The Cambridge History of American Literature/Book I/Chapter III

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Chapter III: The Puritan Divines, 1620-1720[edit]

§ 1. Puritans and Politics.[edit]

NEW ENGLAND Puritanism—like the greater movement of which it was so characteristic an offshoot—is one of the fascinating puzzles in the history of the English people. It phrased its aspirations in so strange a dialect, and interpreted its programme in such esoteric terms, that it appears almost like an alien episode in the records of a practical race. No other phase of Anglo-Saxon civilization seems so singularly remote from every-day reality, so little leavened by natural human impulses and promptings. Certain generations of Englishmen, seemingly for no sufficient reason, yielded their intellects to a rigid system of dogmatic theology, and surrendered their freedom to the letter of the Hebrew Scriptures; and in endeavouring to conform their institutions as well as their daily actions to self-imposed authorities, they produced a social order that fills with amazement other generations of Englishmen who have broken with that order. Strange, perverted, scarce intelligible beings those old Puritans seem to us—mere crabbed theologians disputing endlessly over Calvinistic dogma, or chilling the marrow of honest men and women with their tales of hell-fire. And we should be inclined to dismiss them as curious eccentricities were it not for the amazing fact that those old preachers were not mere accidents or by-products, but the very heart and passion of the times. If they were listened to gladly, it was because they uttered what many were thinking; if they were followed through tribulation and sacrifice by multitudes, it was because the way which they pointed out seemed to the best intelligence of their hearers the divinely approved path, which, if faithfully followed, must lead society out of the present welter of sin and misery and misrule into a nobler state. For the moment religion and statecraft were merged in the thought of Englishmen; and it was because the Puritan ministers were statesmen as well as theologians—the political quite as much as the religious leaders—that the difficult task of social guidance rested for those generations with the divines. How they conducted themselves in that serious business, what account they rendered of their stewardship, becomes therefore a question which the historian may not neglect.

§ 2. Puritanism as Jacobean Radicalism.[edit]

It was to set up a Kingdom of God on earth that the Puritan leaders came to America; and the phrase should enlighten us concerning their deeper purpose. But no sooner was their work well under way than the conception of a kingdom of God tended to merge in the newer conception of a commonwealth of Christ, and this in turn found itself confronted by the still newer conception of a commonwealth of free citizens; and it is the painful wrestling with these changing ideals, with all that was implied in each to the several classes and institutions of society, that gives historical significance to the crabbed writings of the New England divines. As political thinkers they inherited a wealth of political speculation, accumulated during more than a hundred years of extraordinary intellectual activity; and if we would understand the matter as well as the manner of their disputations, we must put ourselves to the trouble of translating the obsolute phraseology into modern equivalents, and conceive of Puritanism as the expression of current English radicalism. It was the English beginning of the great modern social readjustment which goes under the name of the democratic revolution; and its total history, covering a long period of a hundred and forty years, constitutes a noble chapter in the struggle for human freedom. If the evolution of modern society falls into two broad phases, the disintegration of the old caste society into free citizens, and the regrouping the free citizens into a new social democracy, the significance of Puritanism becomes clear—it was a disruptive force that served to destroy the cohension of the ancient caste solidarity resolving society into its individual members. It was the rebellion of the many against the overlordship of the few; a rebellion that proposed to coerce the freedom of men by the law of God alone; a challenge of existing institutions and regnant philosophies, which if successful could not fail to bring about profound social changes.

§ 3. Types of Church Polity Corresponding to Types of State Polity—Monarchical, Artistocratic, Democratic.[edit]

Necessarily, therefore, the Puritan reformation was allied with political reformation, and the period of ecclesiastical reorganization was equally a period of political reorganization. Modern political parties were thrown up out of the ferment of religious dispute, and the inevitable cleavages of Puritan thought were determined broadly by the cleavages of political thought. The three parties in the ecclesiastical field, Anglican, Presbyterian, and Independent, reflected the current political ideals of tory, whig, and democrat. The first was monarchical in principle, the ecclesiastical expression of tory absolutism. It gathered to its support the hereditary masters of society, who held that there should be one authoritative church, to which every subject of the crown must belong, to the support of which all must contribute, and in the governance of which only the appointed hierarchy should share. The second party was aristocratic in principle, the expression of the rising ideal of whiggery, or government by property through the instrumentality of landed gentlemen. Country squires and prosperous London citizens desired a church system which they could control, and this system they discovered in Presbyterianism, newly brought over from Geneva, which gave the control of the parish to the eldership, composed of responsible gentlemen who should serve as trustees for the good of the whole. The third party was more or less consciously democratic in principle, the expression of the newly awakened aspirations of the social underling. The poor man wanted to be ruled neither by bishops nor by gentlemen, but preferred to club with the likeminded of his own class, and set up an independent church along democratic lines. That was the true Christian church, he believed, which withdrew from all communion with sinners and established a “Congregation of the Saints”; and so he called himself a Separatist. But whatever name he might call himself by, he was at bottom a democrat who demanded the right of self-government in the church, and who, when times were ripe, would assuredly assert the greater right of self-government in the state.

Broadly speaking, the Anglicans kept the situation pretty well in hand up to the accession of Charles I. During the long disputes between Charles and the Parliament, the rising party of Presbyterians was organizing its forces to break the rule of the bishops, and the early years of Parliamentary sovereignty marked the culmination of the middle period, dominated by the Presbyterian ideal. But no sooner was the ruthless hand of tory absolutism struck down than the long gathering forces of social discontent came to a head and broke with the moderate party of Presbyterian reformers; whereupon there followed the real Puritan revolution which had been preparing since the days of Wyclif. The Separatists seized control of Parliament and set about the work of erecting a government that should be a commonwealth of free citizens; the voice of the democratic underling, for the first time in English history, was listened to in the national councils, and the army of the democrat stood ready to enforce his demands with the sword. But unfortunately the strong wine went to the head; unbalanced schismatics endeavoured to set up impossible Utopias; zeal outran wisdom; and the Puritan movement broke at last into a thousand sects and went to pieces. But not before its real work was done; not before the political principles, which hitherto had been obscurely entangled in theological disputation, were set free and held up to the view of Englishmen; not before the new democratic philosophy had clarified its fundamental principle, namely, that the individual both as Christian and citizen derives from nature certain inalienable rights which every church and every government is bound to respect.

§ 4. Early New England Congregationalism a Compromise between Aristocracy and Democracy.[edit]

It was during the decade of the thirties, at the moment when Presbyterianism was in the ascendancy, that the Puritan migration to New England took place; and the leaders of that notable movement were effectively Presbyterian in sympathies and policies. Possessed of ample means and of good social position, they were liberals rather than radicals, and they shared the common Presbyterian hope of capturing the ecclesiastical establishment as a whole instead of separating from it. But they had been preceded to America by the Plymouth congregation, a body of low-born Separatists, who had set up a church upon frankly democratic principles. In an unfortunate moment for Presbyterianism, the pioneer church at Salem came under the influence of the Plymouth example, and the following year, when the main body of Puritans came over with Winthrop, they fell in with the Salem example and set up the new churches on the Congregational principle, as seeming to provide the most suitable form for the development of a theocracy. The inconsistency of an arrangement by which an aristocratic leadership accepted a democratic church organization was obscured for the moment by the unanimity of ministers and congregation; but it was clearly perceived by the Presbyterians of the old country, and it was to prove the source of much contention in later years.

§ 5. The Emigrants: the Theocratic Group—John Cotton, Nathaniel Ward, John Eliot; the Democratic Group—Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker.[edit]

Out of this fundamental inconsistency sprang a large part of the literature with which we are concerned in the present chapter. The ministers, as the spokesmen of New England, soon found themselves embroiled in controversy. During the first ten years or more the controversy lay between New England and old England Puritans, and the burden upon the former was to prove to the satisfaction of English Presbyterianism that the “Congregational way” was not democratic Separatism, with its low stigma of Brownism, but aristocratic Presbyterianism. During the later years, when Presbyterianism had been definitely overthrown in England, the controversy lay between the theocratic hierarchy—which after the year 1637 was the dominant power—and the dissenting democracy; the former seeking to Presbyterianize the church away from its primitive Congregationalism, the latter seeking to maintain the purity of the Plymouth ideal. In dealing with the several ministers, therefore, we shall divide them into the emigrant generation and the native generations, and set the aristocratic Presbyterians over against the democratic Congregationalists, endeavouring to understand the chief points at issue between them.

The most authoritative representative of the ideals of the middle period of Puritanism—its aristocratic conservatism in the guise of theocratic polities—was the celebrated John Cotton, first Teacher to the church at Boston. Of good family and sound university training, he was both a notable theologian and a courteous gentleman. “Twelve hours in a day he commonly studied, and would call that a scholar’s day,” his grandson reported of him; and his learned eloquence was universally admired by a generation devoted to solid argumentative discourse. When he ascended the pulpit on Sundays and lecture days, he carried thither not only the wisdom of his beloved master Calvin but the whole Puritan theology to buttress his theses. Good men were drawn to him irresistibly by his sweetness of temper, and evil men were overawed by his venerable aspect. For all his severe learning he was a lovable man, with white hair framing a face that must have been nobly chiselled, gentle-voiced, courteous, tactful, by nature “a tolerant man,” than whom none “did more placidly bear a dissentient,” or more gladly discover a friend in an antagonist. If his tactful bending before opposition, or his fondness for intellectual subtleties, drew from his grandson the appellation “a most excellent casuist.” we must not therefore conclude that he served the cause of truth less devotedly than the cause of party.

For in his mildly persistent way John Cotton was a revolutionist. A noble ideal haunted his thought, as Utopian as any in the long roll of Utopian dreams—the ideal of a Christian theocracy which should supersede the unchristian government which Englishmen had lived under hitherto. A devout scripturist, he accepted the Hebrew Bible as the final word of God, not to be played fast and loose with but to be received as a rule of universal application, perfect to the last word and least injunction. The sufficiency of the Scriptures to social needs was an axiom in his philosophy; “the more any law smells of man the more unprofitable,” he asserted in his proposed draft of laws; and at another time he exclaimed, “Scripturae plenitudinem adoro.” He chose exile and the leaving of his beautiful English church rather than yield to what he regarded as the unscriptural practices of Laud, and now that he was come to a new land where a fresh beginning was to be made, was it not his Christian duty to “endeavour after a theocracy, as near as might be, to that which was the glory of Israel, the ‘peculiar people’”? The old common law must be superseded by the Mosaic dispensation, the priest must be set above the magistrate, the citizen of the commonwealth must become the subject of Jehovah, the sovereignty of the state must yield to the sovereignty of God.

