Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Kent/Notes on the Churches E-K
104. Eastbridge.— An ancient parish on the border of Romney Marsh. The name appears in (Val. Eccl.), and in the (Clergy List) to this day, as a rectory, though the church was desecrated, it is said, A.D 1530. Where stood the second Domesday church is mere conjecture.
105. Eastchurch.— In early times, A.D 1196, this church was appropriated to the abbey of Dunes in Flanders, but it was afterwards transferred to that of Boxley, which was confirmed A.D 1313. There is a patent, 9th of K. Henry VI (1431-2), to the abbey of Boxley for a piece of land in this parish for the purpose of erecting a new church. (Hasted.)
106. Eastling. Hasted states, that the second Domesday church stood at Huntingfield Court, once an important manor and seat in this parish. He adduces as authority, that the existence of a chapel and mill at Huntingfield, as described in (D. B.) is attested by the names, "Chapel Field," and "Mill Field," still applied to certain spots there.
N. B. Huntingfield belonged to the Hasted family. Both portions of the manor possessed a mill at the period of the Survey, but one part was much larger than the other.
107. Eastry.—This place was so named to distinguish it from Westrie (Rye in Sussex). (Lambarde. But, q., is there any evidence in early records of such an appellation being used?) The Domesday account of Eastry is an instance of the extreme minuteness of the valuation then made: "During the whole time of King Edward and since it was worth £26 10s. 4¼d.; now £36 10s. 4¼d." This E.E. church contains much to repay examination.—The chapel of Worth is (in Val. Eccl.) annexed to Eastry, and so it remains. At Skrinkling, alias Shingleton (of which the mansion has totally disappeared) formerly stood a chapel, in the south-east corner of the manor, "the ruins of which are still visible in the wood near" (sic), which was esteemed a chapel-of-ease to the mother church of Eastry, and was appropriated with it by Archb. Richard, Becket's immediate successor, &c.; but the chapel itself seems to have become desolate, &c., most probably soon after the family of Skrinkling" (the owners of the estate) "became extinct." viz. about the end of the reign of K. Edward III. The (18) stalls in Eastry church (mentioned by Harris) were removed about A.D. 1750. The arch of the west doorway is circular. (Hasted.)—Tanner notices an idea, that a monastery was founded here in the seventh century, but remarks, that it seems to have been altogether a mistake. (Monast. VI, 1620.)
108. Ebeney.—A chapelry to Apledore, to which it is annexed in (Val. Eccl.) The church was burnt by lightning about 1550, the present small building having been erected from the ruins. (Harris.)
"In this parish antiently was a priory, long since demolished." (Kilburne.)
109. Edenbridge.—Originally a chapelry to Westerham, though now ranking as a perpetual curacy. The church comprises nave and chancel, with a south aisle to both, south porch (of brick), and tower with a short shingled spire at the west end of the nave. The exterior wall all round seems to have been raised; but the major part of the old work has the appearance of being late Norm. At the west end of the north wall is a plain lancet window, and close to it a small quite plain Norm, window stopped. There is another lancet window in the south wall of the chancel; and the top of the frame of a third is visible near the west end of the south wall of the aisle. The engaged pier next to the tower may be E.E., and attached to it is a portion of ancient wall. A part of the interior is Dec. The pattern of the east window is singular, as if intended to represent a cross, but the effect is not good. In the south chancel is a piscina, in form the upper part of a column, with the capital hollowed for the basin. In the interior of the tower are, in the south wall, two round-headed recesses, resembling a sedile and an ambry. Brass: John Selyard, 1558. (Reg. Roff.)
110. Egerton.—The chapel of Egerton is (in Val. Eccl.) annexed to Charing. They have since been separated, but at what period I do not find.
111. Elmley.—This small island is a chapelry only.
112. Elmsted.—Brass: a wife of Christ. Gay (husband and another wife lost). At Dane, now Dean Court, on the northern side of this parish, was formerly, about the time of K. Richard I, a chapel. (Hasted.)
113. Elmstone.—Considering this place to be, most probably, the "Eylinston" of (A.D. 1291), I have marked it accordingly. Without an opportunity of inspecting the original MS. it is not practicable to verify a conjecture which has occurred to me, namely, that the word was mistaken in copying for the press by some one unacquainted with the county, and that the correct reading is probably Elmston.
114. Eltham.—It is almost needless to notice the existence here of the remains of the palace.
115. Erith.—The Domesday description of Lesnes, "Loisnes," which was the property of the Bishop of Bayeux, confirms Hasted's opinion, that under this name is included not only the manor of Lesnes, strictly so called, but Erith likewise. "In the time of King Edward it was worth twenty pounds. When the bishop received it eighteen pounds, and now twenty-two pounds, and yet the tenant pays thirty pounds: T. R. E. valuit xx libras. Quando episcopus recepit xviii libras, et modo xxii libras, et tamen qui tenet reddit xxx libras." (D.B.) In K. Edward's time also it claimed to be ten sowlings, but then four. Three fisheries belonged to it, and the estimated value (as above) was £22, though the occupant paid £30; while "Erhede" (see the Note on Crayford) was valued at £16, but produced £21; which relative proportions are nearly the same with those between the respective benefices, as they appear in (A.D. 1291), where "Hithe" and "Garheth" are clearly to be identified as Erith, of which the estimation is "Ecclia de Hithe = £33 6s. 8d. Vicarius ejusdem" (elsewhere "Vicaria de Garheth), £5 6s. 8d.; consequently the total = £38 13s. 4d.; whereas the value of the entire benefice of "Garde," i.e., Crayford = £26 13s. 4d. In both (A.D. 1291) and (Val.Eccl.) Erith stands in Dartford deanery, and Crayford in that of Shoreham, the subsisting arrangement.
Brasses in Erith Church: John Ailmer and wife, 1405; Roger Sencler, 1421; wife of John Wode, 1471; John Aylmer and two wives, 1511; Edw. Hawte and wife, 1537; man in armour, and woman. Altar tomb and effigy of Eliz. countess of Shrewsbury, daughter and heir of Sir Rich. Walden (Weever). (Reg. Roff.)—In this parish Lesnes Abbey (Lesnes or Westwood Abbey, so called in charters of K. John and K. Edward II. Monast. VI, 456, 457) was founded in 1179, and dedicated to St. Thomas, by Chief Justice Rich. Lucy. (Lambarde.)—The church of Lesnes was given by Richard Lucie to the church of the Holy Trinity, London, and the prior, &c.; no date, but temp. K. Stephen and Archb. Theobald, therefore between 1135 and 1154. It is styled the parish church of Lesnes, A.D. 1452. The abbey was dissolved in 1525. (Reg. Roff. 325, 330, 342.) These statements can no otherwise be reconciled with Lambarde's account of the foundation of the abbey, than by the conclusion, that a church existed at Lesnes previous to the erection of the monastery. Whether or not afterwards the two remained distinct, or were incorporated, there is no evidence to show.—The site of Lucy's abbey is about a mile and three quarters westward from Erith church. About the middle of the seventeenth century (perhaps, for no date is given. A. H.) labourers disinterred several stone coffins and effigies within the ruins of the abbey, particularly one effigy with fleurs-de-lis in many places, in good preservation, covering a tomb, wherein was found a body, entire, but dried up, wrapped in lead, (Hasted.)
