Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Sussex/Notes on the Churches
NOTES TO SUSSEX.
1. Albourne.—This very small church possesses some interesting peculiarities. It consists only of chancel, nave with south porch and a bell turret over the west end, and a recent addition on the northern side. The original character of the structure appears to be Norm. The chancel arch is round, with zigzag moulding. The east wall was built very thick, with a set-off on the exterior, near the level of the eaves of the roof; and there is an arch in the interior, sunk into the wall, under which the altar stood. This arch is pointed, and below the angle of it is a Tr. Norm, or E.E. window, the imposts of the arch having Norm, features. In the east wall, south of the arch, is an E.E. trefoil-headed piscina, of rather large size.
2. Alciston.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Alciston cum Collinton;" which last name certainly ought to have been read " Lollinton," that is, Lullington : no difficult mistake in deciphering old manuscripts. Or it may have been an error of the transcriber of the Taxation. The existence of this mistake is proved by the entry in the Nonæ Roll (about A.D. 1341) of "Alcystone cum capella de Lullynton."
Alciston church contains two piscinas. (Horsfield's History of Sussex, I, 332.)
No one of any observation can ramble over the Sussex Downs without noticing the numerous banks, with or without a ditch on either side, which occur in various directions, sometimes extending in a straight line to a considerable distance, and generally losing one or both extremities in a valley, or a smaller hollow; on the opposite side of which they may however occasionally be traced again. Frequently also there are dykes, branching off from, or crossing, the others at right angles, or diagonally. In some instances, or under certain circumstances, these embankments may have been used as defences, but their most usual appearance and position do not favour the idea, that they were originally intended for warlike purposes. My own impression has long been, that they were boundary marks, probably bearing affinity to those in the Isle of Thanet, in Kent, where several "lynches, balks, or greenswerds" are described by Hasted, resembling the banks above mentioned, as having existed beyond memory, and having been always regarded as dykes to distinguish the limits of districts or estates. The Isle of Thanet, it will be remembered, is an open country, devoid generally of trees and hedges, like the South Downs.
3. Aldingbourne.—The church has a double sedile. The font is square, of black marble, on five pillars. On the north side of the church "a chantry, once at the end of the north aisle, has a groined arch, with the nail-headed moulding; but the north aisle, with its arcade, has been entirely removed" (Horsfield's Sussex, II, 56, from Dallaway's Chichester, 79.) Lydsey, in the southern part of the parish, was a chapelry, which was founded before 1282, but the building has long disappeared. (Horsfield's Sussex, II, 55.) The manor of Aldingbourne was a portion of the endowment of the ancient bishopric of Selsey and the bishops of Chichester possessed a palace here, which was destroyed in the civil wars of the seventeenth century. (Sussex Arch. Collections, I, 182 note 51.) The preceding statement rather militates against the probability, otherwise possibly the "Edingburn" of King Alfred's will (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77) might mean this place.
4. Aldrington.—Some portion of the outer walls of this church remains in the fields westward from Brighton, beyond Hove, the house at the turnpike-gate and a cottage being all the parish contains. The name is retained in the (Clergy List) as a rectory, but without inhabitants.
5. Alfriston.—This parish possesses a large and imposing cross church, uniform in the plan, and in style late Dec. verging into Perp.; some of the windows being Dec., some Perp. The tower, which terminates in a shingled spire, is low, but of considerable dimensions, with lofty interior arches springing from piers of rather unusual form, being semioctagons, of which the faces of both capitals and shafts are concave. Some other examples of this figure have been mentioned in the Notes upon Kent. In the chancel are a piscina and three sedilia under canopies, which, as all the arches are semicircular, were perhaps preserved from an earlier building, and reinserted here. Opposite to them on the north side is an ogée canopy over a tomb, of which the slab appears to be much older than its accessories. In the windows of the northern side of the church are some small portions of coloured glass, a figure in the end window of the north transept being labelled S. Alpheg. The aspect of this fine structure, though susceptible of farther improvement, has materially benefitted by the removal of the plaster and whitewash from the piers, capitals, and borders of the windows, the totally unassisted work of the parish schoolmaster, and highly creditable to his taste and zeal. In the village street stands the shaft of an ancient stone cross, which, according to Horsfield, was some years ago partially demolished for the sake of the stone; this was taken probably from the base, as the cross is now elevated upon a mass of brickwork.—The Star Inn here is a remarkable edifice, but inspection will perhaps disappoint those, who may read the following description. The house contains a fireplace, with a somewhat singularly-moulded ledge above it. "A bishop in his robes is carved on one of the timbers in front of the building, holding in his right hand a globe; his left hand is placed upon his breast; and at his feet is a stag couchant. At the top of one of the pillars of the doorway is a fret carved (note. Doubtless the arms of the De Echyngham family, &c.); the other is crowned by a monk in a square cap. Near the sign-post was formerly a dog, and a grotesque figure holding a bottle and flask. Above the door are two snakes, their tails entwined, with a niche or tabernacle over them. A grotesque representation of St. Michael fighting the dragon is in a line with this. . . . . On the bracket of the main beam of the parlour is a shield, inscribed J H S," &c. (Horsfield's Sussex, I, 330, 331.)—For a more detailed description of this handsome church refer to Archæol. Journal, (V, 144, 145.) The writer of that article however, the Rev. J. L. Petit, considers this building to "belong more decidedly to the Dec. style," than I do. His opinion certainly is the most likely to be correct, but I would repeat my suggestion with regard to the piscina and sedilia, that they may have been retained from a former church. The concave faces of the piers also seem to me an evidence of late date. The instances of such ornamentation noticed in Kent were generally, if not invariably, in Perp. work; and St. Mary's church, Oxford, contains Perp. clustered pillars, much smaller than the piers at Alfriston, of which the faces of the capitals are concave. Adjoining the churchyard to the south stands the ancient parsonage, now occupied as cottages. It is a building of timber and plaster, a description very common in many parts of the county. It retains a doorcase, terminating above in a pointed arch, and another with an ogée head; both of wood.
6. Almodington.—In (A.D. 1291) we find "Ecclia de Almodytone," and, though the church has disappeared, the designation continues, as in (Val. Eccl.), "Earnley R. with Almoditon R.," and to this day in the (Clergy List), "Earnley R. with Almodington R." The latter place, once a separate parish, is now included in that of Earnley, the annexation having been effected in 1526, according to Dallaway. Not simply the church, but the parish of Almoditone is mentioned in (N.R.)
7. Amberley.—"Idem construxit de novo cancellam ecclesise de Amberley—The same person" (Bp. Nevill) "built anew the chancel of the church of Amberley." Bp. Rede's Reg. E. Bp. Nevill died A.D. 1252. The church contains a Norm, arch, and mouldings of a rare pattern (which is not described, A.H.) resembling some in an old conventual church at Ely; also a small brass of John Wantell (Wantele, Boutell), 1424. At Rackham, a hamlet or farm in the parish of Amberley, formerly stood a chapel. (Cartwright's reprint of Dallaway's Hist. of the Rape of Arundel.) For a notice of the above memorial see (Monum. Brasses, 71.)There are considerable remains of Amberley Castle, an ancient residence of the Bishops of Chichester.—"In one of the apartments, still called the Queen's Room, are some curious paintings, the side panels exhibiting a series of female figures, but for whom designed is altogether unknown. The inscriptions under them have long become illegible, and indeed the paintings themselves, which are extremely curious,—are now almost defaced, and fast mouldering into decay. On the ceiling are the portraits of six warriors, carved in wood." (Horsfield's Sussex, II, 159.)