It was a frankly aristocratic world in which John Cotton was bred, and if he disliked the plebeian ways of the Plymouth democracy equally with the Brownist tendencies of Plymouth Congregationalism, it was because they smacked too much of popular sovereignty to please him. And when he found himself confronted by signs of democratic unrest in Boston his course of action seemed to him clear. The desire for liberty he regarded as the sinful prompting of the natural man, a godless denial of the righteous authority of the divinely appointed rulers. If democracy were indeed a Christian form of government, was it not strange that divine wisdom should have overlooked so significant a fact? In all the history of the chosen people nowhere did God designate the democratic as the perfect type, but the theocratic; was He now to be set right by sinful men who courted popularity by stirring the dirt in the bottom of depraved hearts? To a scripturist the logic of his argument was convincing: It is better that the commonwealth be fashioned to the setting forth of God’s house, which is his church: than to accomodate the church frame to the civill state. Democracy, I do not conceyve that ever God did ordeyne as a fit government eyther for church or commonwealth. If the people be governors, who shall be governed? As for monarchy, and aristocracy, they are both of them clearely approoved, and directed in scripture, yet so as referreth the soveraigntie to himselfe, and setteth up Theocracy in both, as the best forme of government in the commonwealth, as well as in the church.[1]

Holding to such views, the duty devolving upon him was plain—to check in every way the drift towards a more democratic organization, and to prove to old-world critics that the evil reports of the growing Brownism in New England, which were spreading among the English Presbyterians, were without foundation. The first he sought to accomplish by the strengthening of the theocratic principle in practice, busying himself in a thousand practical ways to induce the people to accept the patriarchal rulership of the ministers and elders, in accordance with the “law of Moses, his Judicials”; the second he sought to accomplish by proving, under sound scriptural authority, the orthodoxy of the New England way. His chief effort in this latter field was his celebrated work, The Way of the Congregational Churches Cleared; a treatise crammed, in the opinion of an admirer, with “most practical Soul-searching, Soul-saving, and Soul-solacing Divinitie,” “not Magisterially laid down, but friendly debated by Scripture, and argumentatively disputed out to the utmost inch of ground.” The partisan purpose of the book was to prove that Congregationalism, as practised in New England, was nearer akin to aristocratic Presbyterianism than to democratic Brownism; and of this purpose he speaks frankly: Neither is it the Scope of my whole Book, to give the people a share in the Government of the Church …. Nay further, there be that blame the Book for the other Extreme, That it placeth the Government of the Church not at all in the hands of the People, but of the Presbyterie.[2]

Out of this same theocratic root sprang the well-known dispute with Roger Williams concerning toleration. Not freedom to follow the ways of sin, but freedom to follow the law of God—this was Cotton’s restriction upon the “natural liberties” of the subject of Jehovah. There must be freedom of conscience if it be under no error, but not otherwise; for if freedom be permitted to all sinful errors, how shall the will of God prevail on earth? In this matter of toleration of conscience, it is clear enough today that the eyes of the great theocrat, “so piercing and heavenly (in other and precious Truths of God)”—as Roger Williams acknowledged—were for the moment sadly “over-clouded and bloud-shotten.” But for this the age rather than the man was to blame. It was no fault of John Cotton’s that he was the product of a generation still resting under the shadow of absolutism, unable to comprehend the more democratic philosophy of the generation of Roger Williams. He reasoned according to his light; and if he was convinced that the light which shone to him was a divine torch, he proved himself thereby a sound Puritan if not a good Christian.

The native sweetness and humanity of Cotton’s character, despite his rigid theocratic principles, comes out pleasantly when the great preacher is set over against the caustic lawyerminister and wit, Nathaniel Ward of Ipswich, author of the strange little book, The Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, and chief compiler of the celebrated Body of Liberties. Born nearly two-score years before Roger Williams, he was well advanced in his sixties when he set foot in the new world, and upwards of seventy when he wrote the Simple Cobbler. More completely than any of his emigrant brethren he belonged to the late Renaissance world, which lingered on into the reigns of James and Charles, zealously cultivating its quaint garden of letters, coddling its odd phrases, and caring more for clever conceits than for solid thought. Faithful disciple of Calvin though he was, there was in him a rich sap of mind, which, fermented by long observation and much travel, made him the raciest of wits, and doubtless the most delightful of companions over a respectable Puritan bottle. “I have only Two Comforts to Live upon,” Increase Mather reported him as saying; “The one is in the Perfections of Christ; The other is in The Imperfections of all Christians.”

It is the caustic criticism of female fashions, and the sharp attack upon all tolerationists who would “hang God’s Bible at the Devil’s girdle,” that have caught the attention of later readers of the Simple Cobbler; but it was as a “subtile statesman” that Ward impressed himself upon his own generation, and it is certainly the political philosophy which gives significance to his brilliant essay. Trained in the law before he forsook it for the ministry, he had thought seriously upon political questions, and his conclusions hit to a nicety the principles which the moderate Presbyterians in Parliament were developing to offset the Stuart encroachments. The insufficiency of the old checks and balances to withstand the stress of partisanship was daily becoming more evident as the struggle went forward. There must be an overhauling of the fundamental law; the neutral zones must be charted and the several rights and privileges exactly delimited. What was needed was a written constitution. Hitherto God “hath taken order, that ill Prerogatives, gotten by the Sword, should in time be fetcht home by the Dagger, if nothing else will doe it: Yet I trust there is both day and means to intervent this bargaine.” To preserve a just balance between rival interests, and to bring all parties to a realization of their responsibility to God, were the difficult problems with which Ward’s crotchety lucubrations mainly concern themselves.

Authority must have power to make and keep people honest; People, honesty to obey Authority; both, a joynt-Councell to keep both safe. Moral Lawes, Royall Prerogatives, Popular Liberties, are not of Mans making or giving, but Gods: Man is but to measure them out by Gods Rule: which if mans wisdome cannot reach, Mans experience must mend: And these Essentials, must not be Ephorized or Tribuned by one or a few Mens discretion, but lineally sanctioned by Supreame Councels. In pro-re-nascent occurrences, which cannot be foreseen; Diets, Parliaments, Senates, or accountable Commissions, must have power to consult and execute against intersilient dangers and flagitious crimes prohibited by the light of Nature: Yet it were good if States would let People know so much beforehand, by some safe woven manifesto, that grosse Delinquents may tell no tales of Anchors and Buoyes, nor palliate their presumptions with pretense of ignorance. I know no difference in these Essentials, between Monarchies, Aristocracies, or Democracies….

He is a good King that undoes not his Subjects by any one of his unlimited Prerogatives: and they are a good People, that undoe not their Prince, by any one of their unbounded Liberties, be they the very least. I am sure either may, and I am sure neither would be trusted, how good soever. Stories tell us in effect, though not in termes, that over-risen Kings, have been the next evills to the world, unto fallen Angels; and that over-franchised people, are devills with smooth snaffles in their mouthes … I have a long while thought it very possible, in a time of Peace … for disert Statesmen, to cut an exquisite thred between Kings Prerogatives, and Subjects Liberties of all sorts, so as Caesar might have his due and People their share, without such sharpe disputes. Good Casuists would case it, and case it, part it, and part it; now it, and then it, punctually.

Nathaniel Ward was no democrat and therefore no Congregationalist. “For Church work, I am neither Presbyterian, nor plebsbyterian, but an Interpendent,” he said of himself. But his Interpendency was only an individualistic twist of Presbyterianism. For the new radicals who were rising out of the turmoil of revolution, he had only contempt; and for their new-fangled notion of toleration, and talk of popular liberties, he felt the righteous indignation of the conservative who desires no altering of the fundamental arrangements of society. Only the Word of God could justify change; and so when he was commissioned to write a body of liberties for the new commonwealth, he presented as harsh and rigid a code as the sternest theocrat could have wished, a strange compound of the brutalities of the old common law and the severities of the Mosaic rule. He was too old a man to fit into the new ways—a fact which he recognized by returning to England to die, leaving behind him as a warning to Congregationalism the pithy quatrain:

The upper world shall Rule,:   While Stars will run their race:
The nether world obey,
  While People keep their place.

The more one reads in the literature of early New England the more one feels oneself in the company of men who were led by visions, and fed upon Utopian dreams. It was a day and a world of idealists, and of this number was John Eliot, saintly apostle to the Indians, who, in the midst of his missionary dreams and the arduous labours of supplying the bread of life to his native converts, found time to fashion his brick for the erection of that temple which the Puritans of the Protectorate were dreaming of. The idols had been broken under the hammer of Cromwell; the malevolent powers that so long had held sway at last were brought low; it remained now only for the people of God to enter into a solemn covenant to establish a commonwealth after the true divine model. That no mistake should be made in so important a matter, John Eliot sent out of the American wilderness the plan of a Christian Utopia, sanctioned by Mosaic example and buttressed at every point by chapter and verse, which he urged upon the people of England as a suitable guide to their feet.

Naked theocracy is nowhere more uncompromisingly delineated than in the pages of The Christian Commonwealth. At the base of Eliot’s political thinking were the two germinal conceptions which animated his theocratic brethren generally: the conception that Christ is King of Kings, before whom all earthly authority must bow, and the conception that the Scriptures alone contain the law of God. “There is undoubtedly a forme of civil Government instituted by God himself in the holy Scriptures…. We should derogate from the sufficiency and perfection of the Scriptures, if we should deny it.” From these main premises he deduced a system that is altogether remarkable for its thorough-going simplicity. Since the law has been declared once for all, perfect and complete, there is no need for a legislative branch of government; and since Christ is the sole overlord and king, there is no need for an earthly head of the state; it remains only to provide a competent magisterial system to hear causes and adjudicate differences. Society is concerned wholly with duties and not at all with rights; government therefore begins and ends with the magistrate. In order to secure an adequate magistracy, Eliot proposed to divide society into groups of tens, fifties, hundreds, and thousands, each of which should choose its rulers, who in turn should choose their representatives in the higher councils; and so there was evolved an ascending series of magistrates until the supreme council of the nation was reached, the decisions of which should be final.

The duties of all the Rulers of the civil part of the Kingdom of Christ, are as followeth … to govern the people in the orderly and seasonable practice of all the Commanders of God, in actions liable to Political observations, whether of piety and love to God, or of justice, and love to man with peace.

Far removed as The Christian Commonwealth was from the saner thought of the Army democrats, it is the logical culmination of all theocratic dreams. The ideal of social unity, of relentless conformity, according to which the rebel is a social outlaw to be silenced at any cost, dominates this Christian Utopia as mercilessly as it dominated the policy of Laud. In setting up King Jesus for King Charles, there was to be no easing of the yoke upon the rebellious spirit; and in binding society upon the letter of the Scripture there was to be no room for the democratic aspirations of the leveller. Curious as this little work is—testifying rather to the sincerity of Eliot’s Hebraism than to his political intelligence or to his knowledge of men—it is characteristic of the man who consecrated his life to the dream of an Indian mission. How little disturbed he was by the perversities and limitations of facts, is revealed anew in the polity which he laid down for his Indian converts:

And this VOW I did solemnly make unto the Lord concerning them; that they being a people without any forme of Government, and now to chuse; I would endeavour with all my might, to bring them to embrace such Government, both civil and Ecclesiastical, as the Lord hath commanded in the holy Scriptures; and to deduce all their Lawes from the holy Scriptures, that so they may be the Lord’s people, ruled by him alone in all things.

Which vow, considering the state of the Indian tribes to whom it was to apply, may serve to throw light upon the causes of the scant success of the Saints in dealing with the Indians.

Despite the logic of the theocrats, unanimity of opinion among the Saints was sadly lacking; and the peace of the new Canaan was troubled and the patience of the leaders sorely tried by pious malcontents, who were not content that God should rule through John Cotton, but themselves desired to be the Lord’s vicegerents. The democrats were constantly prodding the ruling coterie of gentlemen; and the democratic conception of a commonwealth of free citizens intruded more and more upon the earlier conception of a kingdom of God. Capable leaders of the new radicalism were not lacking; and if we would comprehend the dissension and heart-burnings of those early times, we must set the figures of Roger Williams and Thomas Hooker over against John Cotton and the theocrats.