116. Estraites.—Now Street, in the parish of Limpne, famous for a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, called "The Chapel of our Lady of Court of Streete," or "Court at Strete," the principal scene of the impostures of Elizabeth Barton, "The Holy Maid of Kent," A.D. 1525. Street gives the name to a hundred.
117. Ewell.—This church is an insignificant building.—In the parish was a mansion of Knights Templars. (Harris.)
118. Eynsford.—The church consists of chancel, nave, north and south transepts, square west tower with a short shingled spire, and a west porch. The chancel terminates eastward in an apse, to which the remainder of the building seems to have been added; for, though the apse is lighted by three lancet windows, that portion may have been rebuilt in the E.E. period. The exterior string course is continued only below the windows. A double E.E. piscina under a single arch, trefoil-headed with side shafts, occupies the usual position in the chancel. Two arches just visible in the north wall of the chancel indicate some former erection on that side. Two stone coffins, more or less mutilated, are preserved in the chancel. The south transept is plain E.E. with eight lancet windows. The piscina here is quite plain, and adjoining is an arch, filled up, wide enough for two seats. The north transept is Perp., as are the font and the tower arch, but the west door is rather rich Norm. The tower has been altered, perhaps partially rebuilt. The nave and chancel roofs are of the waggon-tilt form, but are plastered internally.—See the latter part of the Note on Farningham.—The remains of the castle walls, which are Norm., contain numerous Roman bricks, which had been already used. Hasted, incorrectly, quotes the Domesday name of this place as Enesford.
119. Eythorne.—This is called (in Val. Eccl.) "Ecclia vel capella de Sutton."
120. Fairfield.—The church is very small, constructed of brick. It must have been very different in the fifteenth century, when "Simon Goddard by his will, proved A.D. 1481, ordered his body to be buried in the west part of this church, between the ring of bells there and the font." (Hasted.)
121. Fanne.—In the original MS. of (D. B.) a blot conceals the hundred to which this place belonged, but the abridged copy, preserved in the same custody, clearly states that hundred to be Wye. The locality of Fanne may be identified through the name of Fanscombe in the parish of Wye, where formerly stood a manor-house, which however has been demolished perhaps for centuries. Under the title of Vannes or Fanne Hasted mentions two manors, north and upper, stating them to have extended into Crundale, as well as Wye; the whole therefore must have been of considerable importance. He also describes a manor of Fanscombe in the parish of Hastingleigh. The manor is incidently spoken of elsewhere in (D. B.), when the name is spelled Fane. In (Val. Eccl.) the manor of Fannes is declared to be the property of Maidstone College.—The noble families of Fane and Vane, anciently the same, first appeared in the county of Kent, being popularly, but erroneously, said to have sprung from Badsell, now merely a farm-house, in the parish of Tudely. It appears a probable conjecture, that the family must have been connected originally with the estate described in (D. B.) under their name.
122. Farleigh, East.—The (Text. Roff. 229), mentions "Liluitana capella Anfridi," as dependent upon the church of "East Fearnlega." Possibly the word may be intended for "Lilintana," but incorrectly decyphered; or at any rate it may signify Linton, which (according to Hasted) "was antiently written Lyllington, and in Latin Lilintana;" the last being the form of the name of the above chapel in (Text. Roff. 231.)
123. Farnborough.—Stated to be a chapel situated within the parish of Chelsfield, and "notoriously known to depend on that church." It is mentioned in early records as "Fearnberga," and is styled "Ecclesia capella;" by John Bishop of Rochester, (about 1270 or 1280.? ) (Reg. Roff.)—Farnborough remains a chapelry attached to Chelsfield.
124. Farningham.—A church of chancel, nave, north porch, and square west tower with battlements and stair turret. This building has undergone much repair, in which bricks have been largely employed. The chancel seems E.E., and probably the nave is so likewise. The north wall is the oldest. The chancel being much narrower than the nave, in the two east walls of the latter are small E.E. windows, under the southern of which must have been an altar, the south wall retaining a piscina, trefoiled under a square hood, and beside it is a large arch, which has been ascertained to belong to an E.E. tomb. The piscina, having been plastered over and recently discovered, is as fresh as if new. The tower is Perp. Brasses: half-length, Will. Culbone (see below), vicar, 1451; another small, sixteenth century; a third very small, covered by a stove. The font is Perp., an octagon, with figures carved in the sides.—Brasses: Will. Gylborne, vicar, 1451; Alijs Taillen, 1514; Will. Petham (wife lost), 1517; Tho. Sibyll and wife Agnes, 1519. (Reg. Roff.) The font is represented in (Cust. Roff.)—A.D. 1225 it was disputed whether Farningham was a chapel-of-ease to Eynsford, or not; when the archbishop decided that the church belonged to the almonry of Christ's Church, Canterbury. (Hasted.) This dispute proves, that, of the two, Eynsford was in early times the place of superior importance, and implies that some connection existed, or had existed between them; hence therefore the probability, that one of the two churches named in (D.B.) in Eynsford manor, might have stood at Earningham ; which is mentioned moreover in very close relation to Eynsford.— " De his habent monachi Cantuarienses iv libras ad vestitum suorum. Of these," i.e., the sums paid to the archbishop's military, " milites, the monks of Canterbury have four pounds for their clothing." (D. B.)
125. Faversham.— In Saxon Fafresham and Fafresfeld. (Lambarde.) The latter name is used in the Saxon Chronicle, in mentioning the place where K. Stephen was buried. It is also spelled " Feferesham" in a charter of A.D. 850. (Cod. Dipl. V., 96).— Though (D. B.) alludes to no church here, there is reason to believe, as stated in the Preface, that one actually existed at Eaversham before the Survey under K. William I. This king is said to have given the church of Faversham to the abbey of St. Augustin, Canterbury. (Monast. I, 144.) In (A.D. 1291) we find " Ecclia de Favresham, note, cum capella de Sheldwich eidem annexa." In 1168 both these churches had been appropriated to St. Augustin's Abbey, Canterbury. (Hasted).— The abbey of Faversham (of which not a vestige remains) was founded by K. Stephen, about A.D. 1140. (Lambarde.) The Monasticon gives 1147 (IV, 568.) In 1148 according to Kilburne. Somner asserts, that the abbey was founded for Benedictine monks, not Cluniacs as stated by Camden. He quotes an instrument from the superior of that order releasing Clarembald, the first abbot of Faversham, and his companions (who came from the abbey of Bermondsey, in Surrey) from their vows of allegiance to the order.— Q. Matilda as well as K. Stephen is said to have been buried at Faversham. (Monast. IV, 569.)
126. Folkstone. "There were antiently five churches in" Folkstone; the names of three were ".St. Peter, St. Mary, and St. Paul, all which and one more (whose name I find not) are long since demolished, and onely one of the said five is now remaining, which was founded in the said Towne by one Nigellus of Munevile (Lord of the same) in the year 1095, and dedicated to St. Mary and St. Eanswith." (Kilburne.) The destruction of the above four churches he afterwards attributes to the sacking of Folkstone by Earl Godwin some time previous to the Norman invasion of England.