8. Angmering, East.—Though there is now only one parish under the name of Angmering, originally there were two, each possessing a church. In (A.D. 1291) and in the (N.R.) East and West Angmering are noticed separately; as likewise in (Val. Eccl.), where the first is styled a rectory, the other a vicarage. The two names still appear in the (Clergy List) thus, "East Angmering, V. with West Angmering, R;" the designations being reversed from what they are in (Val. Eccl.) The latter record describes also a chantry of East Angmering.—Under the name of Angemeringum this place is mentioned in King Alfred's will. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 77.)
Two shapeless fragments of wall yet lying in a garden are the only vestiges of the church of East Angmering, which stood at a very small distance from the surviving church, the two sites being now separated by little more than the width of a road. This arrangement was anciently not very uncommon, and of it, beside those in cathedral towns, examples still exist. Among the former may be cited Canterbury; see the account of the destroyed church of St. Michael, Burgate: Chichester, in the desecrated church, of which portions still remain on the southern side of the cathedral: Exeter: Rochester, in St. Nicholas north of the cathedral. To these may be added St. Margaret's, immediately adjoining Westminster Abbey church. In the county of Norfolk many instances may yet be traced of churches once in close contiguity, though both may not now be entire. At Barton, between Swaffham and Downham, are two benefices with an undivided parish boundary, and two churches half a mile apart. Formerly there was a third, standing midway between the others. But the town of Repham presents a more curious case. Four parishes unite here, and Blomfield (History of Norfolk) says, "It is a little town, and was remarkable for three churches being erected in one cemetery, namely, of Repham, Whitwell, and Hackford, adjoining little villages: two of these are still standing, but that of Hackford has been long since burnt." In this condition the churches remain, in the centre of the town, and so near together, that the service performing in one church may be heard in the other. At both Barton and Repham the churches stand east and west of each other: which was the case at Angmering, and also at Gillingham in the county of Norfolk, where were two churches only a few yards apart, though one is now destroyed.
9. Angmering, West.—This church consists of chancel, nave, south aisle extending half way up the chancel, south porch, and western tower. It has been altered, the two piers and their arches between the nave and the aisle having recently been removed; but the general character is Tr. Norm., and early E.E. The windows, with scarcely an exception, are Perp. and churchwarden's insertions. The tower was erected, as stated in a stone over the door, "Anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo septimo:" 1507. A large arch, now filled up, appears in the north wall of the chancel.
In Horsfield's Sussex (II, 140), I find this expression: "the manors and churches of Steyning, Angmering, and Ecclesden, &c." The last named place lies eastward of Angmering, and is now perhaps not even a hamlet. If the above sentence means, that a church ever existed there, it is the only notice of the fact, which I have found. It is said, that Ecclesden was the property first of Fescamp Abbey, afterwards of Sion Nunnery; wherefore it may be probable, that one of those religious establishments erected a chapel for the benefit of their tenants. On the western side of the parish of Angmering Roman remains, such as a bath, &c., were discovered in 1819. (Horsfield's Sussex, II, 141.)
10. Appledram.—In the (Nonæ Roll) the "Parochiani Prebendarii " of this place are named. It is now only a perpetual curacy.
11. Ardingly.—The church comprises chancel, nave with south aisle and porch, and square western tower. The chancel wall and the northern one of the nave are of uncertain date, the masonry being rubble. In the chancel are a piscina and an ambry, both having hood mouldings, Dec., if not E.E. Near the priest's door is a small Dec. window with a transom. There is a rich Dec. oaken screen. A north door has been closed. The tower seems to have been partially rebuilt, the arch and west window being Perp. Like several other churches of the district this has no stair turret, the ascent into the tower being in such cases by ladders variously contrived. The porch is of wood, retaining some ancient timber. The church contains some Dec., some Perp., windows. Effigy, a female, of stone, under a Dec. arch. Brasses: on a Perp. altar tomb,—Rich, and Eliz. Wakehurst, and 1464; respecting which see Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 311. Rich, and Marg. Culpeper, 15 09 ; Nich. and Eliz. Culpeper, ten sons and eight daughters, 1500 and 1510; Eliz. Culpeper, 1633; Eliz. Culpeper, girl, 1634. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 259, 260.)—In this parish, in a fine situation, stands Wakehurst, a mansion of the Elizabethan age, but of which part has recently been pulled down. According to Horsfield it was erected by Sir Edw. Culpeper, A.D. 1590.
12. Arlington.—The church contains a piscina. "At the south side of the churchyard formerly stood a chapel, which however has long been removed. Part of the foundation remains; and within the memory of man there was remaining a considerable portion of the walls. It is supposed to have been the chapel attached to the manor and prebend of Woodhorne. . . . About two miles north-east of the church, in a low and thickly-wooded district, stand the remains of Michelham Priory." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 321, 322.) At Milton, anciently Mydleton, in this parish was once a chapel, of which vestiges yet exist contiguous to the farm-house. Though in Arlington parish, a portion of the estate pays tithes to Wilmington.—In the hamlet of Milton is the site of Burlow, or Burlough, Castle. (Ut sup. 320.)
13. Arundel.—This spacious, lofty church consists of nave, north and south aisles slightly projecting where might be transepts, central tower, chancel, and lady chapel adjoining on the north, with north and south porches to the nave, the former of wood, plain and open. Some brasses remain in the chancel, or Fitzalan chapel, and in the adjunct, but several others are missing. An effigy of Agnes Salmon, A.D. 1430, is described in (Monum. Brasses, 87.)—At Pyneham near Arundel a priory was founded before A.D. 1151 by Adelissa, Queen of K. Henry I; which was called also de Calceto, or of the Causeway. (Dallaway's Western Sussex, II, 56, in Monast. VI, 259.) This spot however is declared to be in the parish of Lyminster. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 144.)
A college for a master and twelve canons was founded in the parish church by Rich. Earl of Arundel, A.D. 1380, when he erected the church. The Maison Dieu, or Hospital of the Holy Trinity, was founded by the same munificent nobleman, also about" 1380. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 129.) The original of the Earl of Arundel's college was the alien priory of St. Nicholas, established by Roger de Montgomeri, founder of the Benedictine abbey of Seez, Normandy, which comprised a prior and four monks, but existed only till the wars of K. Edward III, who first confiscated the lands of alien priories. Rich. Earl of Arundel procured from K. Richard II a grant of the endowment of the above named priory of St. Nicholas, and bestowed it upon his new college, A.D. 1386. (Monast. VI, 1377.) Extensive ruins of the college are yet standing close to the church on the south. The ruins of the hospital of the Holy Trinity are visible near the bridge, showing the building to have been constructed merely of chalk. (D. B.) mentions payments from Arundel castle, "castrum Harundel," in the time of K. Edward the Confessor; also the port, "portus aquae;" and "consuetudines navium;" and describes the place as a borough, "burgum." The church is named, but casually as St. Nicholas, and also the chapel of St. Martin: which latter is said to have been in the castle.—A forest of Arundel is noticed temp. K. Edward I. (Hasted's Kent, IV, 711, fol.) "Erundele" was one of the estates bequeathed by King Alfred to his kinsman Osferth. (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.)