Roger Williams, advocate of toleration, was the most tempestuous soul thrown upon the American shores by the revolution then griping England, the embodiment and spokesman of the new radical hopes. He was an arch-rebel in a rebellious generation, the intellectual barometer of a world of stormy speculation and great endeavour. A generation younger than the Boston leaders, he came to maturity at the beginning of the wave of radicalism that was to sweep England into civil war. Older ties of class and custom he put aside easily, to make room for the new theories then agitating young Englishmen; and these new theories he advocated with an importunity disconcerting to practical men more given to weighing times and occasions. The kernel of his radicalism was the ideal of a democratic church in a democratic society. The more closely we scrutinize the thought of the great Separatist, the more clearly we perceive that the master principle of his career was Christian—the desire to embody in his life the social as well as the spiritual teachings of Christ. He put aside tradition and went back to the foundation and original of the gospel, discovering anew the profoundly revolutionary conceptions that underlie the philosophy of Jesus. He learned to conceive of men literally as the children of God and brothers in Christ, and out of this primary conception he developed his democratic philosophy. It was to set up no Hebraic absolutism that he came to America; it was to establish a free commonwealth of Christ in which the lowest and meanest of God’s children should share equally with the greatest. But before there could be a free commonwealth there must lie upon the conscience of the individual Christian; and so Roger Williams threw himself into the work of spreading the propaganda of Separatism. Not only did he protest in New England against the tyranny of the magistrates, but he flung at the heads of all enemies of freedom the notable book on toleration in which he struck at the root of the matter by arguing that “conscience be permitted (though erroneous) to be free.”

In an earlier age he would have become a disciple of St.Francis; but in the days when the religious movement was passing over into a political movement, when it was being talked openly that both in church and state “the Originall of all free Power and Government” lies in the people, he threw in his lot with the levellers to further the democratic movement. As early as 1644 he had formulated his main principles:

From this Grant I infer … that the Soveraigne, originall, and foundation of civill power lies in the people … And if so, that a People may erect and establish what forme of Government seemes to them most meete for their civill condition: It is evident that such Governments as are by them erected and established, have no more power, nor for no longer time, then the civill power or people consenting and agreeing shall betrust them with. This is cleere not only in Reason, but in the experience of all commonweales, where the people are not deprived of their naturall freedome by the power of Tyrants.[3]

Clearly the radical times, his own experience, and his discussions with Sir Harry Vane had carried Roger Williams far into the field of political speculation, and confirmed his prepossessions of broader political rights for the common people from whom he had sprung. In all his later thinking there stood sharply before his mind the figure of the individual citizen, endowed with certain inalienable rights, a free member of a free commonwealth; and it was this profoundly modern conception which he transported to the wilderness of Rhode Island, providing there a fit sanctuary for the ark of the democratic covenant which was soon to be roughly handled by the tory reaction of Restoration England.

A courageous and unselfish thinker was this old-time Separatist and democrat. The friendliest of souls, time has brought him the friends which his restless intellect drove from him in his own day. However hopelessly we may lose ourselves in the tangle of his writings, confused by the luxuriance of his Hebraic tropes, we can plainly discern the man, the most charitable, the most open-minded, the most modern, amongst the notable company of Puritan emigrants—the sincerest Christian among many who sincerely desired to be Christians. His own words most adequately characterize him: “Liberavi animam meam: I have not hid within my breast, my souls belief.” Naturally such a man could not get on with the Presbyterian leaders of Boston Bay; the social philosophies which divided them were fundamentally hostile; and the fate which Roger Williams suffered was prophetic of the lot that awaited later zealots in the democratic cause—to be outcast and excommunicate from respectable society.

A man of far different mettle was old Thomas Hooker of Hartford. The sternest autocrat of them all, a leader worthy to measure swords with the redoubtable Hugh Peters himself, a man of “mighty vigour and fervour of spirit” who, to further “his Master’s work, would put a king in his pocket,” he would seem to be the very stuff out of which to fashion a dictator for the snug Presbyterian Utopia. Nevertheless there was some hidden bias in the old Puritan’s nature that warped him away from Presbyterianism, and made him the advocate of a democratic Congregationalism. The great schism which rent the early theocracy, carrying off three congregations into the Connecticut wilderness, was an early witness to the antagonisms which lurked in the ambitions of diverse-minded enthusiasts. The seceders had other notions of church organization, it appears, than those held by the dominant group; but they were moderates, who believed that everything should be done decently and in order, and instead of setting up a clamour and bringing confusion upon God’s work, they withdrew quietly under the leadership of Thomas Hooker and set up their new church at Hartford.

Concerning the “grave and juditious Hooker” surprisingly little is known, notwithstanding the work that he did and the influence that he wielded during a masterful life. He was a man evidently regardless of fame, who took small pains to publish his virtues to the ears of posterity; nevertheless it is clear that he was a better democrat than the Boston leaders—the father of New England Congregationalism as it later came to be when the Presbyterian tendency was finally checked. For his pronounced democratic sympathies some ground may be discovered in his humble origin. He was sprung of a plain yeoman family, got his education by the aid of scholarships, married a “waiting-woman” to the wife of his patron, and lived plainly, untroubled by social ambitions. He was a self-made man who had risen by virtue of strength of character and disdained to be a climber. He was evidently one of the greatest preachers of his time in either England, and he had early been marked by Laud’s spies as one of “the people’s creatures” “who blew the bellows of their sedition.” He drew young men to him—among others John Eliot; and even though he should be silenced, his influence would remain. “His genius will still haunte all the pulpits in ye country, where any of his scholars may be admitted to preach,” one of the sycophants reported of him. Such a man must be reckoned with; and when in New England he found the ways too autocratic to suit him, he threw himself into the work of quickening the democratic unrest. “After Mr. Hooker’s coming over,” said Hubbard, “it was observed that many of the freemen grew to be very jealous of their liberties.”

He was more concerned with experimental religion than with theology, more the pastor than the teacher. Nevertheless, when the Massachusetts leaders were troubled by attacks of old-world Presbyterians directed against “the New-England way,” they drafted Hooker to write a defence. This was the origin of his Survey of the Summe of Church Discipline, a knotty book vigorous in thought and phrase, the most important contribution of New England Congregationalism to the great disputes of the time. The old champion went straight to the heart of the matter, seizing upon the political principles involved: But whether all Ecclesiasticall power be … rightly taken in to the Presbytery alone: Or that the people of the Particular Churches should come in for a share … This is left as the subject of the inquiry of this age, and that which occasions great thought of heart of all hands: Great thoughts of hearts in the Presbytery, as being very loth to part with that so chief priviledge, and of which they have taken possession so many years. Great thoughts of heart amongst the churches, how they may clear their right, and claim it in such pious sobriety and moderation, as becomes the Saints: being unwilling to loose their cause and comfort, meerly upon a nihil dicit: or forever to be deprived of so precious a legacy, as they conceive this is, though it hath been withheld from them, by the tyranny of the Pope, and prescription of times. Nor can they conceive it lesse, then a heedlesse betraying of their speciall liberties…by a carelesse silence, when the course of providence, as the juncture of things now present themselves, allows them a writt Ad meliusinquirendum…. These are the times when people shall be fitted for such priviledges, fit I say to obtain them, and fit to use them…. And whereas it hath been charged upon the people, that through their ignorance and unskilfulnesse, they are not able to wield such priviledges, and therefore not fit to share in any such power, The Lord hath promised: To take away the vail from all faces in the mountain, the weak shall be as David, and David as an Angel of God.[4]

If the Presbyterianizing party found the path they were treading thorny and rough, it was due in no small part to Thomas Hooker, who liberally bestrewed their path with impediments. Hebraist and theocrat though he professed to be, his Hebraic theocracy was grounded upon the people, and pointed straight towards the sovereignty of the individual congregation. “The Lord hath promised to take away the vail from all faces in the mountain”—and if the veil be removed and the people see, shall not the people judge concerning their own causes? In this faith Thomas Hooker lived and laboured, thereby proving his right to be numbered among the stewards of our American democracy.

§ 6. The Second Generation: the Theocratic Group—the Mathers; the Democrats—John Wise.[edit]

The fibre of the emigrant leaders had been toughened by conflict with old-world conservatism and turned radical by the long struggle with an arrogant toryism. By a natural selective process the stoutest-hearted had been driven overseas, and the well-known words of William Stoughton, “God sifted a whole Nation that he might send choice grain over into this wildernes,”[5] were the poetic expression of a bitter reality. But seated snugly in the new world, in control of church and state, the emigrant radicalism found its ardour cooling. The Synod of 1637 set a ban upon Antinomianism and other heretical innovations, and thereafter Massachusetts settled down to a rigid orthodoxy. The fathers had planted, was it not enough for the sons to water and tend the vine, and enjoy the fruit thereof? And so the spirit of conservatism took possession of the native generation, the measure of excellence being accounted the fidelity with which the husbandmen revered the work of the emigrant pioneers. Translated into modern terms, it means that the native ministers, having inherited a system of which they were the beneficiaries, discovered little inclination to question the title deeds to their inheritance, but were mainly bent on keeping them safe. To preserve what had been gained, and as far as possible to extend the Presbyterian principle, became their settled policy; and so in all the life of New England—in the world of Samuel Sewall, as well as in that of Cotton Mather—a harsh and illiberal dogmatism succeeded to the earlier enthusiasm.

The indisputable leader of the second generation was Increase Mather, son of Richard Mather, and father of Cotton, the most vigorous and capable member of a remarkable family. After graduating at Harvard, he entered Trinity College, Dublin, where he proceeded Master of Arts. He spent some years in England, preaching there to the edification of many, until the restoration of Charles sent him back to America to become the guilding spirit of the New England hierarchy. He was by nature a politician and statesman rather than a minister, the stuff of which frocked chancellors were made; and he needed only a pliant master to have become another Wolsey or Richelieu. He liked to match his wit in diplomacy with statesmen, and he served his native land faithfully and well in the matter of wheedling Dutch William into granting a new charter to Massachusetts. A natural autocrat, he was dictatorial and domineering, bearing himself arrogantly towards all underlings, unyielding in opposition to whoever crossed his will. And in consequence he gathered about his head such fierce antagonism that in the end he failed of his ambitions, and shorn of power he sat down in old age to eat the bread of bitterness.

Skill in organization was the secret of his strength. In no sense a creative thinker, wholly lacking in intellectual curiosity and therefore not given to speculation, he built up a compact hierarchical machine, and then suffered the mortification of seeing it broken to pieces by forces that lay beyond his control. If the theocratic ideal of ecclesiastical control of secular affairs were to maintain itself against the growing opposition, the ministers must fortify their position by a closer organization. They must speak as a unit in determining church policies; above all they must guard against the wolves in sheep’s clothing who were slipping into the pulpits to destroy the flocks. To effect such ends Synods were necessary, and Increase Mather was an ardent advocate of Synodical organization. He prompted the calling of the “Reforming Synod” of 1679–80, served as Moderator, dominated the debates, and drafted the report; and the purpose which underlay such work was the substitution of a Presbyterian hierarchy for the older Congregationalism. The church must dominate the state; the organized ministers must dominate the church; and Increase Mather trusted that he could dominate the ministers—such in brief was the dream of this masterful leader of the second generation.