A nunnery had been erected here by Eadbald, king of Kent, for his daughter Eanswith (about A.D. 630, Monast. I, 451; A.D. 640, Lambarde) who was the first prioress, and died about 673. The nunnery was afterwards "ruinated" by " the pagans," and the site swallowed up by the sea: temp. K. Henry III another priory was built here by certain nobles, which was suppressed in the second year of K. Henry V. (Kilburne.) After the demolition of the monastery by the Danes king Æthelstan granted the endowment to Christ's Church, Canterbury; but his charter, dated in 927, is of doubtful authority. It thus describes the place: " Terrain juris mei in Cantia sitam supra mare nomine Folcestan, ubi quondam fuit monasterium et abbatia sanctarum uirginum, ubi etiam sepulta est sancta Eansuuitha, de seruitio Christi et sanctae Mariae matris eius quod olim in eodem loco fieri solebat, antequam pagani destruxissent locum ilium." (Cod. Dipl. II, 157, and V, 189.) — De Muneville's foundation was annexed to Lolley Abbey in Normandy (Monast. IV, 672): therefore followed the fate of other alien priories in England, as above mentioned.
Hasted observes, that the Domesday description of Folkstone relates to lands within not merely the manor, but also the hundred. We possess however no information what parishes were, at the period of the Survey, included within the hundred of Folkstone. (A.D. 1291) mentions only one church here. Hasted's statement is, that the priory was founded by Eadbald, who died A.D. 640; that it was destroyed by the Danes; refounded by Nigel de Muneville A.D. 1095; and removed A.D. 1137 in consequence of the encroachments of the sea. There was in ancient times a park here, extending into the neighbouring parishes, as, for example, Alkham and Cheriton. (See Hasted ad loc.) —I conceive Folkstone must be intended by "ffacheston," which church, then held by the parson of the church of Langport (compare the Note on Lydd) was ordered to pay forty shillings for burial fees to Lewes priory by Rich, archb. of Canterbury and Pope Alexander III: that is, about A.D. 1180. (Chartulary of Lewes Priory.)
127. Fordwich.—This is (in D. B.) styled "a small borough," and was then the property of St. Augustin's Abbey, it being declared, that K. Edward gave two parts, and that the remainder, which had belonged to Earl Godwin, was presented by the bishop of Bayeux, with permission of K. William: "Ipse abbas tenet unum parvum burgum, quod vocatur Forewic. Hujus burgi duas partes dedit rex Edwardus sancto Augustino. Terciam vero partem, quæ fuerat Goduini comitis, episcopus baiocensis concessit eidcm sancto annuente rege Willielmo." (D. B.)—The church is a mixed building, with some remains of very fine original coloured glass.
128. Frinsbury.—"Olirn Eslingham or Heslingham" (Reg. Roff.), which was a considerable manor here, and the name occurs in (D. B.) as well as "Frandesberie." (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Frandesbere, note, cum capellis;" and (Val. Eccl.) names the chapel of Eslingham. The latter is stated, by John, bishop of Rochester about 1280(?), to have existed in the time of Bishop Gundulph; and we find mention of the "rector ecclesie de Eselynge," Eslingham, A.D. 1350. (Reg. Roff., 370-371.)—"The land of Frendsbury was long since given by Offa, the king of middle England, to Eardulph, then bishop of Rochester, under the name of Eslingham cum appendiciis; although at this day this other (Erendsbury) beareth countenance as the more worthy of the twaine." (Lambarde.)
129. Frinsted—is annexed to Milsted.—Frinsted is the only place in the immediate neighbourhood, which is declared to have possessed a church at the period of the Domesday Survey, yet the existing churches of Frinsted, Wormshill, and Bicknor, three adjoining parishes lying nearly in a line from east to west, exhibit almost, if not quite, the same architectural features, and those certainly of a very early character; more so, decidedly more simple, in the others, than in Frinsted. The most ancient, and apparently the original, portion of the last-named church has circular, very short, and thick piers, with plain capitals; except that two piers, in other respects like the rest, have a Norm, leaf, low and roughly carved, in their capitals. In Wormshill church the arches, which are pointed, appear to be mere perforations of the wall, the soffits being single, the angles not chamfered, of the thickness of the wall, flat and plain from one side to the other. All these churches are small, particularly Bicknor; which however comprises two side aisles, the two intervening arches being low, round, supported by heavy square piers, and perfectly plain, except some little Norm, ornament on the capitals, of which the outline resembles that of Steetly church, Derbyshire, as represented in (Gloss, of Archit., 83, edition 1845,) date 1160.
130. Frittenden.—This church consisted of western tower with a shingled spire, nave and south aisle, chancel, southern ditto, and south porch. The tower is Perp., the nave and chancel are Dec., the south aisle very poor Perp. Considerable judicious improvements have been executed in this church, in particular the replacing the shingled spire with stone.
131. Gillingham.—Brasses: Jone wife of Rich. Bamme, and eight children, 1431; Will. Beaufitz, 1433; female and arms (four compartments lost); man (broken, wife, &c., lost); man in armour and wife (inscription, &c., lost). (Reg. Roff.)
At the Grange in this parish was a church or chapel (which is mentioned in Val Eccl.), built by Sir John Philpot, "now only a barn." At Twidall also was a chapel, founded by Sir John de Beaufitz, 1433. (Harris.) According to Hasted, the latter was only a chantry, suppressed 1st of K. Edward VI.
132. Godeselle.—This manor, described in (D. B.) with a church is pronounced (by Hasted) to be Goldwell on the western side of Great Chart, next to Bethersden. In the portion of (D. B.), where this name occurs, there appears to be more confusion in the arrangement of the places than usual, nor is it clearly to be ascertained whether or not they all belong to the same hundred. If Hasted's opinion is correct, it is perhaps not improbable, that Godeselle church might have been the predecessor of the present parish church of Bethersden; unless that of Hecchindene, alluded to in the Note on Bethersden, should have been so. Goldwell's chantry in Great Chart is named in (Val. Eccl.), but apparently as if in the parish church; (see the Note on Bogelei) and therefore would be identical with "the south chappel of Great Chart church," which is asserted (by Kilburne) to have been "founded in the year 1477 by James Goldwell, bishop of Norwich," one of the family, who long possessed the property called Goldwell.
133. Godmersham.—(A.D. 1291), "Ecclia de Godmersham cumcapella;" Challock, which see. The church contained eight stalls. (Harris.)
134. Goodneston near Wingham.—Anciently a chapel to Wingham till 1282 (1286, Hasted, though under Ash he places the identical transaction in A.D. 1282), when Wingham was divided into four parishes. (Kilburne.)—Of this church the chancel and nave have been rebuilt recently. It consists of chancel, nave with a north aisle, and western tower with battlements and stair turret. The old nave with the piers and arches between that and the aisle were latest, perfectly plain and poor, Norm.; the old chancel was E.E. The aisle, which overlaps but does not extend to the end of, the chancel, is E.E., retaining some original lancet windows, with others of later date, two being Dec., inserted. The tower is Perp., similar to those common in the county. A vestry has been added on the north side of the nave, so constructed as to resemble a porch. In the churchyard stands, over a grave, a large stone with a cross on both sides.—Brasses: wife of Will. Goodneston (W. G. lost), 1423; Will. Boys, wife, and eight children, 1507; Tho. Engeham, wife, and seven children, 1558; Vincent Boys, 1568. (Hasted.)
