of Norm. work. (Hasted.)

338. Waltham.—This vicarage is united to that of Petham. In the parish were formerly the chapels of Ashenfield alias Eshmerfield and Wadnall, long since desecrated. (Hasted.)

339. Watringbury.—"There was till of late years a singular, though a very antient, custom kept up of electing a deputy to 'The Dumb Borsholder of Chart,' as it was called, claiming liberty over fifteen houses in the precinct of Pizein-well; every householder of which was formerly obliged to pay the keeper of this Borsholder a penny yearly. This Dumb Borsholder was always first called at the Court Leet holden for the hundred of Twyford; when its keeper, who was yearly appointed by that Court, held it up to his call, with a neckcloth or handkerchief put through the iron ring fixed at the top, and answered for it. This Borsholder of Chart and the Court Leet has" (sic) "been discontinued about fifty years; and the Borsholder, who is put in by the Quarter Sessions for Watringbury, claims over the whole parish. This Dumb Borsholder is made of wood, about three feet and half an inch long, with an iron ring at the top, and four more by the sides near the bottom, where it has a square iron spike fixed, four inches and a half long, to fix it in the ground, or on occasion to break open doors, &c., which was used to be done, without a warrant of any justice, on suspicion of goods having been unlawfully come by, and concealed in any of these fifteen houses. It is not easy at this distance of time to ascertain the origin of this dumb officer. The last person, who acted as deputy to it, was one Thomas Clampard, a blacksmith, whose heirs have it now in their possession." (Hasted; volume printed A.D. 1782.)

340. Westerham.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels coextensive with the central one, south porch, and square west tower with short shingled spire. The east window of the south aisle is Dec., the others generally late and debased Perp. There are a few fragments of coloured glass. The interior seems to have been entirely rebuilt late Perp. The porch is old, but altered. The south wall is of rubble masonry. The north and south chancels are additions, and the north wall has been rebuilt, probably at the same period as the interior. A north door is closed. Brasses: Will. Stace, two wives and fifteen children, 1566; John Christe, 1567.—The following are also mentioned: Rich. Hay ward, and six daughters (wife and four sons lost) 1429; Rich. Potter, two wives and eight children, 1511; Tho. Potter, 1531; John Stacy, two wives and three daughters, 1533; Will. Myddilton, two wives and seven children (eight children lost), 1557; Sir Will. Drye, priest, 1567. (Reg. Roff.) It appears, that, during repairs of Westerham church about thirty years ago, some of the brasses were taken up, and, the slabs being broken, the plates were afterwards preserved at the vicarage. Of these memorials at least two prove to be "Palimpsests," the earlier design being not greatly anterior in date to the second, and of Flemish character. (Archæol. Journal, VI, 414.) (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Westerham-note-cum capellis." Edenbridge we may safely conclude to have been one of those chapels, but I find no intimation of any other connected with Westerham.—Alianora, Queen of K. Edward I, gave the advowson of Westerham to the priory of Christ's church, Canterbury (which was confirmed by the king in the eighteenth year of his reign, A.D. 1290-1) after which vicars were constituted; when the chapel of "Edulwesbrugge" is mentioned, A.D. 1327. (Reg. Roff.)

341. Westwell.—Three "confessional chairs" (sedilia?), six stalls, and the roodloft were remaining here in the time of Dr. Harris.

342. Wichling.—In submission to the opinions of Hasted and others I have assigned the Domesday name of "Winchelesmere" to this place, although the identity is not perfectly clear. The paragraph, in which Winchelesmere is included, is headed "In Eyhorne hundred;" but some of the manors described could hardly have been in that hundred, unless, which indeed is very possible, its extent had been much larger than at present, and its boundary very irregular. The names, occurring before and after Winchelesmere, certainly indicate places in the vicinity of, or at least not very remote from, Wichling. The church stands quite solitary, is very small, and, like some other churches in that neighbourhood, has a Norman doorway, apparently reinserted, as the existing building seems of later date.

343. Wickham Breaux.—" Here is a church and a priest &c.—here is a park—Ibi seccla et unus presbyter, qui dat, &c.—ibi unus parcus." (D.B.) Brass: Henry Welde, rector, 1420. (Hasted.)

344. Wickham, East.—A chapelry to Plumsted. Brasses: John Bladicdone and Maud (remainder lost) ; Will. Payn, in the uniform of a yeoman of the guard, three wives and three sons, 1568. (Reg. Roff.) The former are half-length, A.D. 1325, in the head of a floriated cross. (Monum. Brasses, 117.)

345. Wickham, West.—The church consists of chancel, nave, north aisle and chancel (the aisle was partially enlarged not long since) and square tower on the south side of the nave forming a porch. In the chancel are a piscina and an ambry; in the north chancel a trefoil-headed piscina. The church contains much coloured glass, of which a portion is ancient. There are many encaustic tiles, apparently relics from an earlier building. In the pavement before the south door are some fragments of a grave slab, around which was an inscription in Lombard character. Brasses: small, Will. Thorp, rector, 1407; John Stockton, 1512.—Wickham court, close to the church, is part of a castellated mansion of brick with stone dressings. Hasted says, (Kent, I, 108, and note, fol. 1790,) that the estate was purchased by Henry Heydon, afterwards knighted, of Norfolk, temp. K. Edward IV, and that he built the manor-house and the church.