The source of his power lay in the pulpit, and for sixty-four years the Old North Church was the citadel of Mather orthodoxy. His labours were enormous. Sixteen hours a day he commonly studied. Among many powerful preachers he was reckoned “the complete preacher,” and he thundered above his congregation with an authority that must have been appalling. His personal influence carried far, and doubtless there were many good men in Boston who believed—as Roger Williams said of John Cotton—that “God would not suffer” Increase Mather “to err.” Those whom his voice could not reach his pen must convince, and the busy minister set a pace in the making and publishing of books which only his busier son could equal. He understood thoroughly the power of the press, and he watched over it with an eagle eye; no unauthorized or godless work must issue thence for the pollution of the people; and to insure that only fit matter should be published he was at enormous pains to supply enough manuscript himself to keep the printers busy. The press was a powerful aid to the pulpit in shaping public opinion, and Increase Mather was too shrewd a leader not to understand how necessary it was to hold it in strict control. He was a calculating dictator, and he ruled the press with the same iron hand with which he ruled the pulpit. He was no advocate of freedom, for he was no friend of democracy.

Of the odium which an obstinate defence of a passing order gathered about the name of Mather, the larger share fell to the lot of Cotton Mather, whose passionately distorted career remains so incomprehensible to us. One may well hesitate to describe Cotton Mather; the man is unconceivable to one who has not read his diary. Unlike Increase, he was provincial to the core. Born and bred in Boston, his longest trips into the outer world carried him only a few miles from the Old North Meeting-house, where for years he served as co-labourer with his father. Self-centred and self-righteous, the victim of strange asceticisms and morbid spiritual debauches, every circumstance of his life ripened and expanded the colossal egotism of his nature. His vanity was daily fattened by the adulation of silly women and the praise of foolish men, until the insularity of his thought and judgment grew into a disease. His mind was clogged with the strangest miscellany of truth and fiction; he laboured to acquire the possessions of a scholar, but he listened to old wives’# tales with an amazing credulity. In all his mental processes the solidest fact fell into grotesque perspective, and confused itself with the most fantastic abortions. And yet he was prompted by a love of scientific investigation, and in the matter of inoculation for smallpox showed himself both courageous and intelligent.

Living under the shadow of his father, he was little more than a reduced copy of the Mather ambitions, inheriting a ready-made theology, a passion for the ideals of the emigrant generation, an infallible belief in the finality of the Mather conclusions. The masterfulness of old Increase degenerated in the son into an intolerable meddlesomeness; and in the years of reaction against ecclesiastical domination the position of Cotton Mather was difficult. He was exposed to attack from two sides; the tories with whom he would gladly have affiliated, and the democrats whom he held in contempt, both rejected the archaic theocracy. As his meddlesomeness increased, the attacks of his enemies multiplied, wounding his self-esteem bitterly—“having perhaps the Insults of contemptible People, the Assaults of those insignificant Lice, more than any man in New-England,” as his son testifies. “These troublesome but diminutive Creatures he scorn’d to concern himself with; only to pity them and pray for them.” He would die willingly, he believed, to save his erring people from their sins, but he obstinately refused to be dictated to by them.

Of the content of his innumerable writings the accompanying Bibliography will give sufficient indication. A man of incredible industry, unrestrained by any critical sense, and infatuated with printer’s ink, he flung together a jumble of old saws and modern instances and called the result a book. Of the 470 odd titles, the Magnalia alone possesses some vitality still, the repository of much material concerning early days in Massachusetts that we should not willingly lose. “In his Style, indeed,” according to a contemporary critic, “he was something singular, and not so agreeable to the Gust of the Age. But like his manner of speaking, it was very emphatical.” The emphasis, it must be confessed, is now gone from his pages, and the singularity remains, a singularity little agreeable to the gust of today.

The party of conservatism numbered among its adherents every prominent minister of the greater churches. The organization propaganda of the Mathers spread widely, and in 1705 a group of men put forth a series of “Proposals” looking to a closer union of the churches, and greater control of the separate congregations by the ministerial association.[6] Seven years later John Wise, pastor of the second church of Ipswich, published his Churches Quarrel Espoused, and in 1717, his Vindication of the New England Churches. The two works were a democratic counterblast to the Presbyterian propaganda, and stirred the thought of the churches so effectively as to nullify the Proposals, and put an end to all such agitation in Massachusetts.

Posterity has been too negligent of John Wise hitherto. Although possessed of the keenest mind and most trenchant pen of his generation of Americans, he was untainted by any itch of publicity, and so failed to challenge the attention of later times. Nevertheless, what we know of him is to his credit. An independent man, powerful of body, vigorous of intellect, tenacious of opinion, outspoken and fearless in debate, he seems to have understood the plain people whom he served, and he sympathized heartily with the democratic ideals then taking shape in the New England village. Some explanation of his democratic sympathies may be discovered in his antecedents. His father was a self-made man who had come over to Roxbury as indented servant—most menial of stations in that old Carolinian world. There he doubtless taught his son independence and democratic self-respect, which stood John Wise in good stead when he later came to speak for the people against the arbitrary tax of Andros, the encroachments of the Mathers, or the schemes of the hard-money men.

When, in response to the challenge of the Presbyterians, he turned to examine critically the work of the fathers, he found in it quite another meaning than Cotton Mather found. It was as a radical that he went back to the past, seeking to recover the original Congregational principle, which, since the conservative triumph in the Synod of 1637, had been greatly obscured. The theme of his two books is the same, a defence of the “venerable New-English constitution”; but the significance of them in the history of democratic America lies in the fact that he followed “an unbeaten path,” justifying the principles of Congregationalism by analogy from civil polity. Seemingly alone amongst the New England clergy of his day he had grounded himself in political theory; and the doctrine upon which he erected his argument was the new conception of “natural rights,” derived from a study of Puffendorf’s De Jure Nature et Gentium, published in 1672. This was the first effective reply in America to the old theocratic sneer that if the democratic form of government were indeed divinely sanctioned, was it not strange that God had overlooked it in providing a system for his chosen people? But Wise had broken with the literal Hebraism of earlier times, and was willing to make use of a pagan philosophy, based upon an appeal to history, a method which baffled the followers of the old school. They found difficulty in replying to such argument:

That a democracy in church or state, is a very honourable and regular government according to the dictates of right reason, And, therefore … That these churches of New England, in their ancient constitution of church order, it being a democracy, are manifestly justified and defended by the law and light of nature.

With the advance of the democratic movement of modern times, the life and work of John Wise take on new interest. After a spirited contest lasting for three-quarters of a century, theocratic Puritanism merged in ecclesiastical democracy. For two generations it had remained doubtful which way the church would incline. Dominated by gentlemen, it was warped toward Presbyterianism; but interpreted by commoners, it leaned towards Congregationalism. The son of a plebeian, Wise came naturally into sympathy with the spirit of radical Separatism, bred of the democratic aspirations of the old Jacobean underlings; and this radical Separatism he found justified by the new philosophy, as well as by the facts of the New England village world. The struggle for ecclesiastical democracy was a forerunner of the struggle for political democracy, which was to be the business of the next century; and in justifying his ecclesiasticism by political principles, John Wise was an early witness to the new order of thought.

§ 7. Learning of the Puritan Divines.[edit]

Judged by the severest standards, the Puritan ministers were a notable group of men; the English race has never bred their superiors in self-discipline and exalted ideals, and rarely their equals in consecration to duty. Their interests might be narrow and their sympathies harsh and illiberal; nevertheless men who studied ten to sixteen hours a day were neither boors nor intellectual weaklings. A petty nature would not have uttered the lament of Increase Mather:

not many years ago, I lost (and that’s an afflictive loss indeed!) several moneths from study by sickness. Let every God-fearing reader joyn with me in prayer, that I may be enable to redeem the time, and (in all wayes wherein I am capable), to serve my generation.[7]

From the long hours of reading they acquired a huge mass of learning; out of the many books they read they made still other books of like nature and purpose. The way of printer’s ink was the path of celebrity and authority, and the minister who had not a goodly number of volumes to his credit was an unprofitable servant, lacking ambition to glorify his Lord. Though they denied themselves in other things, they did not stint their library. In 1686 John Dunton numbered eight book-shops in the village of Boston; and in 1702 Cotton Mather described his study, “the hangings whereof, are Boxes with between two and three thousand Books in them.”

According to present taste it was an uninviting library; works of pure literature were as lacking as books of history and political philosophy and science. Nevertheless, though their reading was narrow, the ministers in many respects were in advance of their times. For all his grotesque lack of scientific method, Cotton Mather was more nearly a scientist than any other man of his day in Boston,—a weakness which laid him open to criticism. Under date of 23 December, 1714, Sewall noted in his diary:

Dr. C. Mather preaches excellently from Ps. 37. Trust in the Lord, etc., only spake of the Sun being in the centre of our system. I think it inconvenient to assert such problems.

His membership in the Royal Society, to which he forwarded his Curiosa Americana, encouraged him to keep abreast of current scientific thought; and it was from this source that he got the idea of inoculation for smallpox, which he urged upon the people of Boston so insistently that a war of pamphlets broke out. When we remember that during ninety years only two books on medicine were published in New England—one a popular pharmacopeia and the other a hand-book on smallpox prevention—it is suggestive that within a few months sixteen papers on inoculation came from the press. In this case the minister was in advance of the physicians.

§ 8. Their Industry and Influence.[edit]

If the influence of the ministers was commanding, it was due in part to their indisputable vigour, and in part, it must be acknowledged, to their control of the means of publicity. The complete domination of the press they regarded as their perquisite; and they swayed public opinion sometimes by means not wholly to their credit. Those who opposed their policies experienced difficulties in gaining a hearing. Thus Robert Calef, who attacked the Mathers because of the witchcraft business, found it desirable to send his manuscript to London for publication, and John Wise probably sent his manuscript of The Churches Quarrel Espoused to New York.[8] Complaints were heard that the press was closed. In the preface to The Gospel Order Revived, by T. Woodbridge and other malcontents, published in New York in 1700, The Reader is desired to take Notice that the Press in Boston is so much under the aw of the Reverend Author, whom we answer, and his Friends, that we could not obtain of the Printer there to print the following Sheets, which is the true Reason why we have sent the Copy so far for its Impression and where it was printed with some Difficulty.

When James Franklin spoke out roundly against the tyranny of the ministers, they induced the magistrates to teach him respect by throwing him into the common gaol. It was a serious matter to offend the hierarchy, even in the days of its decline, and far more serious to attack. But the days of its domination were numbered, and after 1720 the secular authority of the Puritan divines swiftly decayed. The old dream of a Kingdom of God was giving way, under pressure of economic circumstance, to the new dream of a commonwealth of free citizens. The theological age was to be followed by a political age, and in this later world of thought the Puritan divines were unfitted to remain leaders of the people.