135. Goudhurst.—Brass: John Bedgebury, about 1450. (Harris.)—At Combwell, a distant part of the parish southwards, an abbey was founded in the reign of K. Henry II by Rob. de Thurnham. (Lambarde, Monast. VI, 412.)
136. Graveney—is united with Goodneston near Faversham.
137. Gravesend.—The chapel of St. George in this town was consecrated 2 April, 1510. The parish church having been burned, it was rebuilt, and consecrated 3 April, 1510. (Reg. Roff.) The church was burned a second time in 1727, and rebuilt A.D. 1731 of brick. Remains of the chapel of St. George existed on the eastern side of the town (Hasted). Which remains must be those described by Harris, evidently from personal inspection. He says, that on the east side of the town was then standing the body of an ancient chapel, having places on the walls of the vaults [unless he speaks of arches, it is difficult to comprehend his meaning. A. H.] for holy water, and toward the west end was the picture [apparently a painting on the wall. A. H.] of a man kneeling on one knee and drawing a bow, &c.
138. Greenhithe.—In the parish of Swanscombe. That a church formerly stood here is positively affirmed. A royal licence is alluded to (Reg. Roff.) to rebuild a chapel at Greenhithe in Swannescompe. The reference is to "Pat. 19 E. 3;" wherefore the date is A.D. 1346. It is stated that the chapel was used as a dwelling-house about 1770. (Cust. Roff.) This must be the chapel of "Gretenersce," named (Text. Roff., 230) as depending upon the church of "Suaneskampe;" whence we learn its existence at an earlier period than temp. K. Edward III.
139. Greenwich.—(D. B.) relates, that this manor was divided into two under the Saxon government, though then reunited. "Hi duo solins T. R. E. fuerunt duo maneria. Unum tenuit Heroldus comes, et alium Brixi, et modo sunt in uno." Hence probably the distinction between East and West Greenwich, the latter appellation signifying Deptford.—In this parish, but annexed to the church of Charlton, was once a chapel, called Combe, at what is now West Combe. See the Note on Charlton next Greenwich. By the same authority (Text. Roff., 230) we are informed of another chapel, there styled Grenic, dependent on the church of Greenwich. It was not at Deptford, because West Greenwich is separately named.
About a.d. 1480 the Observant Friars obtained here a chantry and a little chapel, "a place yet extant in the towne." About 1509 K. Henry VII built for them a house adjoining the palace, "which is yet there to be seene." (Lambarde.)—The convent was founded by K. Edward IV. Part of the Royal Hospital now occupies the site. (Monast. VI, 1512, 1513.)
140. Groombridge.—The chapel, dedicated to St. John, was endowed in the twenty-third year of "King Henry, son of John." (Reg. Roff. 609.) K. Henry III, a.d. 1239. Kilburne however states that "the Chappell is called St. Charls." Immediately afterwards he mentions, that at Groombridge "there is also a fair yearly, upon the day of St. John Port Latin, being the sixth day of May." This perhaps may indicate an error on our author's part, since it seems a probable supposition, that the fair would be held on the anniversary of the saint to whom the chapel was dedicated. The same writer informs us of the existence of such a custom, as, for example, at Bersted, Challock, Charlton near Greenwich, Great Chart, &c., in this county; though certainly the conformity was by no means general.
141. Guston.—A. Norm. church with three windows at the west end, placed two below and one above.
142. Hackington.—Though not perfectly convinced of the identity, I have adopted here the Domesday name "Latintone" in deference to Hasted's opinion. The description asserts the manor to have contained a small wood of twelve acres of pasture: "Ibi parvum nemus de xii acris pasturse." (D. B.)—Baldwin, Archb. of Canterbury, temp. K. Henry II, "pulled down an old timber chapel" here, "and began to raise in place thereof a faire church of hewed stone," intended for secular canons, in honour of Thomas à Becket: which however was successfully opposed by the monks of Christ's Church, and Baldwin dying in Palestine, his chapel at Hackington "was quite and cleane demolished. It was with much adoe and great difficultie obteined, that a poore Chap ell (served by a single Sir John, and destitute both of font and Churchyard) might remaine standing in the place. Howbeit since that time (by what grace I wot not) it is become the parish Churche &c." (Lambarde.)—Archb. Baldwin's contemplated college was begun a.d. 1187, and levelled, by command of the Pope, in 1191. (Tanner, Notit. Monast. Kent, XXVII, in Monast. VI, 1455.)
143. Haimo's Land.—This designation is necessary because no name is given to this estate, of which it is merely said in (D. B.) that it was in the hundred of Wye, having a church, a mill of nine shillings and sixty eels, twenty acres of meadow land, and a wood of thirty hogs: it was therefore some spot upon a small stream, but we possess no other means of assigning its locality.
144. Halden.—(A.D. 1291) has "Ecclia de Hacchelweldeii," which I have supposed to signify High Halden, and therefore marked that place with *. It is however possible, that the (A.D. 1291) name may mean Hecchindenne in the adjoining parish of Bethersden; where see the Note; at which spot a chapel is said to have existed formerly.
145. Halling.—Brass: Silvester, wife of Will. Dalyson, and four children, 1587. (Reg. Roff.)—In this parish are the remains of a palace of the bishops of Rochester.—(Reg. Roff.) speaks of the free chapel of St. Lawrence in Halling; which was suppressed 1st of K. Edward VI. (Hasted.) It is noticed in (Val. Eccl.) This must be distinguished from Longsole chapel in Allington, which is mentioned separately. The date of the above notice is between 1434 and 1478 a.d.—Langridge is an ancient manor in this parish, formerly called Bavent. The house is remarkable for some chimneys of the period of Queen Elizabeth.
146. Halsted.—Brasses: Will. Burys, in armour, 1444; Will. Petley and wife Alys, 1528. (Reg. Roff.)—"A faire Chappel on the north side of the Church here," and also "the steeple" were rebuilt "with stone from the ground," and "a porch" was added, a.d. 1609, by "Tho. Watson, Esquire, sometimes of this parish." He also, beside other improvements, "adorned the east end with a very faire arid curious glasse window, wrought in rich colours." (Kilburne.)
147. Hardres.—(D. B.) affords no clue whereby to discern Upper from Lower Hardres. In (A.D. 1291) we find "Ecclia de Magna Hardres cum capella ;" which last appears from a note to have been Stelling. In (Val. Eccl.) the same. The two cures remain annexed.