346. Willesborough.—In this church are several stone seats represented in the Glossary of Architecture, (pl. 132, ed. 1845,) but not quite correctly.

347 Wilmington.—In 1293 Wilmington is styled a chapel to Sutton (at Hone); which see. In deeds, temp. K. Richard II, Herbert Archb. of Canterbury, and Gilbert Bp. of Rochester, it is called a "parish." (Reg. Roff. 687.)

348. Wingham.—Mentioned in (Val. Eccl.) as "Ecclia de Wyngham cum capellis de Asshe, Godewynston, Nonyngton et Wymyngeweld;" though we are told, that, A.D. 1282, on Archb. John Peckham founding the college in this church, he divided Wingham into four parishes, rendering Ash, Gunston, and Nonington, before chapelries to Wingham, separate parishes, and leaving Overland and Richborough chapels to Ash, and Womenswold the same to Nonington. (Somner.) In the accounts of the above transaction there is some discrepancy respecting the date. Compare the Notes on Ash and Goodneston. This may be explained by the following statement: that the college at Wingham was designed by Archb. Kilwardby, though it was actually completed by his successor, John Peckham, A.D. 1286. (Monast. VI, 1341.) Wingham church at no very distant period contained fourteen stalls (Hasted; or twenty, Harris) for the members of the college. Within the bounds of Wingham manor were declared to be two small woods for fencing. "Duæ siluulæ ad clausurum." (D.B.) See the Note on Newington near Sittingbourne.

349. Wittersham.—A college is asserted to have once existed here. (Harris). It is however not mentioned in Dugdale's Monasticon. See the Note on Palestrei.

350. Woldham.—At Starkeys "I saw the remainder of a pretty large chapel." (Harris.) Starkeys was a mansion, erected temp. K. Henry VII. The chapel, which Harris mentions, is totally destroyed. From "Antiquities in Kent hitherto undescribed," by John Thorpe, Esq., &c. (in Biblioth. Topog. Brit. I, 1790.)

Woldham Church
351. Womenswold.—Soon after this place was separated from Wingham, about 1286, it was united to Nonington. (Hasted.) And so continues.

352. Woodchurch.—Brass: Nich. Gore, priest; inscription in old French. (Hasted.) A small effigy within a quatrefoiled circle inclosed within the four points of a rich Greek cross fleury. The legend is in Longobardic characters. (Monum. Brasses, 120.)

353. Woode.—This church was used as a place of worship in 1563, but ruins of it only now remain, and the parish is added to Birchington. "The church must have been of considerable size, as the foundation measures from east to west 84 feet, and from north to south 56; there is a mount of eight or ten feet high in the middle of the area of the church, which evidently appears to be the ruins of the tower. There is a farmhouse adjoining the inclosure, which is about a quarter of a mile from the great road leading from Canterbury to Margate." (Hasted.) The name is omitted in the (Clergy List.)

354. Woodland.—The church having been destroyed, Woodland is now included in the parish of Kingsdown near Wrotham. In (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Wodland" appears; likewise in (Val. Eccl.) as a rectory. In a list of churches in the diocese of Rochester (compare the Note) perhaps earlier than A.D. 1291, we find "Watlande" enumerated among the churches, while Stansted is reckoned a chapel merely; but the name is now dropped. Harris states, that this church was suppressed by Card. Pole in 1557, when it was united to Wrotham, though the manor continued in Kingsdowne. Lambarde says "united to the vicarage of Wrotham," A.D. 1572.—" The rector and vicar of Wrotham receive all ecclesiastical emoluments within the district of the chapelry of Woodland, which they possess only till a chapel shall be built for the use of the inhabitants of it. There are twenty acres in it possessed by the rector of Wrotham, as part of his glebe." (Hasted.) The site of the ancient church is still known. Within recollection some remains of it existed, if they do not now.

355. Woodnesborough.—This church contains parts in all styles of architecture from Norm. to late Perp., though the latter consists only of wooden seats in the chancel. There are three stone seats, or rather stalls, of very good Dec. work, but sadly obscured by whitewash.

356. Woolwich.—See the Note on Lewisham for a quotation from a charter of K. Edward, A.D. 1044, (Cod. Dipl. IV, 80,) whence it appears probable, that a church existed in this place at the above date.