14. Ashburnham.—I have assigned the Domesday name "Esseborne" to this place correctly, as I believe, though not without consideration. It is described as in "Eolsalre" hundred, the first name, which occurs in connection with it, being "Herste," as I conceive Hurst Monceux, a neighbouring parish to Ashburnham. The second is "Werlinges;" Wartling, the next parish to Hurst Monceux. "Esseborne" follows, and then "Erancwelle," which last I am unable to identify. My application of the name Esseborne appears to be justified by (A.D. 1291), where we read "Vicarius de Essheburnehamme cum Penhurst." On the other hand at Esseborne are stated to be "three saltpans," which certainly does not seem to accord very well with the situation of Ashburnham. The distance however to the sea is not very great; and we know not how far the manor might extend, those of (D.B.) having occasionally portions remote from the central part. See, for example, Burgemere below. Werlinges also had "three saltpans," of higher value, namely, "of seven shillings," whereas those of Esseborne were only "of fifty-eight pence;" and the existing limits of parishes afford abundant evidence of the great care, anciently taken to distribute equally the varying advantages or disadvantages of soil and situation; on which principle saltpans might be attached to Ashburnham, though the manor generally laid far from the sea. Moreover it is possible that the sea approached nearer to Ashburnham in 1086, than at present. It should likewise be mentioned, that elsewhere, among the possessions of the same peer, the Earl of Eu, "Brunham," in "Hailesaltede " hundred, can apparently signify no other place than Ashburnham, most of the names, occurring in the same description, being clearly to be recognised for Watlington, Mountfield, Netherfield, and Beche, probably Bexhill. But these places lie on the eastern, Hurst Monceux &c. on the south-western, side of Ashburnham; and there are numerous examples of manors being mentioned in (D.B.) partly in one hundred, partly in another, while variations in spelling names are perpetual, as already alluded to in the Preface. Although both are now included in the same parish, and even the two names amalgamated, Esseborne and Brunham might well be separate estates or manors in the time of K. William I, the former lying on the western, the latter on the eastern side of the parish. Unquestionably Esseborne cannot mean East Bourne. Ashburnham is now in Foxearle hundred, which title we may trace in the "Folsalre" of (D.B.) In the (Nonæ Roll,) as in (A.D. 1291), Ashburnham and Penhurst are annexed, but two churches are named. Also "Ashburnham, V. with Penhurst, R." (Clergy List, 1850.)
"Ashburnham forge, the last of the iron works in the eastern division of this county, has ceased to work about seven years." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 560, published in 1834.) But under Dallington (Ib. 568), he writes, "Ashburnham furnace, as it is generally called, is just in this parish. It has ceased working about twenty years, and the buildings have since been taken down." For an interesting historical memoir on the Iron Works of Sussex consult (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 169 et seq.), especially the beginning for the evidence of the manufacture having been carried on by the Romans.—The small stream, which runs from Ashburnham, is still called the Ashburne.
15. Ashington.—This church contains some coloured glass. (Horsfield's Suss. II 5 244.) In (Val. Eccl.) this place appears with Buncton chapelry attached to it. It is perhaps far from improbable, that Ashington may be signified by the "Aschongurn" in King Alfred's will, named together with Arundel, Seeding, Compton, &c. (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.)
16. Ashurst.—This church "has undergone a thorough repair within a few years, so as to completely alter its original appearance." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 245.)
17. Bargham—Is now included in the parish of Angmering, but was formerly a distinct parish, possessing its own church, which must have been desecrated and destroyed now for some centuries. The name is in the neighbourhood pronounced " Barfham," Barpham therefore may be conjectured the true title, in distinction from the contiguous parish of Burpham. This place, now scarcely a hamlet even, lies nearly on the summit of the hill beyond Angmering park northward, about two miles and a half from the village of Angmering. A little north-west of the old manor-house, in the north-east angle of the large grass field on the opposite side of the lane to the house, the foundations of the church yet appear just above the ground (visited in the autumn of A.D. 1848). The outline is clearly traceable, proving the building to have comprised only nave and chancel, the length of the whole measuring but twenty-one paces. The mortar of the old walls is very hard, without the apparent admixture of any kind of gravel. The spot may be easily recognised by an ash tree standing within the area of the foundations. Barpham chapel is neither named nor indicated in either the map of the county engraved by Hondius, 1610, that by Kip about 1670, or that of the original edition of Camden. It is affirmed, that "the church had fallen to decay before the time of Elizabeth." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 141.)
Bargham and Burgham, now Burpham, are clearly distinguished from each other in (A.D. 1291), being mentioned separately under different authorities in the diocese. The Domesday title "Bercheham" and the church are considered to belong to Bargham, not to Burpham, because the latter seems most likely to have been comprised under "Wepeham," which is specially named by itself, and must be the same place now existing as Wepham close to the present village of Burpham. The (Nonæ Roll) speaks of the church and parish of "Burgh'm," which entry occurs immediately after Fishbourne, and before Alciston, without any clue to identify the place intended. In that record the names stand in such (apparent) confusion, that it is not easy to say whether " Burgh'm" means Bargham, Birdham, Burpham, or Burton, which are not otherwise noticed; but the Inquisition having been taken at Chichester, the name perhaps signifies some parish in the western division of the county.
18. Barnham.—This place was royal property in ancient times, having been bequeathed by King Alfred to his nephew Athelm under the title of "Burnham." (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.)
19. Battle.—Here is a church of chancel, nave with north and south aisles possessing chancels, south porch, and square west tower with battlements and stair turret. The aisles also have battlements and stair turrets. The building is chiefly E.E., with Dec. and later windows. In the main chancel is a trefoil-headed piscina under a small trefoiled arcade, and two sedilia quite plain without canopies. In the south chancel is a trefoiled straight-arched piscina, mutilated; also three niches with groined canopies, mutilated. In the north chancel is a double piscina under a cinquefoiled ogée-headed arch. Near the north door is a small roundheaded window, internally splayed only eastward. At the east end of the north aisle, both within and without the outside wall, are some appearances, difficult to explain. Some alteration must have taken place here. The roodloft passages remain through the piers of the chancel arch, and over the arch between the north aisle and its chancel. The north chancel ranges eastward with the principal one. There are several small portions of coloured glass. Much of the outer wall exhibits rubble masonry; the remainder is faced with ashlar. Brasses: a man in armour, fifteenth century (W. Arnold, Horsfield's Suss.); a priest later.—Of the beautiful abbey gateway, which remains entire, a small portion of the front shows rubble masonry and a Norm, buttress. The prominent part of the remainder is Dec. In the boundary wall towards and opposite the church are also several Norm, buttresses. Beside the grand gateway, which highly ornaments the street of Battle, there are many vestiges of the abbey buildings in the mansion and private grounds of Sir G. Webster, Bart., for a description of which see Parry (Coast of Sussex, 316, &c.)—Kilburne asserts (under Wye, p. 298) that this place was named Herst before the foundation of the abbey. For this however he adduces no authority, and his statement is at variance with that of Ordericus Vitalis (quoted in Thorpe's Lappenberg, II, 301, note 2 ), who mentions "Senlacium bellum,—the battle at Senlac," and "ad locum qui Senlac antiquitus vocabatur, at the place which was anciently called Senlac." Thorpe's addition to the above note is, "In middle-age latinity bellum is commonly used for prælium?' Parry says (Coast of Sussex, 310) that, before the battle of Hastings, the name of the village here was "Epyton," but neither does he give any authority. In (D. B.) the titles bestowed are, "The Abbey of St. Martin of the place of the Battle," and "The Church of the Battle. Abbatia Sancti Martini de loco belli; Sancti Martini de Labatailge;" and "Æcclesia de la Batailge."—The high altar of the abbey church marked the spot on which Harold's standard was erected, (where "Harold and his standard fell," Gough, quoted in Monast. III, 233;) and where, after the victory, was placed William's "consecrated banner," presented to him by the Pope. (Thorpe's Lappenberg, II, 301, 288.)—The consecration of the abbey did not take place till February 1094 (that is, 1095 new style) when the king, William Rufus, was at Hastings on his route into Normandy. "Then went the king to Heestinga at Candlemas; and while he waited there for a favourable wind, he gave permission for the consecration of the monastery at the place of the Battle." (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 200.) The abbey was exempted by K. William I from all episcopal jurisdiction, and received, in fact, almost episcopal authority. See the Diploma of William (in Selden's Notes to the Works of Eadmer in Anselm's Works, 112, ed. 1721.) Battle is even now an exempt parish, as the incumbent, who bears the title of "dean," "holds his own visitation, his own court for probate of wills," &c. (Horsfield's Sussex.) Parry says (Coast of Suss. 310), the lord of the manor appoints a coroner, who is, or was, styled "The Abbot."—After his account of the battle of Hastings and the foundation of the abbey, Dr. Lappenberg remarks (Thorpe's Translation, II, 301), " All these visible monuments of the battle of Senlac and the conquest of England are no more; crumbled and fallen are the once lofty walls of Battle Abbey, and by a few foundation-stones in the midst of a swamp are we alone able to determine the spot, where it once reared its towers and pinnacles," &c. The remains of the abbey consist indeed partially of ruins, but are much more considerable, than the preceding quotation would imply ; and, far from standing "in the midst of a swamp," the mansion, to which they are attached, adjoins the high street of the town of Battle, and from them the ground may be said to fall in nearly every direction. It is asserted, that the district around Battle is called Leuga (Lew, or Lowy). (Parry's Coast of Suss. 312, the Monasticon being alleged as the authority.)