Upper or Great Hardres.—Brasses: John Strete, rector, 1404; Geo. Hardres, 1485; Tho. and John Hardres, 1575; wife of Rich. Hardres, 1579; Dorothy Hardres, 1583. (Hasted.) See the notice of the memorial of John Strete in Boutell. (Monum. Brasses, 122, 141.) According to Hasted (III, 733, and note fol.), in the middle of Lynsore, or Linchesore Wood in this parish were once, if not are now, the foundations of a chapel, "called Sir Tho. Garwinton's Chapel;" but whether or not this building was identical with the chapel of Garwinton or Warwinton, noticed under Little Bourne (which see), it may be difficult to determine without examination of the localities. The manor of Linsore once belonged to the Garwinton family.
148. Harrietsham.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, square west tower with battlements and stair turret, also at the east end of the north aisle what was originally a large square tower; of which the lower portion is Norm, or Tr. Norm., and the interior has a groined roof. The chancel is E.E. The south chancel has a Dec. tomb arch in the south wall. Some other parts of the building are of Dec. character; some are Perp. The font is of unusual shape being somewhat classical; the material Weald marble, now highly polished. The church has recently been extensively repaired and refitted in very creditable taste.
149. Hartlip.—A church is spoken of here A.D. 1225. (Reg. Roff. 410.)
Remains of Roman buildings have been discovered in this parish on the estate of W. Bland, Esq. A small portion is described in Hasted's Hist. of Kent, but further excavations in 1848 laid open much more than he was acquainted with. For a slight but interesting account of these vestiges consult Mr. C. R. Smith's (Collectanea Antiqua, II, Part I.) The columns of the hypocaust were composed of square tiles, deeply scored across while the clay was soft, so as to form small squares. (Ib. Plate VIII, Fig. 6.) The object of this seems to have been, it is sensibly suggested, that the tiles might be easily broken into those small portions, when required for constructing a coarse tesselated pavement. Tiles are occasionally found partially cut through in a similar manner from one angle to that opposite, to be separated when needed for finishing the courses in a pavement which were laid diagonally.
150. Harty.—In this very small church is preserved an oak chest, which has been repaired, but of which the oldest part is curious, containing the carved representation of a combat or tilting match between two knights. Kilburne mentions (125) that "a battle in a writ of right for a messuage and 190 acres of land in this parish was appoynted to be fought at Tuthill neer Westminster, 18° Junii in Trinity Terme 1571," though it did not actually take place. It is perhaps not improbable, that the carving on the chest refers to the above occurrence, although, judging from the workmanship, it would appear to belong to an earlier period.
151. Hastingleigh.—From Hasted's description part of this church seems to be antient.
152. Hawkhurst.—A church was first erected here by the abbot of Battle, temp. K. Edward III, the abbot remaining the patron till the dissolution of the abbey. It was then granted by K. Henry VIII to the Duke of Suffolk, who soon sold it to Sir Will. Peke, Knt. He re-conveyed it to the king, in his thirty-seventh year, who, the following year and the last of his reign, settled it on the Dean and Chapter of Christ's Church Oxford, after the death of the rector then living, "ordering nevertheless that they should present an able clerk to the Ordinary, who should be named perpetual vicar of this church, and should bear all ordinary and extraordinary charges, except the reparation of the chancels, and that he should have a dwelling and a yearly pension of £12 10s. 10d. and should pay the king yearly for his tenths twenty-five shillings and a penny, and be charged with first fruits; but it does not appear, that any act was done by the Dean and Chapter in consequence of this towards the endowment of a vicar at that time." (Hasted.) The cure still remains a perpetual curacy of so small emolument that it is tenable with a college studentship; though it has been augmented more than once from Queen Anne's Bounty. There is now a residence, towards the erection of which the Dean and Chapter contributed.—The church is a large edifice of the sandstone of the country; it is partly Dec., partly Perp.; and consists of western tower, nave with north and south aisles, chancel, north and south porches. The ends of the aisles range with that of the chancel. The large east window is of a rather singular pattern. Beneath the exterior of the window are the walls of the ancient vestry, from which a door originally opened into the chancel on the southern side of the altar. Over the north porch is a parvise, formerly called the Treasury. The south porch has also a parvise, and a groined roof. Kilburne describes much coloured glass as existing in his time. Very few fragments of it now remain. Both the tower and the walls of the aisles have battlements and stair turrets. Some stairs and doors connected with the rood loft have lately been discovered.—In this parish were formerly at least two iron furnaces. The site of one was on the Hall House estate, in a valley northward from the residence, where ponds, though now dry, may easily be traced. The other was in a valley eastward rather north from the spot called High Gate; this site is now, and has long been, occupied by a corn mill.—A very small portion of this parish, called Hasselden, lies in Sussex. (Kilburne.)
153. Hayes.—This parish was formed out of the manor of Orpington, the rector of which place presents. The parson of the church of Hayes is mentioned A.D. 1177. (Reg. Roff. 410.) The church consists of only chancel and nave of the same width, a small square west tower, and a small chapel on the south side of the nave. The length of the chancel has recently been increased by twelve feet. The entire building appears to be E.E., but the walls upon examination (where not concealed by plaster) are manifestly of different dates, the upper portion being an addition to the lower, the E.E. windows belonging to the former. The south chapel, now used as a vestry, has a piscina, and is most probably entirely E.E. Brasses, small: Sir John Heygge, rector, 1523; John Andrew; John Osteler, half length.
154. Headcorn.—A church of chancel, vestry on north side of the same, nave, south aisle and chancel, south porch with a parvise, and square west tower with battlements and staircase. The aisle also has battlements and a stair turret. The west window had a figure under a canopy in the architrave on each side. The building is generally Perp., though possibly the walls may be earlier. There are many, imperfect, remains of coloured glass, but sadly neglected; which is, unhappily, the case with the entire building. Font Perp., octagon, with angels, &c, on the sides. Some portions of a Perp. screen are preserved. In the south chancel is a piscina, quadrangular, and high, more resembling an ambry, but the basin exists. In the south wall of the aisle is a good tomb arch, but nearly concealed by the pew lining.—At Motinden in this parish was a house of Crossed or Crouched (crutched) Friars, who first entered England about the middle of the reign of K. Henry III. Founder Rob. Rokesley, A.D. 1224, (Lambarde), whose dates however do not agree with his statements, since he makes Motinden Friary founded only eight years from the commencement of a reign of fifty-six, and thus earlier than he says the order was introduced into this kingdom. In (Val. Eccl.) the house is styled "of the Order of the Trinity, and of the Redemption of Christian people being captives." It is however asserted that Motinden Priory was established by Sir Mich. de Poninges, though Leland writes "Robertus de Rokesley miles, originalis fundator. Modernus, comes de Northumberland," Rob. Rokesley, kn., was the original founder; the modern the Earl of Northumberland. (Monast. VI, 1562.)—Kilburne places this parish "by the river Medway," from which it is distant several miles; perhaps he intended to write the Beult, which does run through the parish, and joins the Medway at Yalding after passing under Stile Bridge.
155. Herbaldowne. In (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia Sancti Michaelis" and "Ecclia Beati Nicholai de Herbaldoune" are both mentioned. St. Nicholas was long a parish church, having a font and a churchyard, and the incumbent was styled rector. The endowment was augmented by Archb. Theobald (from 1138 to 1160), and the church was appropriated to Eastbridge Hospital by Archb. John Stratford, A.D. 1342. A chantry was founded in St. Nicholas Church by Archb. Whittlesea in 1371; which arrangement continued till the Reformation, when the chantry was abolished, and St. Nicholas has ever since been merely the chapel to the hospital (Somner), St. Michael alone being deemed the church to the entire parish. Brasses: man and woman, the inscription lost. (Hasted.)