357. Worth or Word.—A chapelry to Eastry, to which it is annexed together with Skrinkling chapel. (Hasted.) See Eastry.

358. Wrotham.—In the reign of K. Edward III a vicarage was constituted here, and confirmed by Archb. Tho. Arundel, A.D. 1402, from which period the rectory became a sinecure impropriate under lease from the archbishop till 1715, when, the lease expiring, Archb. Tenison refused to renew, and conferred both preferments together, in which manner they have been held ever since. (Hasted.) The church comprises chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, late Perp. vestry on the northern side of the chancel, and square west tower. This church is spacious, but very plain. The piers and arches between the nave and aisles are E.E.; the tower arch lofty Perp., the windows are, some Dec., some Perp., some bad modern work. The building has been much patched with brick. The tower may have been partially rebuilt; originally it had a stair turret, but the upper part has been repaired with brick. Harris mentions sixteen stalls in Wrotham church.

Brasses: Tho. Nysell, wife and ten children, 1498; Tho. Peckham, wife and five children, 1512 (noticed in Monum. Brasses, 89); Reynold Peckham, and wife, 1533; another, the inscription concealed by a pew; a woman; John Burgoyn; (loose) John Sundressh, rector, 1426. (Reg. Roff.) South of the church stands an old mansion, constructed of brick with stone dressings. The archbishops formerly had a palace here, east of the churchyard; most of it was pulled down after 1348, and the materials used in Maidstone palace by Archb. Islip; the site &c. were conveyed by exchange to K. Henry VIII. A park at Wrotham, about half a mile south-east from the church, was disparked when Lambarde wrote, A.D. 1570. Wrotham Place was called Nyssels from the name of the owners. (Hasted, II, 236, fol. 1790.) The park at Wrotham is mentioned in (Val. Eccl.)

359. Wye.—Lambarde asserts, that in British this name signifies "an egg."—"The abbot of St. Martin's of the place of the battle holds the manor, which is called Wi—there is a church. Abbas Sancti Martini de Loco belli tenet manerium quod vocatur Wi, quod T. R. E. et modo se defendit pro vii solinas. Terra est lii carucarum. In dorninio ix carucæ sunt et cxiiii villani cum xxii bordariis habent xvii Carucas. Ibi æcclesia, et vii servi, et iiii molini de xxiii solidis et viii denariis, et cxxxiii acræ prati, et silva ccc porcorum de pasnagio." (D. B. II, p. 2, c. 4.) We may presume, that the above-named church was the original of the present parish church; because, till the dissolution of monastic establishments, Wye belonged to Battle Abbey.—A tradition however is stated to have existed, that the parish church formerly stood on a different spot, the removal being the act of Cardinal Kemp, who built the present church with three aisles and as many chancels, the tower being in the centre. A.D. 1685 the tower fell (Lambarde and Kilburne say it had been struck by lightning,) and nearly destroyed the chancels, beside damaging part of the church. The ruins, being boarded off, were suffered to remain in that state till 1706, when the remainder of the chancels was pulled down, and replaced by a small one. (Harris.) A college of secular priests was founded here, 14th January, 1447, 26th of Henry VI (A.D. 1450. Lambarde), by John Kemp, a native of (son of a poor woman at. Lambarde) Wye, Archbishop of Canterbury and Cardinal. (Kilburne, and Monast. VI, 1430). Cardinal Kemp also erected a chapel or oratory at his seat of Ollantigh in this parish. (Harris.)

360. Yalding.—The authority of Hasted confirmed what had previously been my impression, that this place is the "Hallinges" in the hundred of Twyford of (D. B.), but Hasted quotes incorrectly in spelling the word "Eallinges." In (A.D. 1291) the name is written "Alding—Galdying" and, in a note, "Ealding." Beside the two churches Hallinges is stated to possess "two mills of twenty-five shillings, four fisheries of 1700 eels less by twenty, five acres of meadow land, and a wood of one hundred and fifty hogs. In the time of King Edward, and after, it was worth thirty pounds; now twenty pounds; because the estate has been despoiled of money. Ibi ii aecclæ et ii molini de xxv solidis et iiii piscariæ de mille et septingentis anguillis xxti minus. Ibi v acræ prati et silua cl porcorum. T. R. E. et post valuit xxx libras. Modo xx libras, eo quod terra vastata est a pecunia." (D. B.) Clearly therefore the district must have contained considerable proportions of both water and upland; which will precisely suit the places it is supposed to represent. Hasted considers, I think truly, that the second Domesday church was at Brenchley. A connection between Yalding and Brenchley, together with the inferior rank of the latter, are clearly established from ancient records. Thus Rich, de Clare, Earl of Hertford, gives the church of Aldinges and chapel of Brenchesleya to the canons of Tonbridge; but the date is not preserved. (Reg. Roff.) Again there is mention of Yalding church, with the chapel of Brenchley, and the churches of Strateshelle and Mereworth, A.D. 1191. (Reg. Roff. 666.) Having met with the name of Strateshell nowhere else, I am unable even to conjecture the locality of the place.

  1. See Addenda
  2. The ornamental stonework called above " corbel tables," may probably, it is suggested, be the remains of the ancient reredos ; and they might have been recognised as such by those of more experience in these researches : but the style of the workmanship, and their excellent state of preservation render the objects very deserving of notice.