20. Beddingham.—Tanner speaks of a monastery here in the beginning of the ninth century. (Monast. VI, 1624.) Nothing definite appears to be known of this foundation, the situation of which is totally lost. It may possibly have been that of St. Andrew, noticed below under Seaford. A charter of Cœnulf, king of Mercia, A.D. 801, distinctly speaks of a monastery at this place, "monasterium in Beadyngham," as then existing. (Cod. Dipl. V, 63.) A document of rather later date, namely, A.D. 825, again mentions the church of "Bedingehommes;" the same subject as that of Ccenulf s charter having been debated in a synod at Clobesham, "Cloveshoo" we may conclude, in the year last named. (Ib. V, 75.) These old records may have been Bp. Tanner's authority.
21. Beeding.—The second Domesday church and the position of it seem to be identified below. In (A.D. 1291) this place is mentioned as "Ecclia de Sela;" in the (Nonæ Roll) it is styled "Sele;" in (Val. Eccl.) occurring as "Sela alias Beding." The vicarage house and garden, on the northern side of the existing parish church, are considered to occupy the site of the priory of Sela, of which not a vestige is visible.— A.D. 1075 Will, de Braiose gave the church of Sele to the abbey of St. Florence at Saumur; which latter establishment soon after settled an (alien) convent of Benedictine monks at Sele. (Monast. IV, 668.) There appears also to have been here a house of White or Carmelite Friars. (Ib. VI, 1580.) In A.D. 1492 the priory of Sele, which had been abandoned by the Benedictine monks, and in 1460 conferred upon the president and scholars of Magdalen college, Oxford, was granted by that college to the Carmelite friars of New Shoreham, whose house had been destroyed by the encroachment of the sea. (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 66, 75.) But at the general suppression of monasteries the property seems to have reverted to the college, which now possesses the patronage of Beeding.—The Rev. E. Turner, in an interesting article on an ancient bridge at Bramber, discovered A.D. 1839 (ut sup. 63 to 77), mentions a chapel of St. Peter, which, from its vicinity to the bridge, was styled de Veteri Ponte (of the ancient bridge), but was annexed to St. Peter's church at Sele. It appears to have existed A.D. 1175, being then granted by Will, de Braoze, together with Sele and others, to Saumur priory. The List will show, that (D.B.) assigns two churches to "Beddinges" in A.D. 1086, by which time Sele priory would have been established: we may therefore consider the allusion to be to the church of St. Peter Sele, and its dependent chapel, that of St. Peter de Veteri Ponte. I am enabled to add, through the kind information of Mr. Turner, that he has recently (June 1850) ascertained, from the muniments belonging to Magdalen college Oxford, the chapel of St. Peter de Veteri Ponte to have been situated at Annington, where vestiges are still traceable of such a building, but which must have been very small. N.B. The ancient bridge, of which the remains were found in 1839, did not span the river Adur, but a tributary channel on its western side; but its existence at that spot proves a passage over the Adur towards Beeding, and here very possibly might have been the great timber bridge, which Mr. Turner shows to have been erected somewhere in the neighbourhood previous to A.D. 1232. (Ut sup. 70.) Compare also the Notes on Botolphs, Bramber, and Haningedune.—In a remote part of this parish extending into St. Leonard's Forest was a chapel, called in old documents "The Free chapel of St. Leonard," of which the earliest notice is A.D. 1320. (It is named in Val. Eccl. as "Cantaria Sancti Leonardi infra Forestum Sancti Leonardi.") "Near Shelley Park there are twenty-two acres called the Chapel Fields, in which a chapel formerly stood belonging to the neighbouring village of Crawley." (Cartwright's Rape of Bramber.) This quotation explains the entries in (A.D. 1291) of "Ecclia de Shellye," and in (Val. Eccl.) of "Capella de Shelley cum Crawley annexa." In the latter record St. Leonard's chapel also is valued. The (Nonæ Roll) mentions not only the church, but likewise the parish and the rector of "Shullegh," which name must signify Shelley. The place at which the Inquisition was taken, not being given, we have indeed no guide, slight as that would be, to the locality; but it is stated, that John de Ifield had imparked a carucate of land, which was worth ten shillings to the church; whence we may infer, that " Shullegh " was in the neighbourhood of Ifield, which agrees with the position of Shelley. This idea seems to be confirmed by the circumstance, that Crawley is not named in the (Nonæ Roll); which is accounted for if, as I suppose, the title, properly belonging only to the chapel as above, is applied to the entire parish and the mother church.—In the (Clergy List) we find "Upper Beeding, V., post town Steyning," and "Lower Beeding, P.C., post town Horsham;" the latter however is a modern foundation.—Northern or Lower Beeding is seven or eight miles distant from the other part of the parish. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 222.) In King Alfred's will " Bedning," mentioned together with Arundel, Barnham, Compton, and other names which I am unable to identify, can scarcely mean any place but Beeding. (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.)
22. Bepton.—In the Nonæ Roll this place is called "Bebbyngeton."
23. Bersted, South.—This church, comprising chancel, nave, north and south aisles, and low western tower with a shingled spire, has been so disfigured by alterations in the worst possible taste, as to present no attraction to visitors. Both nave and chancel are broader than common in proportion to their length; and in style are E.E.—It is stated, that Bersted was not a parish previous to A.D. 1200, but that the church was dependent upon that of Pagham, as was likewise the chapel of St. Bartholomew at Bognor: also that in the Bishop's register is a commission from the archbishop (it is one of the peculiars of the diocese of Canterbury) for the consecration of Bersted church in 1405. North Bersted is a tithing or manor in the parish of South Bersted. "There were two chapels, one at Bognor, and the other at North Bersted, which are recognised in the archives of the diocese." (Dallaway's Western Suss. I, 45, and Horsfield's Suss. II, 63, 65.) The above-noticed consecration in 1405 certainly was not on occasion of the first erection of the church, because we find "Vicarius de Berghstede" in (A.D. 1291); and the vicar would not have been appointed, if no church had then existed: beside which the existing building clearly claims a much earlier date, as above remarked. Bognor is within the parish of Bersted.