The hospital was founded by Archb. Lanfranc about 1084 for lepers (Lambarde); or A.D. 1089 (Kilburne.) The first mention of the church of St. Nicholas is in a deed supposed to be of the time of K. Henry I, whence it may be concluded, that the church was not erected till about that period. In the account rendered to the commissioners under the statute 37th Henry VIII, cap. 4, (for taking the Valor Ecclesiasticus) it is declared to be a parish church. The name Herbaldowne occurs first in a grant of K. Henry II. Edmer, the singer, monk of Canterbury temp. K. Henry I, in relating the erection of the hospital, gives no proper name. A charter of K. Henry I concerning "assarts" (cleared spots in woods) calls it "Hospitale de bosco de Blen." Another charter, supposed to be not long after in date, speaks of "Hospitale de Sancto Nicolao." (Somner.) It appears therefore that Lambarde's derivation of the title, from a Saxon radix, is fanciful, and it is more probable that it arose from the good pasture produced after clearing away the wood, the situation being high and downy.—St. Nicholas Hospital possesses a curious maple bowl, of which the rim is silver gilt, at the bottom is a medallion engraved with the legend of Guy of Warwick, with these words, "Gy de Warwic Adanoun Feei (or icci or ycci) occis le Dragoun." (Nicholls's Biblioth.Topog. Brit. I, 1790.)
156. Herne.—A Dec. and Perp. church; anciently a chapel to Reculver, and so styled in (Val. Eccl.); constituted a vicarage A.D. 1296, (and endowed by Archb. Rob. Winchelsea. Somner.) Brasses: Christian Phelp, 1470; Eliz. Lady Fineux, 1539; John Darley, vicar (date lost); Peter Hall and wife. (Hasted.) Mr. Boutell describes the last named, of Sir Pet. Hall, as "a fine specimen of complete plate armour," of A.D. 1420. (Monum. Brasses, 55, 62, 90.)
157. Herne Hill.—Originally only a chapelry to Boughton-under-the-Blean. (A.D. 1291) "Vicarius ecclesie de Harnhelle."
158. Hever.—Church consists of chancel, nave, south porch (of brick), north aisle, late Perp. chapel (that of the Boleyns) on the north side of the chancel, and west tower with shingled spire. The piers and arches between the nave and aisle may be E.E., but the tower, including the screen under the arch, and other parts of the church are Dec.; but the building, like many others, was probably repaired at that period. The ascent to the belfry is by solid timber stairs. In the south wall of the interior of the tower is a tomb arch, with an ogée canopy, under which is now fixed the inscription from a grave-slab in the pavement below, to John de Cobham, 1399. On the outside of the south wall of nave, toward the east end, is a projection resembling an enormously wide (four or five feet) Norm, buttress, and therein is the frame, plastered up, of either a small Norm, window or a niche. The east window is debased Perp. The windows of the tower are, some Dec., some Perp. Brasses: Marg. Cheyne, 1499 (comp. below) ; on an altar tomb, Sir Tho. Boleyn, 1538; Will. Todde, small, hands joined in prayer, 1585. For notices of the Cheyne and Boleyne brasses see (Monum. Brasses, 87 note 2, 113, 135, 147); in which work the former is styled a "fine brass," the date being given as A.D. 1417. The castle, or rather castellated mansion, the residence of Sir Tho. Boleyn, retains its old arrangements, little, if at all, altered.
159. Higham—Was anciently called Lillechurch (Reg. Roff.), though it appears from (D. B.) that this must have been subsequently to the Survey. In an early enumeration of churches (preserved in the Text. Roff., see the Note on Rochester) "Lillecirce" is mentioned, and likewise " Heahham," (230), which last name seems intended for Higham; but we do not know of two churches in the parish, unless one belonged to the nunnery, noticed below. In (Val. Eccl.) however we find the chantry of Higham named in addition to the vicarage.—A nunnery here, called Lillechurch, was founded (by K. Stephen, Hasted) before A.D. 1151. (Tann. Notit. Monast. Kent, XXXIV, in Monast. IV, 378.)
160. Hithe.—This place now, as ever, ranks merely as a chapelry in Saltwood parish, though even (D.B.) speaks of the "Borough" of Hithe, but as lying within the manor of Saltwood.—Leland imagined Hithe church to stand on the site of an abbey, and that ruins of the conventual buildings remained in his time, but if so, they have long disappeared. He also states, that formerly there were four (other) parish churches in Hithe, namely, St. Nicholas, Our Lady, St. Michael, and West Hithe, and that vestiges of them and their churchyards existed in his days. This is not (fully) confirmed by other writers. The present church is dedicated to St. Leonard. (Hasted.) Kilburne too mentions the demolition of four churches here, but with a variation as to the titles, as, St. Mary, St. Nicholas, St. Michael, and St. Bernard. Since he afterwards describes West Hithe, of which he declares the church to have been called St. Mary's, it is probable that in both instances he alludes to the same building.
The hospital of St. Andrew (Kilburne names it St. Bartholomew) in Hithe was founded jointly by Hamo, bishop of Rochester, and the commonalty of the port of Hithe, temp. K. Edward III. (Monast. VI, 709.) The charter of the foundation of the above, A.D. 1336, contains an allusion to another hospital for lepers in the borough. (Tann. Notit. Monast. Kent, XXIX, 3, in Monast. VI, 764.) The hospital of St. John in Hithe is not mentioned previous to A.D. 1562. (Ib.)
161. Hithe, Small.—This chapel (in the parish of Tenterden) was first licensed by Archbishop Warham 5 May, 1509, in which year liberty was granted to bury here bodies cast by the sea on the shore, "infra predictum oppidum de Smallhyth." (Hasted.) This would imply that the sea, or an estuary at least, then reached to the spot, which appears hardly credible.
162. Hythe, West.—The vicar of this place is named in (Val. Eccl.), and it still stands as a vicarage in the (Clergy List.) The ruins of the church (toward the end of the last century) contained a door and a window, of which the arches were turned with Roman bricks, and the chancel arch was "gothic" (pointed?). The entire building had been very small. Robert Beverlye, rector, was buried in the church about 1500; but when Leland wrote, about forty years later, it was in ruins. Church offices are performed in Limpne. (Hasted.)—Within bowshot were the remains of mother chapel. (Harris.) Possibly one of those named by Leland. Compare also the Note on Hithe.
163. Hollingbourne .—Appears in (Val.Eccl.)as a rectory, the vicarage being named separately with the chapels of Hucking and Bredhurst annexed. Hucking is still attached to the vicarage of Hollingbourne; but Bredhurst is a distinct benefice, though only a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the sinecure rector of Hollingbourne.