  1. ^  Letter to Lord Say and Sele, Hutchinson, Hist.of Mass. Bay Colony, vol.I, p.497
  2. ^  Part II, p. 15.
  3. ^  Narr.Club Pub., III., 249.
  4. ^  Introd.
  5. ^  From a sermon entitled, New-Englands true interests; not to lie: Or, a Treatise declaring…the terms on which we stand, and the tenure by which we hold our…precious and pleasant things. Cambridge, 1670.
  6. ^  For an account of the movement, see Walker’s History of the Congregational Churches in the United States, pp.201-213.
  7. ^  Preface to Remarkable Providences.
  8. ^  See Bibliography on this point.


It is not possible within the compass of the present work to give a full bibliography of the New England divines. It has seemed best, therefore, to give a vol. 1–25 fairly adequate list of the writings of the better known men, supplemented by important contemporary material in biography and criticism, as well as later suggestive titles.

In making selection of the writers to be treated, the editor has been guided mainly by the political significance of the men–a consideration which has entailed the omission of influential ministers like Thomas Shepard, Charles Chauncy, John Wilson, John Norton, and John Davenport, of the emigrant generation; and of Benjamin Colman, Benjamin Wadsworth, Solomon Stoddard, and Samuel Willard, of the native generations. How greatly the bibliography would be added to if these men were included, becomes evident from a glance at such a as work Evans’ American Bibliography. Of the four last named there were published in America alone, prior to 1730, 186 titles, including Willard’s Compleat Body of Divinity, in two hundred and fifty expository Lectures, the first folio of divinity, and the largest work till then published in America. The emigrant generation was greatly hampered by the lack of an adequate press near at hand; but with the development of such a press, the quantity of output was enormously increased, and during the days of Puritan decline, New England rather than old England was the prolific home of theological controversy. The difficulties of making a bibliography of the field are very great, and in spite of the many special studies by various scholars drawn upon, it is scarcely to be hoped that numerous errors will not have crept in; care has been taken, however, to make it as trustworthy as possible. A few titles of general authorities are included by way of suggestion.


  • Dexter, Henry M. The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, as Seen in its Literature. With a Bibliographical Appendix. 1880. (An excellent history and indispensable for its bibliographical information.)
  • Masson, David. Life of Milton. 6 vols. London, 1859–1880. (Valuable for the English backgrounds of Puritanism.)
  • Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi American. London, 1702. Hartford, 2 vols., 1820, 1853. (An indispensable source-book, but not reliable.)
  • Sprague, W.B. Annals of the American Pulpit. 1857. Vols. 1 and VI. Tyler, M.C. A History of American Literature during the Colonial Period. 2 vols. 1897.
  • Walker, Williston. A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States. 1900. American Church History, vol. III. (Contains an excellent bibliography of criticism.)
  • Winsor, Justin. Memorial History of Boston. 4 vols. Boston, 1880–86.

I. JOHN COTTON (1585–1652)[edit]

  • The following list of Cotton’s writings has been compiled from the British Museum Catalogue, Winsor’s Catalogue of the Prince Library, Dexter’s Collections toward a Bibliography of Congregationalism, and Evans’ American Bibliography; supplemented from various other sources.

A. Separate Works[edit]

The Puritan Divines, 1620–1720[edit]
  • (1) Gods Promise to his Plantation. 2 Sam. 7.10. Etc. London, 1630, 1634. Boston, 1686. Reprinted in Old South Leaflets, no. 53 and New. Eng. Hist. & Gen. Reg. II. See Mead in Biography and Criticism.
  • (2) How far Moses Judicialls bind Mass[achusetts]. Printed with introd. by W.C. Ford, in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Sec. Series, 16, 274–284. Assigned by the ed. to 1636 [P], and believed to be a copy of Moses his Judicials.
  • (3) A Letter from Mr Cotton to Lord Say and Seal in the Year 1636. Printed in Hutchinson, Hist. Mass. Bay, 1, 496–501.
  • (4) An Abstract of the Lawes of New England as they are now established. London, 1641, 1655. Reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. First Series, v, 173; in Force Tracts, III, 1844; and by the Prince Soc. 1865. [See no. 2 above.]
  • (5) A coppy of a letter of Mr Cotton of Boston in New England, sent in answer of certaine objections made against the discipline and orders there. [London], 1641.
  • (6) Gods Mercie mixed with his Justice: or, his peoples deliverance in time of danger laid open in severall sermons. London, 1641. [See no. 44.]
  • (7) The Way of Life. Or, Gods way and course, in bringing the Soule into … the wayes of life and peace. London, 1641. In the Prince Library Cat. the title is given thus: The Way of Life. In foure Treatises. The pouring out of the Spirit, Sins deadly wound, The Christians Charge, the life of Faith. London, 1641.
  • (8) A Brief Exposition of the whole Book of Canticles … a Work very usefull and seasonable to every Christian: but especially such as endeavour and thirst after the setling of Church and State according to the Rule and Pattern of the Word of God, etc. London, 1642, 1648, 1655.
  • (9) The Churches Resurrection, or the Opening of The Fift and sixt verses of the 20th Chap. of the Revelation. London, 1642.
  • (10) The Doctrine of the Church, to which are committed the Keyes of the Kingdome of Heaven. [London], 1642. Second ed. same year. Third ed. "according to a more exact copy … and some few proofes and wordes added, etc." London, 1643. Another form, Questions and Answers upon Church Government, in a Treatise of Faith, etc., [P, 1713P] in Yale Univ. Lib. gives date, "begun 25. 11 M. 1634."
  • (11) A Modest and Cleare Answer to Mr. Balls Discourse on set formes of Prayer. London, [1642.]
  • (12) The Powring out of the Seven Vials; or an Exposition of the 16. Chapter of the Revelation, … with an Application of it to our Times, etc. [London] 1642, 1645.
  • (13) The True Constitution of a particular visible Church proved by Scripture, etc. London, 1642.
  • (14) Discourse about civil government in a new plantation whose design is Religion. [London], 1643. Re-issued with a slightly different title. Cambridge, 1663. [Assigned to J. Davenport by C. Mather. Cotton’s name is on the title page.]
  • (15) A Letter … to Mr Williams … Wherein is shewed, That those ought to be received into the Church who are Godly, though they doe not see, nor expressly bewaile all the pollutions in Church-fellowship, Ministery, Worship, Government. London, 1643. Reprinted, with introd. by R.A. Guild, in Narr. Club. Pub. 1, 287–311.
  • (16) The Keyes of the Kingdom of Heaven, and Power thereof, according to the Word of God … tending to reconcile some present differences about Discipline, etc. London, 1644. Re-issued the same year, [minor variations in the title-page]. Boston, 1852.
  • (17) Sixteene questions … propounded unto Mr John Cotton, of Boston in New England. Together with his Answers to each Question. London, 1644. [See no. 20.]
  • (18) The Covenant of Gods free grace most sweetly unfolded, etc. London, 1645.
  • (19) The Way of the Churches of Christ in New-England, or the Way of Churches walking in Brotherly equalitie, etc. London, 1645. [This and The Keyes were replied to in 1645, in a tract, Vindiciae Clavium … manifesting … the Middle-way (so called) of Independents, to be the Extreme, or By-way of the Brownists, etc.]
  • (20) A Conference at Boston With the Elders of New-England, With The Difference between the Christian and Antichristian Church. [The latter by F. Cornwell.] London, 1646. [Another version of no. 17.]
  • (21) The Controversie concerning liberty of conscience in matters of Religion truly stated … by way of answer to some arguments … sent unto him [by Roger Williams], etc. London, 1646, 1649.
  • (22) Milk for Babes drawn out of the Breasts of both Testaments, chiefly for the spirituall nourishment of Boston babes in either England, etc. London, 1646. Reprinted in Cambridge 1656, with title, Spirituall Milk for Boston Babes in either England. Drawn out of the Breasts of both Testaments for their souls nourishment. But may be of like use to any children. London, 1668. Boston, 1690. With Indian translation by Grindal Rawson, Cambridge, 1691. Included in the Indiane Primer, Boston, 1720.
  • (23) Severall Questions of Serious and necessary Consequence, Propounded by the Teaching Elders unto Mr. J.C. … with his respective Answers to each Question. [London], 1646, 1647. [See nos. 17 and 20 above. The questions seem to have excited great interest in England, as the different forms under which the original work was re-issued, testify.]
  • (24) A treatise of Mr Cottons, clearing certaine doubts concerning Predestination. Together with an examination thereof … by W. Twisse. London, 1646. [The title is deceptive; the work does not contain Cotton’s treatise.]
  • (25) The Bloudy Tenent, Washed, And made white in the bloud of the Lamb: being discussed and discharged of bloud-guiltinesse by just Defence … Whereunto is added a Reply to Mr. Williams Answer, to Mr. Cottons Letter. London, 1647.
  • (26) The Grounds and Ends of the Baptisme of the children of the Faithfull, etc. London, 1647.
  • (27) A Reply to Mr. Williams his Examination; And Answer of the Letters sent to him by John Cotton. London, 1647. Reprinted, with introd. by J. L. Diman, Narr. Club Pub. 11, 1–240. [See no. 25.]
  • (28) Singing of Psalmes, a Gospel-Ordinance. London, 1647, 1650.
  • (29) Ad Lectorem Praefatio Apologetica. Prefixed to J. Norton’s Responsio ad Totam Quaestionem, etc. [London] 1648.
  • (30) The Way of Congregational Churches cleared: in two treatises: etc. London, 1648. [Some copies bound with Hooker’s Survey, with a general title.]
  • (31) A Platform of Church discipline gathered out of the word of God: and agreed upon … in the Synod at Cambridge in New-England. Etc. Cambridge, 1649. [Probably the joint work of Cotton and R. Mather.]
  • (32) Christ the fountaine of life, etc. London, 1650.
  • (33) Of the Holinesse of Church Members. London, 1650.
  • (34) Letter to the "Lord General Cromwell." 1651. Prince Soc. Pub. 1: 262–265. See Cromwell’s Letter to Cotton. New Hamp. Hist. Soc. Col. 1.
  • (35) Verses, prefixed to S. Stone’s Congregational Church is a Catholike Visible Church. 1652.
  • (36) A Briefe Exposition … upon … Ecclesiastes. London, 1654. Sec. ed. "Corrected." 1657.
  • (37) Certain Queries Tending to Accommodation and Communion of Presbyterian & Congregationall Churches. London, 1654.
  • (38) The New Covenant, or, manner of giving and receiving of the Covenant of Grace to the Elect. The substance of sundry Sermons. London, 1654.
  • (39) The Result of a Synod at Cambridge, concerning The Power of Magistrates [and] Synods; etc. London, 1654.
  • (40) The Covenant of Grace … Whereunto are added: Certain Queries tending to Accommodation … Also, A Discussion of the Civill Magistrates Power in matters of Religion. London, 1655. [A general title covering the three tracts issued the preceding year.]
  • (41) An exposition upon the thirteenth chapter of the Revelation. London, 1655, 1656.
  • (42) A Practicall Commentary … with observations … upon the First Epistle Generall of John. London, 1656. 2d ed. "Inlarged," 1658.
  • (43) A Defence From the imputation of Selfe Contradiction, charged on him by Dan: Cawdrey. Oxford, 1658. [Prefixed is J. Owen’s Answer to Cawdrey about Schisme.]
  • (44) The Saints Support & Comfort in The Time of Distress and Danger, With divers other Treatises, etc. [A re-issue under different title of no. 6.]
  • (45) A Treatise of The covenant of Grace, As it is dispensed to the Elect Seed. The substance of divers Sermons. London, 1659. [A 2d ed., under different title, of no. 18.]
  • (46) A Sermon preached … at Salem. 1636. To which is prefixed, a Retraction of his former opinion concerning baptism. Boston, 1713.
  • (47) A Treatise. I. Of Faith. II. Twelve … articles of Christian religion. III. A doctrinal conclusion. IV. Questions & Answers upon Church-government. [Boston], 1713.
  • (48) In manuscript. Notes of Cotton’s sermons, preserved by I. Mather. Also, sermons. In Amer. Antiquar. Soc. Lib., Worcester, Mass.