24. Bertredtone.—This place is declared to be in the hun- dred of "Silletone," or Singleton ; but there is no other guide to its locality. I conceive it to be Binderton, which is now in the hun- dred of West Bourne and Singleton. See the Note on Binderton.
25. Berwick.—I have attributed the Domesday name to this place, for which I imagine it to be intended, though the matter is not perfectly clear. The hundred last mentioned is Henhert, but manifestly that distinction is not strictly attended to in this part of the description.
26. Bexhill.—The second church in this manor was most probably the chapel of Bulverhithe; which see. The (D.B.) title of this place, Bexelei, assists us in recognising it in the "Beccaule" of King Alfred's will. (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.) 26 of K. Henry VI the Bishop of Chichester received licence to impark two thousand acres of land in Bexhill. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 429.)
27. Bignor.—In (Val. Eccl.) a rector of this place is first named, and afterwards the "free chapel" of Bignor. This I am unable to explain, the benefice being now styled a rectory. The church contains three lancet windows at the east end, and the like in the north and south walls of the chancel.—The columns, discovered at the well-known Roman villa in this parish, appear to be of Bath stone. The shafts, capitals, and bases were, some of them at least, turned in a lathe ; but the mortar and many of the tiles used here were very inferior. Bignor park is mentioned temp. K. Henry III, originally as an appendage to Arundel Castle. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 150.)
28. Billinghurst.—Brass: Thomas and Elizabeth Bartlett, 1489. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 166.)
29. Binderton.—This place, though now included in West Dean, "had antiently distinct parochial rights, and is still separately assessed in all parochial rates and taxes ... About the year 1680 Thomas Smyth Esq. began to rebuild the old house, removed the chapel of Binderton which was adjoining it, and erected the present at a more convenient distance. But this having been done without the consent of the Ordinary, Bp. John Lake refused to consecrate it, and it is now in decay." (Dallaway.) Binderton is not named in either (A.D. 1291), (N. R.), or (Val. Eccl.)
30. Binsted.—(D.B.) describes the church as being in the very hundred, "in ipso hundredo," that just named being Benestede.
31. Bishopstone.—This church well merits examination. It includes a double chancel, nave with north aisle and south porch, and square western tower. The entrance, on the southern side, is by a narrow porch door, of Norm, character, with a tympanum, apparently always plain, but the weather had destroyed the stone, which has been plastered over in recent alterations of the church. The shafts at the side of the doorway are gone, but the capitals remain, and deserve notice. The porch is rather long, though not proportionally wide, and more than commonly lofty, the ancient beams and kingposts seeming quite sound. The church door is not opposite that of the porch, but rather on one side, and likewise is narrow. The nave is small. The chancel is in two divisions; the eastern, projecting as usual beyond the nave, is evidently that of the original Norm, structure, but its termination is square, not apsidal. A string course runs round the interior, which has clustered columns in the angles, as if a groined roof had been contemplated, but it never was completed; though one has recently been added, in plaster. In the south wall an arch has been opened, which now resembles a sedile, but whether that was the original intention is doubtful; it is roundheaded, with a torus moulding around it. A second chancel has been formed, westward, of later date, externally not distinguishable from the nave. Of the inner arch the shafts and capitals are Norm., while the arch itself is E.E. On either side are two Norm, arches, the eastern richly ornamented, the western plain; on the north side they now open into the aisle; on the other they are built into the wall. On the eastern chancel arch is the tooth moulding, of rather peculiar (that is, early?) character. The western chancel arch is lofty, with deep mouldings, and trefoil capitals much undercut; of similar form, though inferior, to those of Stockbury church, Kent. (Gloss. of Archit. pl. 30, ed. 1845.) Of the aisle, which is spanned by the nave roof, the door and small roundheaded windows were built up, but have been restored to use. The tower rises in four receding stages to a blunt, shingled spire, or rather cap. It has various Norm, ornaments about the windows and at the angles, the top being finished with a corbel table in good preservation, and on the west side, in the third stage from the bottom, is a circular window, not large, of which the frame is enriched with mouldings, though injured by exposure to the weather. In the apex of the chancel gable is a circular stone-cased foliated perforation, now closed; as are likewise two others in the nave gable, or rather in that of the western chancel, one on each side of the junction of the original chancel roof; they are rebated on the exterior. A similar opening may, almost invariably, so far as my observation extends, be found in the churches of this central coast district of Sussex. When the roof of the chancel is much lower than that of the nave, there is sometimes a round window in both the nave gable and that of the chancel, beside the arrangement just noticed at Bishopstone; and perhaps it may appear occasionally in the nave and not in the chancel. The opening, which is now usually filled up, was not large, and might be supposed unlikely to have been intended for light, from the height at which it is placed, and because it may be seen, as in Ovingdean and Rottingdean churches, with a kingpost and braces immediately before it: however some examples certainly are rebated, as if to receive glass, but on the exterior. Over the porch door of Bishopstone is an old stone dial-plate, resembling those at Corhampton and Warnford, Hants. The buttresses at the angles of the east end, though shallow, are not Norm.; they are in three stages, slightly contracting upwards.
This church seems to relate its own history: namely, that it was originally a Norm, building, of which the tower, the north aisle, the south porch, the chancel, and the two eastern arches of the nave were preserved, when the remainder was reconstructed, early perhaps, in the E.E. period. Some have pronounced this church an example of Anglo-Saxon architecture, but I perfectly agree with Mr. Figg (Suss. Arch. Coll. below), that no masonry of that character is visible unless it should be in the porch; which certainly is singular. The Norm, doorway, described above, projects slightly from the face of the porch, itself precisely resembling a small Norm, porch, and seems an addition to an older erection. At the south-east angle, as mentioned by Mr. Figg, the stones are laid like those in "long and short work," though they are far more massive than usual; which however may be accounted for by their nature, they being the mouldering stone found below the chalk; whereas the Norm, work is formed of Caen stone. In the late repairs, &c. the old windows of the tower have been filled up, and others opened in the lowest stage. The walls throughout have been fresh pointed, so that the appearance of the building is entirely altered. The above description was first framed from observations taken during its old state, having been corrected from a subsequent inspection. Consult also Suss. Arch. Coll. (II, 272 to 284), particularly for the account and representation (279, 280) of a curious monumental slab, recently discovered in the north wall of the church.—It is stated (ut sup. 276), that there was formerly a chapel at Norton, a hamlet on the northern side of this parish. In my visit of inquiry at Norton I could neither perceive, nor hear of, the site or remains of the chapel; though the fact of it having once existed seems to be known.
32. Blatchington, East.—This church has been greatly altered. The chancel has some Norman features, but two sedilia, on the same level with a shaft between them, and a piscina are of later date. Close to the seats is a low, roundheaded door, blocked up, but visible without. In the southern wall of the nave is a deep recess, perhaps originally connected with the rood-loft, but too small for the passage upwards, and large for an ambry, beside that it could have had no door. It is much ornamented in front, having a foliated pointed arch, and slight engaged shafts at the sides. On the outside two arches appear in the south wall of the nave, as if there had once been an aisle. The eastern of these arches is remarkably wide, and completely "horseshoe" in shape, while the other is smaller, and of the usual proportions; the object of this arrangement evidently being, when the perforation was made, to leave undisturbed the recess above described with its accessories, whatever they might be.