164. Hoo.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia Sancte Werburge" (Hoo), note, "cum capella omnium sanctorum," Allhallows.—The six churches intended by (D.B.) were probably Hoo, High Halstow, St. Mary's, Allhallows, Cowling, and Stoke. High Halstow and St. Mary's, as well as the next, are known to have been formerly chapels to Hoo (see Hasted), and the other two are adjoining parishes, to which (D.B.) assigns no church; and the whole of that district, little as it is esteemed at the present day, must have been held in some consideration in early times.
165. Hope.—(Val. Eccl.) names the vicar of Allhallows, Hope, but the church is now destroyed. The chancel arch has zigzag ornaments, but was filled up, and a smaller pointed arch built beneath. The side windows were small, and rounded at the top. On the south side was a round-headed arch, highly enriched, with a smaller pointed one below, forming the door. (Hasted.)—The present condition of the ruin is unknown. The name stands in the (Clergy List) still as a rectory.
166. Horsmonden.—This church contains a very good brass, under a mutilated canopy, of John de Grothurst (Grofhurst, Boutell, i. e. Grovehurst) one of a family anciently seated at a place of the same name in this parish. An inscription across the breast states, "Qui dedit manerium de Leueshothe abbati et conventui de Beghamme ad inveniendum unum perpetuum capellanum celebrantem in ecclesia de Horsmondenne et capella de Leueshothe; Who gave the manor of Leueshothe to the abbot and convent of Bayham for finding for ever a chaplain to celebrate in the church of Horsmonden and the chapel of Leueshothe." (Reg. Ron , and Cust. Roif.) The porch of this church is styled " a very fine one of wood, with rich bargeboards," of Dec. date. (Rickman, 185, ed. 1848.) The above-named brass is called a "curious memorial" of A.D. 1330. (Monum. Brasses, 97.)—The field, where the chapel of Lewishothe stood, was still known as "Chapel Field;" but the Grovehurst family ended in female heirs about the end of the reign of K. Richard II. (Harris.)
At Badmonden "was formerly a cell, but not conventual, belonging to the priory of Beaulieu in Normandy;" it was suppressed A.D. 1414. (Hasted.)—At Spelmonden, once a mansion, now merely a farm-house, vestiges of a piscina indicate the situation of a chapel formerly attached to the establishment.
167. Horton Kirby.—A cross church with a central tower, chancel, north and south transepts, nave, and south porch, but no aisles, although, from interior features, it seems as if aisles had been included in the original plan. The building is generally E.E., with later windows inserted, having been much patched at various periods. In particular the upper portions of tower and both transepts have been reconstructed with brick during the eighteenth century. At the east end are three distinct, long, trefoil-headed windows, with side shafts detached save by a central band. On the east side of the chancel are three others, but of the northern the exterior frames appear to have been renewed. The tower arches are very lofty. The east windows of the transepts are closed. Arcades run round the interior of both transepts. The south-east and the north-east angles of the nave open into the transepts. In the latter is a cinquefoiled ogée-headed piscina. The north door of the nave is disused. The porch has been rebuilt, and the outer facing of the chancel seems to have been renewed. The entire church was very clean, but every part thickly covered with whitewash. Brasses: male and female, small, 1595; female, larger, partly concealed by a pew.
In the southern part of this parish, toward Farningham, stands Franks, a large old mansion of brick dressed with stone. The house was rebuilt by Launcelot Bathurst, alderman of London, who purchased the estate temp. Q. Elizabeth, and died 27 Sept. 1594. (Hasted, I, 296, fol.)
168. Horton Monk's.—A priory for black Cluniac monks was founded here by Rob. de Ver "in the very beginning of Henry II," as a cell to the priory of St. Pancras, Lewes. (Hasted.)—Portions of the priory still exist, containing particularly a magnificent chimney-piece, but it is not known whether the ruins include a round arch with zigzag mouldings, noticed by Hasted as then standing. The rectory of Monk's Horton always accompanies the vicarage of Brabourne. 169. Horton Parva.—This parish, the church having been desecrated, is now united to or included in Chartham, with which it must originally have had some connection; because there was a dispute between the vicar of Chartham and the lord of Horton concerning the celebration of divine offices, when the archbishop, Will. Courtenay, decided, A.D. 1380, that all divine offices might be performed at Horton, except that the dead were to be interred at Chartham (Philipott), who however names the latter place Chatham, evidently an error for Chartham.—Horton church is "still standing," and used as a barn. (Hasted.)—Mr. Bloxam (Goth. Archit., 205) describes a curious Dec. roof still existing in this desecrated church. The place is not noticed by Kilburne. The name does not appear in the (Clergy List.)
170. Hothe or Hoad..—Called in (Val. Eccl.) and now in (Clergy List) a chapel or curacy to Reculver. Brass: Anthony Maycott and wife, 1535. (Hasted.)
171. Hucking.—A chapelry to Hollingbourne.
172. Hunton.—Brass of a female, imperfect. (Reg. Roff.)—No such name as Hunton occurs in (D. B.) ; but " Benedestede," belonging to the bishop of Bayeux, was Bensted, a manor in this parish. (Hasted.) "Haintone," indeed, is mentioned in (D. 23.), but no hundred being given, it is impossible to identify the place intended. If I am correct in my supposition, that the "Beantesteda" of Text. Roff., (231) signifies Bensted in Hunton, the latter formerly possessed a chapel ; which however is described as dependent on Yalding, an adjoining parish to Hunton.
173. Hurst.—Though now included in , this was once a distinct parish, and a rectory, being called Falconer Hurst from the family who owned the property. In (Val. Eccl.) mention is made of "the parson of Fakenerhurst," with tithes, &c., the benefice being sty led, a rectory. Hasted states that the church has been "ruinated" ever since 1530, "the site being distinguished only by a dry ditch." The name is omitted in the (Clergy List).
174. St James in the Isle of Grain.—(A.D. 1291) names the "Vicarius de Gren." In (Reg. Roff.) it is spelt Greane. It is annexed to Cowling.
This place belonged anciently to the nunnery at Minster in Sheppy, to which it was appropriated before K. Edward I. (Hasted.)—Brasses : John Hykk and wife Agnes, 1494; Will. Hykks and wife Johan. (Reg. Roff.)
175. Ickham..—Described in (Val. Eccl.) with "the chapel of Well to the said churche annexed;" which chapel was at Well Court, an ancient manor-house in the adjoining parish of Little Bourne. According to Hasted it "was entire in 1535," and the ruins, of which his History contains a view, remained in his time. He speaks also of Lukedale chantry in Well; respecting which Harris states, that a chantry was founded at the separate estate of Lukedale in Little Bourne by Regin. de Cornhill, who became possessor of the property 44th of K. Henry III. Hasted appears to have decidedly considered Lukedale and Well chapels to be one and the same, being .at the manor of Lukedale, in Little Bourne parish, but within the chief manor of Well, which is now annexed to Ickham. I conceive that Lukedale chantry must signify the above-named chapel; but certainly some confusion is apparent in the accounts.—In the transept or south chancel, called the Bay chancel, of Ickham church is the effigy of a man in armour, supposed to be that of Sir Tho. de Baa (Hasted), whose family owned a manor and mansion here of that name.—About 1720 there were eighteen stalls in the church (which had been removed when Hasted wrote). At Apulton in this parish a chantry was founded by John Denis, owner of the estate, temp. K. Edward III. (Harris.)
