Speeches and Writings of M. K. Gandhi

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Speeches and Writings of M. K. Gandhi  (1922) 
by Mohandas K. Gandhi
1922. See also the images and the index.





an introduction by


and a biographical sketch




If we would classify him with any of the supreme figures of human history, it must be with such august

religious prophets as Confucius and Lao-tse, Buddha, Zoroaster and Mohammed, and, most truly of all, the Nazarene ! Out of Asia, at long intervals of time, have arisen these inspired witnesses of God. One "by one they have appeared to teach men by precept and example the law of life, and thereivith to save the race. To-day, in this our time, there comes another of this sacred line, the Mahatma of India. In all reverence and with due regard for historic fact, I match this man with Jesus Christ: — Rev. Dr. Holmes.

— Minister of the Community Church, New York City.


This is an exhaustive, comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date edition of Mr. Gandhi's Speeches and Writings revised and considerably amplified, with the addition of a large number of articles from Young India' and Navajivan (rendered int English.) The-inclusion of these papers have almost doubled the size of the old edition and the present collection runs to about 1,000 pages of well-arranged matter ranging over the whole period of Mr. Gandhi's public life. It opens with a succinct biographical sketch of Mr. Gandhi bringing the account of his life down to the historic trial and sentence. The Volume begins with the Indian South African Question and covers his views on indentured labour and Indians in the Colonies, his jail experiences in South Africa, his pronouncements on the Khaira and Champaran affairs, his discourses on Rowlatt Bills and Satyagraha, and finally his Young India and Navajivan articles on the Non-Cooperation movement, including select papers on the Khilafat and Punjab wrongs, the Congress, Swadeshi, Boycott, Charka, National Education and Swaraj. The additional chapters are arranged under suitable headings and include his messages on the eve of and after the arrest, his statement before the court, the trial and judgment. Then follows a symposium of appreciations from such diverse men as Tolstoy and Tagore, Prof. Gilbert Murray and Dr. Holmes of New York besides excerpts from the British and American press. The book which is bound in cloth and indexed contains portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Gandhi and three characteristic pictures of Mr. Gandhi taken at different periods of his life.

May, 1922.


Introduction (p.21)

By Mr. C. F. Andrews

M. K. Gandhi: A Sketch (p.27)

By G. A. Natesan

South African Indian Question

The Beginning of the Struggle (p.91)
Deputation to Lord Selborne (p.120)
Mr. Gandhi's Address (p.122)
Deputation to Lord Elgin (p.133)
Before the Court in 1907 (p.140)
Attitude towards the Assailants (p.144)
The Issue at Stake (p.146)
The Marriage Question (p.151)
Before the Court in 1913 (p.156)
The Solomon Commission (p.159)
Should Indians have full Citizen Rights? (p.167)
A Truce with the Government (p.170)
The Settlement (p.173)
Farewell Speech at Durban (p.175)
Address to the Indentured Indians (p.179)
Address to the Tamil Community (p.181)
Farewell Speech at Johannesburg (p.185)
Farewell to South Africa (p.192)
Reception in England (p.197)
Letter to Lord Crewe (p.198)
Farewell to England (p.199)
Reception in Bombay (p.200)
Reception in Madras
The Indian South African League
Advice to South African Indians
Bail way Restrictions in Transvaal
Indians in South Africa
Indian Rights in the Transvaal
Another S. A. Commission Indians in the Colonies
Reciprocity Between India and the Dominions
Indian and European Emigrants
Indentured Labour
Indian Colonial Emigration
The Iniquities of the Indenture System
Imperial Conference Resolutions

Jail Experiences

Passive Resistance

How the Idea Originated
Soul Force v. Physical Force
The Origin of the Movement in South Africa
The Genesis of Passive Resistance
Passive Resisters in the Tolstoy Farm
A Lesson to India
A Message to the Congress
The Gains of the Passive Resistance Struggle

The Champaran Enquiry

Labour Trouble in Behar

The Kaira Question

The Situation in Kaira
The Vow of Passive Resistance
Statement on the Kaira Distress
Reply to the Commissioner
The Meaning of the Covenant
Reply to Kaira Press Note
End of the Kaira Struggle
The Last Phase

Earlier Indian Speeches

The Duties of British Citizenship
A Plea for the Soul
On Anarchical Crimes
Loyalty to the British Empire
Advice to Students
Politics and the People
The Reward of Public Life
Three Speeches on Gokhale
Unveiling Mr. Gokbale's Portrait
The Late Mr. Gokhale
Gokhale's Services to India
Hindu University Speech
The Benares Incident
Reply to Karachi Address
The Gurukula
Economic vs. Moral Progress
The Moral Basis of Co-operation
Third Class in Indian Railways
Vernaculars as Media of Instruction
Social Service
True Patriotism
The Satyagrahasrama
Indian Merchants
National Dress
The Hindu-Mahomedan Problem
Gujarat Educational Conference
Gujarat Political Conference
Address to Social Service Conference
The Protection of the Cow
On Womanhood
Plea for Hindi
The Ahmedabad Mill Hands
A Letter to the Viceroy
Recruiting for the War
The Montagu Chelmsford Scheme
Present Top-heavy Administration

The Rowlatt Bills & Satyagraba

Manifesto to the Press
The Pledge
Speech at Allahabad
Speech at Bombay
Speech at Madras
Appeal to the Viceroy
The Satyagraha Day
Satyagraha Day in Madras
Message to Satyagrahis
The Delhi Incident
Message to Madras Satyagrahis
Message to the Bombay Citizens
Distribution of Prohibited Literature
Message After Arrest
The "Satyagrahi"
Satyagraha and Duragraha
Speech at Ahmedabad
Temporary Suspension of the Movement