B. Biography and Criticism[edit]

Considerable biographical material will be found in Winthrop’s Journal. For Cotton’s position in the Mrs. Hutchinson case, fairly full records have been in accounts of the trial, in Hutchinson, Hist. Mass. Bay, II, Appendix 2, 482–520; and in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Sec. Series, 4, 159–191. A suggestive discussion is given in C.F. Adams’ Three Episodes of Massachusetts History, Part II, The Antinomian Controversy. See also the Cotton Papers, in the Prince Library, listed in Winsor’s catalogue, 150. No satisfactory life of Cotton has been written.

  • A censure of … J.C., lately of New-England upon the way of Mr Hendon; expressed in some animadversions of his upon a letter of Mr Hendons, sometimes sent to Mr Elmeston, etc. [Two other parts.] London, 1656.
  • Blenkin, G.B. Boston, England, and John Cotton in 1621. N.E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. 28.
  • Brooks, William Gray. John Cotton, "The Father of Boston." [With portrait.] New Eng. Mag. Feb., 1887.
  • Cawdrey, Daniel. The Inconsistencie of the Independent way, With Scripture, and It Self …. I. Vindiciarum with Mr. Cotton, Etc. London, 1651.
  • Clarke, Sam. Lives of Ten Eminent Divines. London, 1662.
  • Ellis, Geo. E. John Cotton in Church and State. International Review. 1880.
  • Emerson, Wm. An Historical Sketch of the 1st Church in Boston, from its formation to the present period, etc. Boston, 1812.
  • Ford, W.C. John Cotton’s Moses, his judicials and abstract of the Laws of New England. Cambridge, 1902. Reprinted from Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc.
  • Gray, F.C. Remarks on the Early Laws of Mass. Bay, etc. 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. VIII. [A Consideration of Cotton’s share in forming the Body of Liberties.]
  • Hubbard, Rev. Wm. General History of New England. Chapters, 37–40. 2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. v.
  • Maclure, A.W. Lives of the Chief Fathers of New England. Vol. 1, 1870.
  • Mather, Cotton. Johannes in Eremo. Memoirs, Relating to the Lives of the Ever-Memorable, Mr. John Cotton … Mr. John Norton, etc. Boston, 1695. Reprinted in Magnalia, III, 8. [The Cotton portion based on Whiting.]
  • Mead, Edwin D. John Cotton’s Farewell Sermon to Winthrop’s Company at Southampton. 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. 1, 101–115.
  • Norton, John. The Life and Death of the deservedly Famous Mr. John Cotton, the late Reverend Teacher of the Church of Christ at Boston in New England. Collected out of the Writings and Information of … John Davenport … Samuel Whiting, etc. Cambridge, 1657. Reprinted, London, 1658, with the title: Abel being dead yet speaketh; or, the life and death of … John Cotton, etc. Re-issued as Memoirs of John Cotton, with preface and notes by E. Pond. 1842.
  • Norton, John. A Funeral elegy upon the Death of the truly Reverend Mr. John Cotton, etc. 4 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. IV, 331.
  • Parkman, Francis. Review of Pond’s Memoirs. North Amer. Review. Vol. 38.
  • Thornton, J.W. The Cotton Family. A genealogical table. N.E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. 1, 164.
  • Waterston, R.C. George Herbert and John Cotton. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. IX.
  • Walker, Williston. Ten New England Leaders. 1901.
  • Whiting, Rev. Samuel. Materials in Young’s Chronicles of Mass. 419–430. [One of the chief sources of C. Mather’s and J. Norton’s accounts. Whiting was Cotton’s parishioner in Boston, Eng., and later settled at Lynn, Mass.]
  • Young, A. John Cotton’s Life and Letters. Chronicles of the First Planters, etc. Boston, 1846.

II. NATHANIEL WARD (1578 [?]–1652)[edit]

A. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) The Liberties of the Massachusetts Colonie in New England. [Cambridge, 1641?] The celebrated Body of Liberties. Probably not originally published. A facsimile reproduction of the Hutchinson MS, with printed version, ed. by W. H. Whitmore, was published by the City of Boston, 1889. Frequently reprinted.
  • (2) The Simple Cobler of Aggawamm in America. Willing to help ‘mend his Native Country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper-Leather and sole, with all the honest stitches he can take. Etc. London, 1647. 4th ed. the same year. First reprinted in America, Boston, 1713. Several later editions, the latest by the Ipswich Hist. Soc. Salem, 1906. From 4th ed.
  • (3) A Religious Retreat sounded to a Religious Army. [London?], 1647.
  • (4) A Word to Mr. Peters, and Two Words to the Parliament and Kingdom, [London], 1647 [?]
  • (5) Mercurius Antime-chanicus, or the Simple Cobbler’s Boy, with his Lap full of Caveats. London, 1648. [Ascribed to Ward, but probably wrongfully.]
  • (6) The Pulpit Incendiary [?]
  • (7) Five letters to John Winthrop. Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 4th ser. VII, 23.
  • (8) Letter to the Rev. Mr. Sancroft. New Eng. Hist. and Gen. Reg. Jan., 1883.

B. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Dean, John Ward. A Memoir of Nathaniel Ward. Albany, 1868.
  • Gray, F.C. Remarks on the Early Laws of Mass. Bay; with the Code adopted in 1641, etc. Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 3d ser. VIII, 191. The Body of Liberties reprinted, pp. 216–237.
  • Phillips, Stephen H. Sketch of the Rev. Nathaniel Ward, of Ipswich. Essex Institute Hist. Col. Vol. VI. Salem, 1864.

III. JOHN ELIOT (1604–1690)[edit]

A. Separate Works[edit]

Much uncertainty exists in regard to the authorship of some of the Indian tracts commonly attributed to Eliot. As the best known of the Indian mission-aries, he was doubtless asked to contribute to various propagandist tracts, and to some he contributed letters, even though the body of the text was the work of other hands. The subject is considered in Francis’s Life of Eliot, 345–350.

  • (1) The Bay Psalm Book. [Cambridge], 1640. [See Richard Mather.]
  • (2) The Day Breaking, if not The Sun-Rising of the Gospell with the Indians in New-England, etc. [London], 1647. Reprinted in 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. IV; by Sabin, 1865; and in Old South Leaflets, no. 143, vol. VI. [An anonymous tract commonly attributed to Eliot, but according to Francis, “this is unquestionably a mistake.” Assigned by him to John Wilson.]
  • (3) The Glorious Progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England, etc. Published by Edward Winslow. London, 1649. [The body of the work consists of four letters, one by T. Mayhew and three by Eliot.]
  • (4) Letter to Hugh Peters, 12 Oct., 1649. In no. 17 of A Perfect Diurnall of Proceedings of the Armies in England, Ireland, and Scotland. [London], 1649.
  • (5) A Primer or Catechism, in the Massachusetts Indian Language. Cambridge, 1653 [?], or 1654[?], 1662, 1687.
  • (6) Tears of Repentance; A further Narrative of the Progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England; … Related by Mr. Eliot and Mr Mayhew, etc. London, 1653. Reprinted in 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. IV. [A “large tract published by the Corporation.” It contains Eliot’s Brief Relation of the Proceedings of the Lord’s Work among the Indians in reference unto their Church-Estate.
  • (7) The Book of Genesis. Translated into the Mass. Indian Language. Cambridge, 1655.
  • (8) A Late and Further … Being a Narrative of the Examinations of the Indians about their Knowledge in Religion, by the Elders of the Churches. Related by Mr. John Eliot. London, 1655. [“Published by the Corporation.” Consists of two parts: A Brief Narrative of the Indians’ Proceedings in respect of Church-Estate, etc; and The Examination of the Indians at Roxbury, the 13th Day of the 4th Month, 1654.]
  • (9) A Few Psalmes in Meeter. Translated into the Massachusetts Indian language. Cambridge, 1658.
  • (10) The Christian Commonwealth, or, the Civil Policy of the Rising Kingdon of Jesus Christ, written before the interruption of the government, etc. London, [1659]. Reprinted in 3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. IX.
  • (11) A Further Accompt of the Progresse of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England. By J. Eliot. London, 1659.
  • (12) Christiane Oonoowae Sampoowaonk: A Christian Covenanting Canfession [sic]. Cambridge, 1660, [1661], 1670.
  • (13) A Further Account of the Progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England; being a Relation of the Confessions made by several Indians, in order to their Admission into Church Fellowship. Sent over to the Corporation …. By Mr. John Eliot, etc. London, 1660. [Not the same as no. 11.]
  • (14) The New Testament … Translated into the Indian Language, etc. Cambridge, 1661, 1680–1.
  • (15) Holy Bible: containing the Old Testament and the New. Translated into the Indian Language, etc. Cambridge, 1663. Re-issued in revised form, 1685. [For a detailed account of this important work, see Evans’ American Bibliography.]
  • (16) The Pasalter or Book of Psalms—Up-Bookum Psalmes. Cambridge, 1663. [From the same forms as no. 15. Possibly another and different edition was issued, either in 1663, or 1664.]
  • (17) Wehkomaonganoo asquam peantogig etc. Cambridge, 1664, 1689. [A translation of Baxter’s Call to the Unconverted.]
  • (18) Communion of Churches: or, The Divine Managment of Gospel Churches, by the ordinance of Councils, Constituted … according to the Scriptures. As also The Way of bringing all Christian Parishes to be Particular Reforming Congregational Churches: Humbly proposed as a way which … may, by the blessing of the Lord, be a means of uniting those two holy and eminent Parties, the Presbyterians and the Congregationals, etc. Cambridge, 1655. [The first book privately printed in America.]
  • (19) Manitowompae pomantomoonk, etc. Cambridge, 1665, [1685?], 1686, 1687. [A translation of Bayly’s Practice of Piety.]
  • (20) The Indian Grammar begun, etc. Cambridge, 1666. Re-issued with notes, introd., and observations, by P. S. Du Ponceau and J. Pickering. Boston, 1822. In Old South Leaflets, no. 52, vol. 111.
  • (21) The Indian Primer; or the way of training up our Indian youth in the good knowledge of God, etc. Cambridge, 1669, 1687 [?]. Reproduced exactly, Edinburgh, 1877. With Confession of 1660 added, 1880.
  • (22) A Briefe Narrative of the Progress of the Gospel among the Indians in New England in the Year 1670. Given in by the Rev. Mr. John Eliot … in a Letter etc. [London] 1671. Reprinted by W. T. R. Marvin, Boston, 1868. In Old South Leaflets under title Eliot’s Brief Narrative, no. 21, vol. 1.
  • (23) Indian dialogues, for their instruction in that great service of Christ, etc. Cambridge, 1671.
  • (24) The Logick Primer. Some logical notions to initiate the Indians in the knowledge of the rule of reason; etc. [Cambridge], 1672.
  • (25) An Account of Indian Churches in New-England, in a letter. 1673. 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. X.
  • (26) The Harmony of the Gospels, in the holy history of the humiliation and sufferings of Jesus Christ, etc. Boston, 1678.
  • (27) A Brief Answer to a Small Book written by John Norcot Against Infant-Baptisme. Etc. Boston, 1679. [Given by Dexter as 1699.]
  • (28) The Dying Speeches of several Indians. [Cambridge. Between 1680 and 1686. Given by Dexter as 1680; by Evans, as 1683?]
  • (29) Sampwutteahae quinnuppekompauaenin. Etc. Cambridge, 1689. [A translation of T. Shepard’s Sincere Convert.]
  • (30) Indiane Primer Asuh negonneyeuuk. Boston, 1720. The Primer of 1669, edited and adapted by E. Mayhew, with the addition of Rawson’s translation of Cotton’s Milk for Babes.
  • (31) Letters. Description of New England, 1650. 2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. 11, 1644, Rhode Island Hist. Soc. New Series, VI, 1651–52, N. E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. XXXVI; 1664, N. E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. IX, 1670–1688, To Hon. Robert Boyle, 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. III.