176. Ifield.—"One of the smallest churches I ever saw." (Harris.) It was rebuilt A.D. 1596. (Hasted.)
177. Ightham.—This church comprises chancel, nave, north and south aisles, south porch, and square west tower battlemented. The interior arches of the chancel windows are Dec. In the south wall a single light Dec. window retains a very little coloured glass. The south-east angle of the chancel is encumbered with large ugly ornaments, to Selbys, of the latter part of the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. In the north wall is an effigy in chain armour and surcoat under a Dec. arch with a square hood (called that of Sir Tho. Cawn, Reg. Roff.) The place of the chancel arch was supplied by a tiebeam, which has been sawn off. The ends of the roodloft beam also remain in the walls. The nave roof is of waggon-tilt shape, divided into bays, which are plastered. The porch roof is similar. The font is a plain octagon on a stem. The south aisle has a chancel, which is separated by a good, but damaged, Perp. screen. Here is a square-headed piscina; its east window is Perp. The masonry of the church is generally rough, of the small iron sandstones of the district. The tower has been largely repaired with brick. The north aisle is brick of the seventeenth century, if not later. The frames of two very small Norm, windows are visible, on the same level, above the present three-light Perp. east window, of which the mullions are much dilapidated. The church has been greatly tampered with.—Brass : Sir Rich. Clements, kn., lady lost, 15—after 1528. (Reg. Roff.)
The Moat in this parish, about four miles and a half from the town of Tonbridge, well merits examination, as an entire, though somewhat decayed, specimen of an ancient moated and castellated mansion, possessing portions of architecture of all periods from the time of K. Edward II.
178. St. John's in Thanet, Margate.—Brasses: Nich. Canteys, 1431 (Harris says Rich.); Tho. Smyth, vicar, 1433 (his heart, with aspirations proceeding therefrom); Pet. Stone, small, 1442; John Daundelyon, 1445; Rich. Notfield, a skeleton, 1446; John Sefowle (Stowell, Harris) and wife, 1475; Tho. Cardiff, fifty -five years vicar, 1515; just before the vestry door a priest, covered by a step. (Hasted.) For observations on two of the above-named memorials see (Monum. Brasses, 70, 108.)—St. John's was originally a chapel to Minster, and was made parochial some time after A.D. 1200. At Hengrave, alias Denecourt, a chapel was erected in the beginning of K. Henry III. "The ruins of this little chapel are still to be seen in a little valley called ' Chapel Bottom,' in an open field by the great road leading from Margate to Minster. The chapel measures about forty feet by thirty." (Hasted.) From the above it would appear that Hengrave and Dene were different names for the same property; but Philipott asserts distinctly that there were two chapels, one at each of those places.
179. Kemsing.—(A.D. 1291) "Eccliade Kemsing, note, cum capella;" doubtless the latter was Seale, which is annexed to Kemsing in (Val. Eccl.) and at present.—A small church, comprising only chancel, nave, south porch, and a spire-like bell turret on the west end of the nave. There is no chancel arch. The piscina is quite plain, the head being a straight-sided arch. The screen is Dec. In the chancel are a grave slab, ornamented with a cross, chalice, and patten; and a half-length brass, Tho. de Hop, which Mr. Boutell conjectures to date about A.D. 1315. (Monum. Brasses, 95.) The windows of the church contain some few fragments of coloured glass, and much more, including three figures, was purloined from the east window within memory. Marks of the roodloft entrance are visible in the north-east angle of the nave. Several quite plain oak benches are worked up among the pews. There is one E.E. window, the others are Perp., and the same debased. The porch is of timber with plain bargeboards. That and the door are ancient, but in the foundation wall of the porch is a small stone carved. Nearly all the old ironwork has been torn from the door. The south door of the chancel is Dec. The ancient walls are of rubble, largely repaired.
180. Kenardington.—The church is affirmed to have been burned by lightning about the middle of the sixteenth century, and to have been reerected very small from the ruins. (Kilburne.) "Below the hill, on which the church stands, and adjoining it south-east, are the remains of some antient fortifications of earth, with a breastwork thrown up, and a small circular mount; and in the adjoining marsh below it is another, of a larger size, with a narrow ridge or causeway seemingly leading from one to another." (Hasted, III, 117, fol.)
181. Keston.—This small church consists of only chancel and nave with a small wooden bell turret on the west end of the latter. A south door and an arch in the south wall of the nave have been filled up. The chancel arch is of Norm, character. The east window is modern beneath an old arch; that at the side of the chancel is trefoil-headed. The walls may be E.E., if not earlier, but seem to be erected on an older foundation. The building has been much patched.
182. Kidbroke.—The church no longer exists, and this place is now included in the parish of Charlton near Greenwich, but it is styled a" parish" in documents dating in 1427, 1434, and 1459. (Reg. Roff. 136, 456.)—It is also mentioned in (Val. Eccl.) as a rectory, but the name has now passed away from official documents.
183. Kingsdown near Sittingbourne.—A very small church of chancel and nave with no exterior distinction between them, south porch, and wooden bell turret over the west end of nave. The south wall and upper part of the east end were rebuilt, or the former perhaps only cased with brick, as we learn from a stone in the wall, A.D. 1752 (the last figure is indistinct.) However the door and the porch seem to be original; likewise the door lock and other iron-work. There are numerous encaustic tiles. At the east end were three long, perfectly plain lancet windows, of which the tops were rendered square in the above reparation. In the north wall are three lancets, and a pointed-arched doorway, now disused, resembling that on the other side. In the west end a square-headed two-light Perp. window has been inserted. The church retains a little coloured glass. Kilburne states, that a church was founded here by Robert of Chichester, fifty-first abbot of St. Augustin's, Canterbury, about A.D. 1270 (Rob. de Chichester was abbot from 1253 to 1272, Hasted), and the most ancient part of the existing building may agree with that date.
184. Kingsdown near Wrotham.—Church very small, comprehending only chancel, nave, south porch (of brick), and a small square tower with a tiled cap on the outside of the southwest angle of the chancel. The windows retain several small portions of coloured glass; that on the north side of the chancel has fishes. The stained glass here is described by Mr. Chas. Winston as belonging to the later half of the fourteenth century. (Archæol. Journ. II, 188.) Kingsdown church has some Dec. windows; the wall however is probably earlier, the upper part being thinner in places than the lower ; but there are no distinctive marks of the date. The font is a cylinder, with a basin hollowed out in the top; possibly E.E., altered at a later period.—That of Kingsdown is styled a parish church, " ecclesia parochialis," in a deed directing the augmentation of the vicarage by Thomas, Bp. of Rochester, dated 9th Aug. 1436; yet in another document, without date, of Benedict, " by divine compassion the humble minister" of the church of Rochester (he was bishop), it is called a chapel of the church of Sutton. (Monast. I, 182, 184.) In this parish are the sites of other two churches, Maplescomb and Woodland, respecting which see the Notes below.
185. Kingsnoth.—This church contains a figure, of what material is not said, of Sir Will. Parker, kn., 1421. (Hasted.)