Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/305

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 [r In כֻּתּ֫נֶת coat the original ŭ of the first syllable is maintained by the sharpening of the following consonant (cf. Arab. qŭṭŭn), with suff. כֻּתָּנְתִּי, the constr. st., however, is כְּתֹ֫נֶת (as also in the absol. st. in Ex 2839); plur. כֻּתֳּנוֹת, constr. כָּתְנוֹת.—The form גֻּלְגֹּ֫לֶת given in Paradigm III, b is a Pŭlpŭl-form of the stem גָּלַל, cf. קָדְקֹד, §84bp.

 [s 4. To the fourth class, for which no Paradigm is required, belong all the numerous forms which in classical Hebrew have unchangeable vowels throughout, the originally short vowel of the first syllable having become Še, owing to the tone being thrown forward. Of the forms mentioned in §§84 and 85 those from ע״ע stems especially belong to this class, as מְגִלָּה scroll, תְּהִלָּה praise, תְּפִלָּה prayer (§85i and q), as well as the feminine of the participle Hiphʿîl of verbs ע״וּ, e.g. מְאִירָה enlightening (from מֵאִיר), and generally the feminines of ע״וּ stems which are compounded with the preformative מ‍, as מְנוּחָה rest (from מָנוֹחַ), see §85l; from ל״ה stems perhaps also תְּעָלָה conduit (constr. st. תְּעָלַת Is 73, &c.) and תְּלָאָה travail. Thus all these forms coincide externally with those which already, in the masculine form, have unchangeable vowels throughout (see the list of them in §93ww).

 [t 5. The feminine ending ־ִית (apart from ל״ה-forms like בְּכִית, §94f) arises from the addition of the feminine ת to the ending ־ִי, which is employed to form adjectives, &c., see §86d, h, and k. The ending וּת, mentioned there, is attached, in segholate forms, sometimes to the ground-form, as עַשְׁתּוּת Jb 125 (v.l. עַשְׁתּוֹת), sometimes to forms with a loosely-closed syllable, as מַלְכוּת kingdom; from ל״ה stems we find forms sometimes like שְׁבוּת captivity (according to others from the stem שׁוּב, like לְזוּת perverseness from לוּז), sometimes like בָּכוּת weeping, גָּלוּת exile, חָזוּת vision; the latter retain the ā of the first syllable even in the constr. st. and before suffixes. From a qăṭĭl-form is formed כְּבֵדוּת heaviness; from a qăṭîl-form פְּקִדוּת, &c.

 [u In the plural of these forms different methods of treatment may be distinguished. In some cases the whole ending וּת is retained, as if belonging to the stem (cf. above, f), e.g. אַלְמְנוּתַ֫יִךְ from אַלְמָנוּת, in others this ending is resolved, as in מַלְכֻיּוֹת Dn 822 (no doubt for mălekhuwwôth), and עֵֽדְוֺת ʿēdhewōth, from עֵדוּת testimony, but only with suffixes, עֵֽדְוֺתֶ֫יךָ ψ 11914, &c.; עֵֽדְוֺתָיו 1 K 23, &c.

§96. Nouns of Peculiar Formation.

In the following Paradigms,[1] pp. 282 to 284, a number of frequently used nouns are arranged, whose flexion presents more or less striking peculiarities. These peculiarities, however, are almost always subordinate to the usual phonetic laws, and the usual designation of the nouns as irregular is, therefore, not justified, when once the ground-forms are properly recognized on which the present forms are based.

  1. The only omissions from these Paradigms are אֶחָד, חָם, and חָמוֹת (on which see the remarks), and all forms which are not found in the O.T.