It may here be mentioned, that, among the churches near the coast westward from hence to Shoreham inclusively, there is scarcely an instance, if one, beside Bishopstone (so far as I have examined, and where the nave has not been entirely rebuilt) in which the church does not appear to have been larger formerly than at present. Although in general no traces of the destroyed erection are visible, above ground, yet occasionally they are manifest; as at Rottingdean, and at Telscombe before the recent restoration. Also it is frequently clear, that the mutilation of the church occurred at an early period, though it may be difficult, or impossible, to say when. The mode too is equally involved in obscurity, but it is by no means improbable, that, in some cases, perhaps not in all, the damage may have been the result of hostile irruptions. For further remarks on this point see the Note on Rottingdean.
"Near Blatchington, and between that village and Seaford, formerly existed a chapel, called Burgham, for which Bishop Sherborne, temp. K. Henry VIII, founded a prebendal stall in the cathedral of Chichester. This, from its contiguity to the above-named places, probably was not used for parochial purposes, but belonged to one of two ancient hospitals in the neighbourhood, dedicated respectively to St. Leonard and St. James." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 275.) The remains of Burgham chapel are still very visible, but merely an indistinct mass of ruined walls, not sufficient to explain whether they are the site of a chapel or of a hospital.
33. Blatchington, West.—It is asserted, that this church was entire in 1724, also that the parish comprises only 590 acres. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 157, 158.)—The exterior walls of the church are yet standing within the premises of the farm or old manor-house, attached to which are several cottages. The building was small, about fifty feet long by twenty-one broad, having no tower, but two small round-headed windows in the west end. The only door was in the south side, where also were windows, which, together with that in the east end, and the door, appear to have been of later date, than those in the west end. The condition of the remains is now very ruinous. The name of West Blatchington still exists as a rectory annexed to the vicarage of Brighton. (Clergy List.)—A.D. 1818 the foundations of a Roman villa were discovered here about a quarter of a mile from the village. (Horsfield, ut sup.)
34. Bodiam.—This manor is declared to have always belonged to Ewhurst; "semper jacuit in Werste." (D.B.) (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Iwehurst," Ewhurst, "et Bodeham;" each church being then held by a vicar. They are also connected, and called a parochial prebend, in the (Nonæ Roll). The church of Bodiam consists of a western tower, nave with north and south aisles, and chancel. The body of the church is Dec., the chancel E.E. with a Perp. window of three lights inserted in the east end. This church is remarkable on account of the original arrangement, namely, the nave roof extending over the aisles, remaining undisturbed; consequently the walls of the aisles are very low. The building has just undergone extensive and judicious repairs. By a quotation from Pat. Rolls 9 K. Rich. II it appears, that permission was at that period, A.D. 1386, granted to Sir Edward "Dalyngrudge" to erect a castle at "Bodyam." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 521.) Of that castle the outer walls, including the towers, are yet standing, and the moat is entire.
35. Bosham.—This church comprehends chancel, nave with north and south aisles, south porch, and western tower with shingled spire. The chancel arch is unusually lofty, originally round, but now depressed in the centre. The pier shafts are remarkably high, the upper portion of the capitals being square abaci, below them a round moulding resembling a shallow cushion, and beneath those the capitals of the several shafts. The entire contour of the arch is peculiar, but I should pronounce it more like E.E., than an earlier style. The chancel is E.E., very large and lofty. At the east end are five lancet windows, rising in height to the central, under arches, and divided by detached shafts, which with others at the sides are of Petworth marble. Three other original windows are double lancets, under single arches with side shafts of Petworth marble; one is Perp. with a transom; and another is a new Dec. imitation. The piscina is double under trefoiled arches. Corbels of heads generally perfect remain in the sides below the wall-plates. In the north wall is a simple, but good E.E. tomb, on which lies, loose, a small female effigy with the feet resting on a lion. There are some tiles brought from the north aisle, and a little Perp. stall-work. The exterior of the north wall shows traces of some addition there formerly. The interior of the nave and aisles seems early E.E., rather than Tr. Norm. They contain one original window, two Dec., one Perp., and the remainder are new, copies of the old Dec. The north door is E.E. in a Norm. wall. At the east end of the south aisle is a groined E.E. crypt, above which in the south wall is a piscina under a trefoiled arch. Between the crypt and the south door is a tomb with an ornamented arch and a plain Petworth marble slab. The font is octagon with plain round arches slightly sunk in the sides, and four E.E. shafts arranged round the stem, the whole of Petworth marble. There are several oak benches. The Norm, tower arch has a small window, straight-sided below, and terminating upward in a flat-sided arch, and also a kind of slit, above it. The walls are very massive, with several roundheaded windows. On the exterior are the remains of two stages of square-edged string-courses, resembling those in supposed Saxon examples, but not unlike Norm., and immediately below the spire is a Norm, corbel table. The original roof of the nave was very high, and extremely sharp. To the wall of the north aisle the buttresses are shallow, in a single stage; those of the chancel are still slight, but in two stages; against the south aisle they are in one stage, but thicker; which circumstances we may regard as indicating the dates of the several portions. The existing tower here is deemed Anglo-Saxon by Mr. Bloxam. (Goth. Archit. 77, 79, 8th ed.) It will be perceived, that in this particular I dissent from Mr. Bloxam's idea. It certainly is not impossible, that the lower part of the tower may be Saxon, but it by no means exhibits such marks, as will, in my opinion, warrant the assigning to it so early a date.
Contiguous to the church on the south is the site of Bosham Priory, or rather perhaps of Bp. Warlewast's college mentioned below; but the only apparent vestige of it is a Perp. doorway.—Northeast adjoining the churchyard is the manor-house, now simply a farm. It was formerly moated, and is said to be the site on which K. Canute erected a castle.—Bosham church is twice mentioned in (D.B.), first when the manor is described as retained in domain by the king, then that Osbern, bishop, held it of his sovereign. Sir H. Ellis observes (Introduction to Domesday Book) that in the Bayeux tapestry the church of Bosham is represented as a structure of considerable consequence: by which he must mean, that it has much pretension to ornament, since the actual figure of the building (according to the print) is very small, having no tower, one semicircular-headed door, and no windows, unless what appears to be intended for an arcade should be such, about the height of a clerestory. Evidently however the figure is designed not so much for an exact likeness, as for an illustration of the story told by the tapestry.
The church of Bosham is named in the (Nonæ Roll), but only incidentally. A college was founded at Bosham about A.D. 1120 by William Warlewast, Bishop of Exeter. Some portion of the college buildings are still in existence. In the vicar's garden is preserved a colossal marble head, which was dug up in the churchyard. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 72.) When bishop Wilfrid visited Sussex in his work of conversion, he found here a very small monastery of five or six brethren, under the presidency of a Scot (i.e., an Irishman) called Dicul; but it is expressly added, that they had made no impression on the natives. Bosham is said to have been then surrounded by woods and sea. "Erat autem ibi" (among the South Saxons) " monachus quidam de natione Scottorum, vocabulo Dicul, habens monasteriolum permodicum in loco qui vocatur Bosanhamm, silvis et mari circumdatum, et in eo fratres quinque sive sex, in humili et paupere vita Domino famulantes. Sed provincialium nullus eorum vel vitam æmulari, vel praedicationem curabat audire." (Bed. Hist. Eccl. 1.4, c. 13.)
36. Botolph's.—This is a vicarage united to the rectory of Bramber. (Clergy List.) See below the description of Haningedune. In the (Nonæ Roll) about 1341, the parish is mentioned by the name of St. Botolph's.—Roman bricks and pottery have been ploughed up on the Downs within this parish. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 231.)