The Punjab & Khilafat Wrongs
The Amritsar Appeals
The Khilafat Question
"Why I have Joined the Khilafat Movement"
Congress Report on the Punjab Disorders
A Personal Statement
How to Work Non-Co-operation
Open Letter to Lord Chelmsford
Political Freemasonry
Courts and Schools
Speech at Madras
Speech at the Special Congress
Swaraj in one Year
"To Every Englishman in India"
The Creed of the Congress
Appeal to Young Bengal
Open Letter to the Duke of Connaught
The Need for Humility
The Malegaon Incident
The Simla Visit
The Ali Brothers' Apology
Violence and Non-Violence
Appeal to the Women of India
The Arrest of the Ali Brothers
Manifesto on Freedom of Opinion
The Great Sentinel
Honour the Prince
The Bombay Riots
The Statement
Message to the Citizens of Bombay
Appeal to the Hooligans of Bombay
Appeal to his Co-Workers
Peace at Last
The Moral Issue
Civil Disobedience
The Moplah Outbreak
Reply to Lord Ronaldshay
The Round Table Conference
The Abmedabad Congress Speech
The Independence Resolution
The Bombay Conference
Letter to H. E. the Viceroy
Reply to the Government of India
The Crime of Chauri Chaura
In Defence of the Bardoli Decisions
The Delhi Resolutions
Reply to Critics
A Divine Warning

On the Eve of Arrest

"If I am Arrested."
Message to Co-Workers
Message to Kerala

After the Arrest

The Arrest
The Message of the Charka
Letter to Hakim Ajmal Khan
Letter to Srimati Urmila Devi
Interview in Jail
Letter to Moulana Abdul Bari
Message to the Parsis
Truth of the Spinning Wheel
Letter to Mr. Andrews

The Great Trial

Statement Before the Court
Written Statement
The Judgment
Mr. Gandhi's Reply
Message to the Country

Jail Life in India

The Meaning of the Imprisonments
Work in Gaols
A Model Prisoner


A Confession of Faith (p.859)
Passive Resistors in the Tolstoy Farm (p.863)
The Rationale of Suffering (p.864)
The Theory and Practice of Passive Resistance (p.866)
On Soul Force and Indian Politics (p.869)
Rights and Duties of Labour (p.874)
The Doctrine of the Sword (p.878)
The Gujarat National University (p.883)
Indian Medicine (p.888)
Hindustani and English (p.890)
Social Boycott (p.892)
"Neither a Saint nor a Politician" (p.895)
Hindu-Moslem Unity (p.901)
Untouchability (p.905)
Gokhale, Tilak and Mehta (p.908)
The Fear of Death (p.913)
Hinduism (p.916)
National Education (p.924)
From Satyagraha to Non-Co-Operation (p.928)
Introspection (p.931)
The Spinning Wheel (p.934)
Love, not Hate (p.936)

Appendix I

Mr. Gandhi's Religion (p.939)
The Rules and Regulations of Satyagrahasrama (p.943)
The Memorial to Mr. Montagu (p.948)
The Swadeshi Vow (p.950)

Appendix II — Appreciations.

Count Leo Tolstoy (p.955)
Prof. Gilbert Murray (p.955)
Lord Hardinge (p.958)
Lord Ampthill (p.958)
The Lord Bishop of Madras (p.958)
Lord Gladstone (p.959)
The Hon. Mr. Jameson (p.959)
Sir Henry Cotton (p.959)
Mr. Charles Roberts, M. P. (p.959)
Senator W. P. Schreiner (p.960)
G. K. Gokhale (p.960)
Rev. Joseph Doke (p.961)
Mrs. Annie Besant (p.962)
Sir P. M. Mehta (p.962)
Mrs. Sarojini Naidu (p.962)
Dr. Subramania Iyer (p.963)
Sir Rabindranath Tagore (p.963)
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (p.963)
Lala Lajpat Rai (p.964)
Dr. J. H. Holmes (p.964)
Mr. W. W. Pearson (p.965)
Mr. Percival Landon (p.965)
Col. J. C. Wedgwood, M. P. (p.966)
Mr. Blanch Watson (p.966)
Mr. Ben Spoor, M. P. (p.966)
Mr. S. E Stokes (p.968)
Vincent Anderson (p.968)
Sir Valentine Chirol (p.968)
Mr. C. F. Andrews (p.968)
S. W. Clemes (p.970)
Mr. W. E. Johnson (p.970)
The Rt. Hon. V. S. Srinivasa Sastri (p.971)
Mr. H. S. L. Polak (p.976)
Mr. K. Natarajan (p.983)
Mrs. Sarojini Naidu (p.983)
Babu Dwijendranath Tagore (p.984)

Related Books (p.986)

Index (p.987)

Related Books and Eminent Orientalists (p.995)


Mr. & Mrs. Gandhi
Three Portraits of Gandhi

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).

This work is in the public domain in India because it originates from India and its term of copyright has expired. According to The Indian Copyright Act, 1957, all documents enter the public domain after sixty years counted from the beginning of the following calendar year (ie. as of 2021, prior to 1 January 1961) after the death of the author.

This work is also in the public domain in the U.S.A. because it was in the public domain in India in 1996, and no copyright was registered in the U.S.A. (This is the combined effect of India's joining the Berne Convention in 1928, and of 17 USC 104A with its critical date of January 1, 1996.)