37. Bourne, East.—I imagine this place to be noticed in (D.B.), though not quite satisfied on the subject. It is under the same circumstances as Berwick above.—The church contains sedilia and zigzag mouldings. "Parsonage farm-house, adjoining the churchyard, is a building of considerable antiquity." At the Lamb Inn is "a vaulted apartment with groined arches" in good preservation; "and a subterraneous passage leading from another apartment towards the church was, a few years ago, partly explored" (Horsfield's Suss. I, 297.) "Near the road leading down to the Chalk Cliffs are the remains of a building called St. Gregory's chapel (note—so named in letters patent, establishing the corporation of Pevensey) and the fields and hill are now distinguished by that name. The bells belonging to it are said to have been carried to France, and now actually used either at Rouen or Dieppe in Normandy." (East Bourne, that is, Guide to, 1787.) The dates of the above mention of St. Gregory's chapel, and of its desecration, are not given.—In 1712, near the sea about a mile and a half from East Bourne church, the pavement of a room, a bath, and foundations of walls were laid open, apparently the remains of a Roman villa, which had been destroyed by fire, as the ruins were covered with charred wood, among which, beside nails &c., were found a human skull and several bones. A full account of the discovery is added as an Appendix to the above little work. In December, 1848, Roman foundations were uncovered here not far from the sea, being portions of a villa, of which perhaps the larger part has been destroyed by the falling of the cliff. The foundations are from two to four feet thick, and one of the apartments was thirty feet long. The remains of a kind of corridor, or passage, between two parallel walls thirteen feet apart, paved with tesseræ, were traced into a field, well known as the site of a Roman bath, discovered in 1717, and described by Dr. Tabor in Number 351 of the Philosophical Transactions. (M. A. Lower, in Sussex Express, 23 Dec. 1848; also in Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 257.)
38. Bourne, West.—The church contains a piscina. (Horsfield's Suss. II, 76.) "Warblitetone in Hampshire appertains to this manor Huic manerio pertinet Warblitetone in Hantescire. —There are two churches." (D.B.) Whence we must suppose, that one of these churches was in Hampshire, at the adjoining parish of Warblington, as now called.
39. Boxgrove.—"Clerici æcclesiæ" are mentioned here by (D.B.), but not a church, which however is necessarily inferred from the above words. Perhaps indeed the clerks of Chichester may be meant; but more probably those of Boxgrove.—The church is a portion of that belonging to the old priory. Of the nave ruins only remain, showing it to have been Norman, while the general character of the tower, transepts, and choir is E.E.; and it is greatly to be regretted, that so rich and beautiful a specimen of architecture is not more prized, and taken better care of, with regard to substantial repair, as well as to ornamental appearance. In its perfect condition this church had the same peculiarity as that of New Shoreham and some others, that the nave was short in proportion to the choir or chancel. It is stated (in Magna Britannia), that Boxgrove Priory was founded by Robert de Haya, temp. K. Henry I. The refectory is standing, and now used as a barn.—That of Boxgrove was an alien priory, a cell to Essay Abbey in Normandy, declared, as above, to have arisen "about" the time of K. Henry I. (Monast. IV, 641.)
40. Bracklesham.—The name of "Braclesham" occurs in (A.D. 1291), but "Ecclia" is erased, and there is the following marginal note, which I do not comprehend. "Ecclia hie cancellat' et Vicar' inscrit' ob causa' annotata' in med' de A' xviii int' Recorda de T'mo Sci Hillarii." However the church is mentioned subsequently in the (Nonæ Roll), and Bracklesham is there styled a parish. Also in (Val. Eccl.) we read, "E. Wittering cum Brakelsham." Of the latter place the church has now disappeared, and according to Dallaway, Bracklesham was annexed to East Wittering A.D. 1518.
42. Bramber.—In (Val. Eccl.) we find "Brambrough cum Botolph's," which annexation is stated by Cartwright to have taken place in 1530; and it still subsists. The present church is only part of the original Norm, structure. (D.B.) speaks of the castle, but incidentally, as being situated in the manor of "Wasingetune," that is Washington. The site of the castle may be traced, but the buildings have totally disappeared. In (Val. Eccl.) the hospital of St. Magdalen of Bramber is mentioned, and as being called Bidlyngton; "Hospitale Beate Magdalene de Bramber, vocatum Bidlyngton;" but its locality I find not.—The second volume of the Suss. Arch. Coll. contains (63 to 77) an account by the Rev. Edw. Turner of the discovery, A.D. 1839, of the remains of an ancient bridge here, which bridge, it appears sufficiently clear, was originally Roman, although reconstructed in times long subsequent. On the central pier was a chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, of which the last mention in old records is dated Christmas Day, 1473. See also the Note above on Beeding.
42. Brede.—Some stained glass still remains in the windows of the church. In the south chancel is an effigy in armour, 1537.—Brass: Rob. and Anne Oxenbridge, 1487, 1492. Brede Place was once a considerable mansion. "Armorial bearings of the Oxenbridge family, in painted glass, were formerly in the windows, one of them with the collateral quarterings. They are now in the church windows at Northiam." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 514, 515). A chapel was anciently attached to Brede Place.—A large iron foundry formerly existed here, which was discontinued about ((snaller|A.D.}} 1766. (Ut sup. 514.)
43. Brightling.—The church possesses some coloured glass. Brass: Small male and female figures. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 566, 567.)
44. Brighton.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles, both very narrow, south chancel, south porch, and square low west tower with battlements. The building has been very much altered, even nearly or quite rebuilt. The exterior has diagonal buttresses, but the interior seems chiefly Perp. The remains of the rich roodloft screen are in that style. The font is curious on account of the carving round it, but has suffered from the craving after immortality of some former churchwardens .—At an early period a chantry, or free chapel, called St. Bartholomew's, was erected here by the monks of St. Pancras, Lewes, which is noticed in a document dating about A.D. 1200. The old townhall occupied the site, where many interments have been disturbed. A small brass figure also was dug up there in 1771. (Horsfield's Suss. 116, 136.) It is stated, that, during an attack by the French in 1513, the "chapel of St. Bartholomew ... was so far destroyed, that it never afterwards recovered its accustomed use and influence." (Parry's Coast of Suss. 21, from some earlier authority, which is not named.) In the (Chartulary of Lewes Priory) "duas ecclesias, two churches," in this town are mentioned in documents of Will, second, and Will, third, Earl Warenne.
In excavating for the foundations previous to erecting the western part of the town, at or near Brunswick square, remains of some large building were discovered, and many stones with mouldings were taken up from a depth of several feet beneath the present surface of the ground. This information was obtained from one of the workmen employed in the operations, who brought away many of the said stones, which, after keeping them for some time, he gradually used in his business as a stonemason.
45. Broadwater.—This large cross church has nave with north and south aisles and north porch, central tower with north and south transepts, and chancel. The general character is that prevailing throughout the district, namely, Tr. Norm., though the richly-carved east and west tower arches may be rather earlier. The chancel has a groined roof, but only one original window; that at the east end and most others are Dec., one being Perp. There are six stalls and some good panelling with fine bold mouldings. In the gable are marks of a small window formerly existing. The transepts have arches on their eastern sides, and the exterior of the south wall of the chancel has a weather moulding for the low roof of some addition. But few original windows remain. That in the west end of the nave is Dec., the others, with one exception, Perp. From the difference of the stones of the piers and arches between the nave and aisles, this part of the church evidently appears to have been repaired in Perp. times, when the form of nearly all the capitals and bases was altered. The porch is Perp. In the outside of the north wall of the nave is a cross, wrought in flint. Brass, rich: John Mapleton, chancellor to Margaret of Anjou, died 1432. (See Monum. Brasses, 104.) Tomb of Caen stone to Tho. Lord La Warre, died 1526. A cross fleury, apparently commemorative of John Corby, rector, 1415, is probably a memorial of Rich. Tooner, rector, 1445 (ut sup. 118.) (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Bradewater cum capella note, capellis;" but there is no guide, whereby to ascertain the situation or the number of those chapels. There is also separate mention in the same record of "Ecclia de Effyngtone;" in the deanery of Storrington, wherein Broadwater is included; and signifying clearly Offington or Uffington, an ancient estate of much consideration in the parish of Broadwater, of which the mansion is old, and where, according to Cartwright, some vestiges of the chapel existed in his time, on the northern side of the house. The name of "Ofintune" occurs in (D.B.)
46. Bulverhithe.—This very probably was the second Domesday church, stated to be in the manor of Bexhill. It is called "a small parish, or reputed parish, containing only about one hundred acres. . . In a field close by this place, behind the cliffs, are the ruins of the ancient church or chapel." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 431.)
47. Buncton.—This chapel stands in the parish of Ashington, though in a detached part, and the building contains some Norm, features. (Cartwright.) The walls are stated to exhibit Roman tiles. (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 315.) It is styled a curacy annexed to Ashington. (Clergy List.)
48. Burgemere. The Domesday description of this place is as follows. "Goze tenet de Willielmo" i.e. De Warene. "Villani tenuerunt, qui jacuerunt in Falemere T.R.E. . . Tune et modo se defendebat pro iv hidis. Terra est ii carucarum. In dominio est una cum uno villano et ii bordariis et ii servis. Ibi æcclesiola et silva de iv porcis. T. R. E. valebat xx solidos.—et post et modo valet xxx solidos.—Goze holds it of William (De Warene). The villans, who resided at Falmer, held it in the time of K. Edward. . . Then and now it claimed to contain four hides. It is an estate of two ploughs. In the domain is one with one villan, and two borderers and two serfs. There is a small church, and a wood of four hogs. In the time of K. Edward it was worth twenty shillings, and afterwards and now it is worth thirty shillings." (D.B.) The property therefore is expressly stated to have been occupied by persons residing at Ealmer; the church was small; and there was a little wood, feeding only four hogs. In (A.D. 1291) we find it joined with Falmer; "Ecclia de Faleme' cum Burg'—note, Bercheme';" and the same in the (Nonæ Roll), "Falemere cum capella de Burgheme;" but the name does not occur in (Val. Eccl.) In (A.D. 1291) "Faleme' cum Burg'" are declared to belong to the prior of Lewes. At the time of the Domesday Survey the former was held by the priory, "St. Pancras," of the Earl of Surrey, doubtless by gift of the latter, but Burgemere was still in lay hands, as shown by the quotation above.
The Burgemere of (D.B.) may satisfactorily be identified in Boro'mer or Bor'mer, pronounced Bawmer, a very small hamlet in the parish of Falmer, about a mile northward from the church; where apparently was a considerable settlement in old times, which is indicated also by the term "burgh" or borough. No building can be recognised as probably the ancient chapel, nor could any intelligence be obtained on the spot of a "Chapel Field," or "Chapel Croft," though the road toward the village of Falmer is called "Church Lane;" but one house, formerly a farm-house, now only a cottage, has a stone doorcase, Perp., though perfectly plain. The farm buildings contain merely a very few stones, which appear to have been used before. The ground north-westward from the hamlet presents plain marks of former edifices: on the opposite, that is, on the eastern, side is a pond, which, once perhaps having been very large, would then have supplied the inhabitants with water; and the steep slope on the north-east, now partially planted, seeming to possess some natural wood, might have been the site of the "wood of four hogs," specified in (D.B.) This case however is a remarkable instance of the irregularity, prevailing in early times, with regard to boundaries, and which even now subsists in the detached portions of counties and parishes, lying at a distance from the districts, to which they belong. For Burgemere is stated in (D.B.) to be in the hundred of "Welesmere," which comprised no other manors save those of Bristelmestune, Rotingedene, and Hovingedene, Falmer being then in a hundred of its own name. Whereas Bor'mer is entirely separated by the southern part of the parish from the remainder of its original hundred, the nearest portion of which must be about half a mile, or more, from Falmer church.—A gold armilla, "formed of two square bars or wires, wreathed together, and welded at the extremities," was turned up in ploughing the Downs near Bor'mer, and is preserved in the museum of Dr. Mantell, to whom it was presented by the late Earl of Chichester. A figure of it is given in Horsfield (Hist. of Lewes, pi. IV.) See (Archæol. Journal, VI, 58.)—An accidental discovery in the summer of A.D. 1849 seems to show, that this neighbourhood was of importance even previous to the era of K. William I. Some labourers, in digging for flints at the head of a hollow in the Downs about half a mile north-east of Bor'mer, laid open what is deemed evidently to have been a Roman cemetery, from the objects found there, such as various urns and other fictile vessels, a few coins, a fibula, &c. The ground exhibited no exterior indications of interments having taken place here.
49. Burpham.—See the Note on Bargham. In (A.D. 1291) the church of this place occurs under one head, and the vicar under another totally different.
50. Burton.—Called "Bodeghtone" in (A.D. 1291); and in (Val. Eccl.) "Bodington alias Bodicton cum Cootes, R."—The church was partly rebuilt in the seventeenth century by injunction from the Archbishop of Canterbury, but no service has been performed for a long period." There are several altar-tombs of Sussex marble, inlaid with brasses, and numerous inscriptions, to the memory of individuals of the knightly family of Goring; and under a niche, with quatrefoils and plain escutcheons, is a small female figure, recumbent, carved in Caen stone, but no inscription remains." (Horsfield's Suss. II, 172.)
51. Burwash.—Spelled " Burgher ss" in (A.D. 1291), in the (Nonæ Roll) "Burgherssh." An iron grave-slab in Burwash church, of the fourteenth century, is figured and described (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 178). Not far from the village southwards is a respectable old house, called Bateman's, now a farm-house. It is stated to have been erected about A.D. 1620. (Horsfield's Suss. I, 578.)
52. Buxted.—Here is a large sandstone church, comprising chancel, nave with north and south aisles; the former having a chapel at the east end, and the latter extending partly up the chancel, though the eastern end is now separated from the remainder; north and south porches; the first Perp., the latter modern; and western tower with shingled spire. The building is generally E.E. with Dec. and Perp. windows inserted, that in the east end being Dec. The chancel contains a rich, but mutilated, piscina with a crocketed canopy, and near it is a similarly ornamented arch, apparently for a tomb, though none is now visible beneath. The north chancel has a piscina. The font is square, resting on five columns, of the same style as the church. Brass, in the chancel, Britellus Avenel, rector, a small figure in the upper part of a cross fleury, dating about 1375. (Monum. Brasses, 115.) Over the entrance of the north porch is a very small figure carved in sandstone of a woman holding a large churn, supposed to be intended for a pun upon the name of Allchorn. (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Boxstede cum capella—note, de Ockfelde." They are likewise annexed in (Val. Eccl.), but recently have been severed, and constituted two benefices.—Will. Heron, in his will dated in 1404, directs the hospital, which had been begun by him in Buxted for four or six poor persons, to be completed. (Monast. VI, 776.)
"Hendall, in this parish, has some claims to the notice of the antiquary. It is situated on an elevated spot commanding fine views of the South Downs and surrounding country. On the east is a circular arch with pillars, in good repair." (Horsfield's Suss. I, 366.) Hendall lies north-west of Buxted church, and nearly north of Maresfield.
- The perplexing appearances, noticed above p. 192 as visible at the east end of the north aisle of Battle church, may not improbably indicate the existence in the thickness of the north wall of the stairs leading to the roodloft; similarly to the examples mentioned in the Note on Offham, Kent, p. 122.