The Puritan Divines, 1620–1720

B. The Indian Tracts[edit]

Considerable material relating to Eliot and work among the Indians is embodied in various tracts put forth to further the missionary cause among the native tribes. Some of the more important are listed below. For a discussion, see Francis’s Life.

  • (1) Good Newes from New England; or, A True Relation of Things very remarkable at the Plantation of Plimouth in New England … Written by E. W. [Edward Winslow] etc. London, 1624. Reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. First series, VIII, and Sec. series, IX.
  • (2) New England’s First Fruits, in Respect, 1. of the Conversion of some, Conviction of divers. Preparation of sundry of the Indians. 2. Of the Progresse of Learning in the College at Cambridge, etc. London, 1643. The second part reprinted, 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 1.
  • (3) The Cleare Sun-shine of the Gospel breaking forth upon the Indians in New England; or, An Historicall Narration of God’s wonderfull Workings, etc. By Mr. Thomas Shepard, etc. London, 1648. [Contains a letter by Eliot recounting his work among the Indians.]
  • (4) The Light appearing more and more towards the perfect Day; or, A further Discovery of the present State of the Indians in New England, etc. London, 1651. [Contains five letters from Eliot.]
  • (5) Strength out of Weakness; or, a Glorious Manifestation of the further Progresse of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New England, etc. London, 1652. [The “first tract published by `The Corporation for promoting the Gospel among the Heathen in New England.” Contains two letters from Eliot.]
  • (6) An Historical Account of the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England in 1675–7. Amer. Antiquarian Soc. 11. 1836. [Contains a letter from Eliot.]
  • (7) John Eliot and the Indians 1652–1657. Being Letters addressed to Rev. Jonathan Hanmer of Barnstaple, England. Reproduced from the Original Manuscripts in the possession of Theodore N. Vail. Ed. Eames, W. 1915.

C. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Byington, Ezra H. John Eliot, the Puritan Missionary to the Indians. Amer. Soc. Church Hist. Vol. VIII. 1897.
  • Francis, Convers. The Life of John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians. In Sparks’ American Biog. V. 1860. [The best life; contains bibliographical material.]
  • Historical Account of John Eliot … Collected from manuscripts, and books published the last century. By one of the Members of the Historical Society. 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. VIII, 5. 1802.
  • Mather, Cotton. The Triumphs of the Reformed Religion, in America. The Life of the Renowned John Eliot, etc. Boston, 1691. Reprinted in the Magnalia.
  • de Normandie, James. John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians. New Eng. Mag. Vol. XV.
  • Porter, J. F. John Eliot—the Apostle to the Indians. Littleton [Mass.] Hist. Soc. Proc. No. 1.
  • Sprague, Wm. B. Annals of the American Pulpit. Vol. 1. 1857.
  • Tedder, H.R. Life, in Dict. of Nat. Biog. [With bibliography.]
  • Walker, Williston. Ten New England Leaders. 1901.
  • Winters, W. The Pilgrim Fathers of Nazing. A genealogical sketch of the Eliot family, of Roxwell, County-Essex. N. E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. 28.

IV. Roger Williams (1608–1683)[edit]


  • The Works of Roger Williams. Ed. by members of the Narragansett Club. 6 vols. Providence, 1866–1874. The only collected edition. Contains like-wise J. Cotton’s contributions to the controversy with Williams; together with a bibliography of Williams’s works.

B. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) A Key into the Language of America: or, an Help to the Language of the Natives in that part of America called New England. Together with briefe Observations of the Customes, Manners and Worships, & c. of the aforesaid Natives, etc. London, 1643. Reprinted in Col. Rhode Island Hist. Soc. Vol 1; and in greater part, in Col. Mass. Hist. Soc. First Series, vols. III and V. Reprinted from a Manuscript copy by Z. Allen, 1827.
  • (2) Mr. Cotton Letter Lately Printed, examined and answered. London, 1644.
  • (3) The Bloudy Tenent, of Persecution, for cause of Conscience, discussed, in a Conference betweene Truth and Peace, who, in all tender Affection, present to the High Court of Parliament, (as the Result of their Discourse,) these, (amongst other Passages) of highest Consideration. [London], 1644. Reprinted by the Hanserd Knollys Soc. 1848.
  • (4) A Paraenetick, or Humble Addresse to the Parliament and assembly for (not loose but) Christian Libertie. Sec. impression, 1644. [Attributed in J. Carter Brown Cat. to R. W.]
  • (5) Queries of highest consideration proposed to Mr. Tho. Goodwin, Mr. Phillip Nye, Mr. Wil. Bridges, Mr. Jer. Burroughs, Mr. Sidr. Simpson, all Independents; and to the Commissioners from the General Assembly (so called) of the Church of Scotland upon occasion of their late printed Apologies for themselves and their Churches. In all Humble Reverence presented to the view of … the High Court of Parliament. London, 1644.
  • (6) The Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody: by Mr. Cottons endeavor to wash it white in the Blood of the Lambe; of whose precious Blood spilt in the Blood of his Servants; and of the Blood of Millions spilt in former and later Wars for Conscience sake, that most Bloody Tenent of Persecution for cause of Conscience, upon a second Tryal, is found now more apparently and more notoriously guilty …. Also … is added a Letter to Mr. Endicot Governor of the Massachusetts in N. E. London, 1652. Reprinted in Narr. Club. Pub. IV. Ed. by S. L. Caldwell, 1870.
  • (7) The Fourth Paper, Presented by Major Butler to … Parliament, for the Propagating the Gospel of Christ Jesus …. Together with a Testimony … by way of Explanation upon the Four Proposals of it, by R. W., etc. [London], 1652.
  • (8) The Hireling Ministry None of Christs, or a Discourse touching the Propagating the Gospel of Christ Jesus. Humbly Presented to such Pious and Honourable Hands, whom the present Debate thereof concerns. London, 1652.
  • (9) Experiments of Spiritual Life and Health, and their Preservatives in which the Weakest child of God may get Assurance of his Spirituall Life and Blessednesse, and the Strongest may finde proportionable Discoveries of his Christian Growth, and the means of it. London, 1652.
  • (10) George Fox Digg’d out of his Burrowes, Or an Offier of Disputation on fourteen Proposalls made this last Summer 1672 (so call’d) unto G. Fox then present on Rhode-Island in New-England, by R. W. As also how (G. Fox slily departing) the Disputation went on being managed three dayes … between John Stubs, John Burnet, and William Edmundson on the one part, and R. W. on the other. In which many Quotations out of G. Fox and Ed. Burrowes Book in Folio are alleadged. With an Appendix of some scores of G. F. his simple lame Answers … quoted and replyed to. Boston, 1676. Reprinted in Narr. Club. Pub. V. Ed. by J. L. Diman. 1872.
  • (11) Letters. From the year 1632 to 1675. In part reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. Fourth Series, vol. VI. For the first time collected in vol. VI, of the Narr. Club ed. of his works. Ed. by J. R. Bartlett, 1874. Eight letters to Winthrop, reprinted in Old South Leaflets. No. 54, vol. 3.
  • (12) Ten letters. In Rhode Island Hist. Soc. Pub. New Series, 8.
  • (13) Manuscript of Esau and Jacob’s Mystical Harmony. Mass. Hist. Soc. Lib.

C. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Carpenter, Edmund J. Roger Williams; a Study of the Life, Times and Character of a Political Pioneer. 1909. [Grafton Hist. Series.]
  • Dean, John Ward. Early Statements relative to the Early Life of Roger Williams. N. E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. 50.
  • Deane, Chas. Roger Williams and the Massachusetts Charter. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Feb., 1873.
  • Dexter, Henry M. As to Roger Williams and his “Banishment” from the Massachusetts Plantation. Boston, 1876.
  • Eddy, D. C. Roger Williams and the Baptists. Boston, 1861.
  • Elton, Romeo. Life of Roger Williams. London and Providence, 1853.
  • Guild, R. A. An Account of the Writings of Roger Williams. Providence, 1862.
  • —Footprints of Roger Williams. Providence, 1886.
  • —Roger Williams, Freeman of Massachusetts. Amer. Antiquar. Soc. New Series, 5. Worcester, 1888.
  • Hubbard, Rev. William. A General History of New England. Chap. 30. 2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 5, 202-213.
  • Johnson, L. D. Spirit of Roger Williams. 1839.
  • Knowles, James Davis. Memoirs of Roger Williams. Boston, 1834.
  • Lowell, J.R. New England Two Centuries Ago. In Among my Books.
  • Masson, David. Life of Milton. 6 vols. London, 1859–1880. Vols. 11–111. For a history of the idea of toleration before R.W. see vol.111,98 seq.
  • Mather, Cotton, Magnalia Christi Americana. VII,2.
  • Merriman, Titus M. Pilgrims, Puritans, and Roger Williams Vindicated, etc. Boston, 1892.
  • Straus, Oscar S. Roger Williams, the Pioneer of Religious Liberty. 1894.
  • Tuckerman, H.T. Roger Williams, The Tolerant Colonist. In Essays, Biographical and Critical. Boston, 1857.
  • Waters, Henry F. Genealogical Gleanings in England. N.E. Hist. and Gen. Reg.43, 291. [Establishes the place of Williams’s birth.]

V. THOMAS HOOKER (1586–1647)[edit]

A careful bibliography of Hooker’s writings, prepared by J. Hammond Trumbull, is appended to Walker’s Life of Hooker, from which the following list is mainly drawn.

A. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) The Poor Doubting Christian drawne unto Christ. London, [1629]. The twenty-third in a collection of twenty-nine sermons, published under the title, The Saints Cordials. As they were delivered in sundry sermons, etc. [See Mead’s discussion of Hooker’s farewell sermon, listed below.] 6th ed., with supplementary title, 1641, 1652, 1659, 1667. 12th ed. 1700. 1st Amer.ed., Boston, 1743. Re-issued, with life and introd. by Rev.Ed. W. Hooker. Hartford, 1845.
  • (2) The Soules Preparation for Christ. Or, A Treatise of Contrition. Etc. London, 1632, 1635, 1638 [twice], 1643, 1658.
  • (3) The Equall Wayes of God: Tending to the Rectifying of the Crooked Wayes of man. Etc. London, 1632.
  • (4) Advertisement and preface to W. Ames’ A Fresh suit against Human Ceremonies in Gods Worship. [London?], 1633.
  • (5) Letter to John Winthrop, concerning the Synods. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Sec. Series, VI–425. 1637.
  • (6) The Soules Effectuall Calling to Christ. [London], 1637. [Paged continuously with no.9, but published separately.]
  • (7) The Soules Humiliation. London, 1637, 1638. Amsterdam, 1638. London, 1640.
  • (8) The Soules Implantation. A Treatise containing, The Broken Heart, on Esay 57. 15. The Preparation of Heart, on Luke 1. 17. The Soules Ingraffing into Christ, on Mal. 3.1. Spirituall Love and Joy, on Gal. 5.22. [London], 1637. An improved ed. under title, The Soules Implanation into the Naturall Olive. Etc. 1640.
  • (9) The Soules Ingrafting into Christ. [London], 1637. [A portion of no.8.]
  • (10) An Exposition of the Lords Prayer. By T.H. 1638. [Probably by Hooker.]
  • (11) Four Godly and learned Treatises: viz. The Carnall Hypocrite. The Churches Deliverances. The Deceitfulness of Sinne. The Benefit of Afflictions. [London], 1638.
  • (12) Letter to John Winthrop on the hostile attitude of Mass. toward Conn. Conn. Hist. Soc. 1, 1; with notes by J.H. Trumbull. [See Winthrop’s reply, Life and Letters, II–421.]
  • (13) Letter to John Winthrop on the people’s share in “counsel and judicature.” Conn. Hist. Soc. 1, 11. [See Winthrop, Life and Letters, 11, 428.]
  • (14) Sermon before the General Court, May 31, 1638. [On the theory of democracy.] Conn. Hist. Soc. 1, 20, with notes by J.H. Trumbull.
  • (15) The Soules Exaltation. A Treatise containing the Soules Union with Christ. The Soules Benefit from Union with Christ… The Soules Justification, etc. [London], 1638.
  • (16) The Soules Possession of Christ:upon Romans 13.4.etc. [London], 1638. [Probably by Hooker.]
  • (17) The Soules Vocation or Effectual Calling to Christ. [London], 1638. [See no.6.]
  • (18) Thanksgiving Sermon, 4 Oct., 1638. Transcribed from notes and published [in part] in the Hartford Evening Press, 28 Nov., 1860, by J.H. Trumbull.
  • (19) The Unbeleevers Preparing for Christ. [London], 1638. Six sermons.
  • (20) The Garments of Salvation first putt off by the Fall of our first Parents. Secondly, putt on again by the Grace of the Gospel. [London], 1639[?]. [Probably by Hooker.]
  • (21) The Christians Two Chiefe Lessons, Viz. Selfe-Deniall, and Selfe-Tryall. Etc. In three treatises, etc. [London], 1640.
  • (22) The Patterne of Perfection exhibited in Gods Image on Adam and Gods Covenant with him,… Whereunto is added, An Exhortacion to redeeme tyme … Also certaine Queries touching a true and sound Christian, etc. [London, the 2nd ed.?] 1640.
  • (23) Letter to John Winthrop on the “Confederation.” 1643. Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 11, 310. [See Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. May, 1891.]
  • (24) The Danger of Desertion: or a Farwell Sermon of Mr. Thomas Hooker, Sometimes Minister… at Chainesford in Essex; but now of New England. Preached immediately before his departure out of old England. Together with Ten Particular rules to be practised every day by converted Christians [by E. Reyner.] [London], 1644. 2nd ed. the same year. [See Mead’s discussion of Hooker’s farewell sermon, listed below.]
  • (25) The Faithful Covenanter. A Sermon preached at the Lecture in Dedham in Essex…. Very usefull in these times of Covenanting with God. [London], 1644.
  • (26) An Exposition of the Principles of Religion. [London], 1645. [Doubtful.]
  • (27) The Saints Guide, in three Treatises, etc. London, 1645.
  • (28) Heautonaparnumenos: Or a Treatise of Self-Denyall. Etc. London, 1646. [Doubtful.]
  • (29) The Immortality of the Soule. The Excellencie of Christ Jesus, treated on. Etc. [London], 1646. [Probably by Hooker.]

B. Posthumous Works[edit]

  • (30)A Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline. Wherein, The Way of the Churches of New-England is warranted out of the Word, etc. [London] 1648. [In some copies, J. Cotton’s Way of the Congregational Churches cleared, is appended, and a general title made use of.] The Preface reprinted in Old South Leaflets, no.55, vol.111. Boston, 1894. Replied to by Dan. Cawdrey, The Inconsistencie of the Independent Way, etc. London, 1651; and by Samuel Hudson, Vindication of the Essence, Unity (and Priority) of the Church-Catholick visible, in answer to John Ellis and Mr. Hooker. London, second ed., 1658.
  • (31)The Covenant of Grace opened: wherein These particulars are handled; viz. 1. What the Covenant of Grace is, 2. What the Seales of the Covenant are, 3. Who are the Parties and Subjects fit to receive these Seales. From all which Particulars Infants Baptisme is fully proved and vindicated. Etc. [London], 1649.
  • (32) The Saints Dignitie and Dutie. Together with The Danger of Ignorance and Hardness. Delivered in severall Sermons, etc. [London], 1651. [Seven sermons prepared for the press by Thomas Shepard, of Cambridge, Mass., Hooker’s son-in-law.]
  • (33) A Comment upon Christ’s Last Prayer In the Seventeenth of John. Wherein is opened, The Union Beleevers have with God and Christ, and the Glorious Priviledges thereof. [London], 1656.
  • (34) The Application of Redemption. By the Effectual Work of the Word… for the bringing home of lost Sinners to God. [London], 1657. 2d ed. 1659. [The first Eight Books of a proposed collection of seventeen sermons.]
  • (35) The Application of Redemption, etc. The Ninth and Tenth Books… [With] an Epistle, By Thomas Goodwin and Philip Nye. [London], 1657, 1659. [A continuation of no.34.]

C. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Hooker, Edward. The Origin and Ancestry of Rev. Thomas Hooker. New Eng. Hist. and Gen. Reg. Vol. XLVII. 1893
  • Hooker, Rev. E.W. Life of Thomas Hooker. In Lives of the Chief Fathers of New England, VI. Boston, 1849, 1870.
  • Hubbard, Rev. William. The History of New England. 2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. VI, Chap.41.
  • Mather, Cotton. Piscator Evangelicus. Or, the Life of Mr. Thomas Hooker … Pastor of Hartford-Church, and Pillar of Connecticut-Colony, in New-England, etc. [Boston], 1695. Reprinted in the Magnalia.
  • Mead, Edwin D. Thomas Hooker’s Farewell Sermon in England. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Vol. 46, 253–274.
  • Sprague, Wm. B. Annals of the American Pulpit. Vol.1. 1857.
  • Stone, S. Letter to Thomas Shepard announcing the death of Hooker. 4 Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. VIII, 544.
  • Trumbull, J. Hammond. Text and discussion of Hooker’s Sermon before the General Court on May 31, 1638. Conn. Hist. Soc. Coll. 1, 19.
  • Walker, G.L. Thomas Hooker, Preacher, Founder, Democrat. [Markers of America.] 1891. The best life.
  • —Verses: by Cotton, John, and by Stone, Sam, on Hooker’s death. Re-printed in Old South Leaflets, No.53, vol.3.

VI. RICHARD MATHER (1596–1669)[edit]

A. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) The Whole Booke of Psalms, Faithfully Translated into English Meter. Whereunto is prefixed a discourse declaring not only the lawfulness, but also the necessity of the heavenly Ordinance of singing Scripture Psalmes in the Churches of God. Cambridge, 1640. [The Bay Psalm Book, prepared in conjunction with J. Eliot and T. Weld. The first book published in America. Numerous later editions.]
  • (2) An Answer of the … Churches in New England, unto nine Propositions, etc. London, 1643.
  • (3) Church-Government and Church-Covenant discussed in an Answer to two-and-thirty Questions etc. London, 1643. [Nos. 2 and 3 also bound together and issued under the title, Church-Government and Church Covenant discussed, in an answer of the Elders of the severall Churches in New-England to two and thirty questions sent over to them. … Together with an Apologie of the said Elders … As also an answer to nine positions about Church Government. London, 1643.
  • (4) Election Sermon. [Cambridge, 1644?] [Listed in Evans, Amer. Bib. Doubtful.]
  • (5) A Modest … Answer to Mr Charles Herle … against the Independancy of Churches, etc. London, 1644.
  • (6) A Reply to Mr Rutherford, or a … Defence of the Answer to Herles Booke against the Independency of Churches, etc. London, 1647.
  • (7) A Platform of Church discipline gathered out of the word of God: and agreed upon by the Elders: and Messengers of the Churches assembled at the Synod at Cambridge in New-England. Etc. Cambridge, 1648. London, 1653. [Probably largely by J. Cotton, though the manuscript is in the handwriting of R.M.]
  • (8) A Catechism …. [Cambridge, 1650?].
  • (9) An Heart-melting Exhortation … to their dear countrey-men of Lancashire, etc. [London?], 1650. [In conjunc tion with J. Tompson.]
  • (10) The Summe of Certain Sermons upon Genes: 15.6. Wherein not only the doctrine of Justification by Faith is Asserted and Cleared … but also the Nature and Meanes of Faith, etc. Cambridge, 1652.
  • (11) A Farewell Exhortation to the Church and People of Dorchester in New-England, but not unusefull to any others … as containing Christian and Serious Indictments … to be seriously Considered of all in these Declining Times, Cambridge, 1657.
  • (12) Election Sermon. [Cambridge, 1660.]
  • (13) A Plea for the Churches of New England, etc. [London], 1660.
  • (14) A Defence of the Answer and Arguments of the Synod met at Boston, in the yeare 1662 … against Rev. J. Davenport; with an Answer, etc. Cambridge, 1664. [In conjunction with J. Mitchel.]
  • (15) A Brief Relation … of the Lord’s Work among the Indians, etc. [n.d. and n.p.]
  • (16) Sermons on 2 Peter. [?]
  • (17) Journal. Now for the first time printed from the Original manuscript. In Young’s Chronicles of the First Planters. 1846. *(18) Journal of R. Mather, 1635. His life and death, 1670. Col. Dorchester Antiq. Soc. No.3. 1850.
  • (19) An Answer to two Questions: (1) Wheather does the Power of Church Government belong to all the People, or to the Elders alone? (2) Whether does any Church Power, or any Power of the Keys belong to the People, etc. 1712. [In conjunction with 1. Mather.]
  • (20) In manuscript: Three Theological Essays; Essay proving that Infants ought to be baptized; Observations and Arguments respecting our Government of Christian Churches; Answers to 21 Questions from the Gen. Court at Hartford to that at Boston; Sum of 70 Sermons. In the American Antiquarian Society Lib. Worcester, Mass.

B. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Mather, Increase. The Life and death of that reverend man of God, Mr Richard Mather, Teacher of the Church in Dorchester in New-England. Cambridge, 1670. Another edition, with title, Life and Death of Mr. Richard Mather, 1850.
  • Walker, Williston. Ten New England Leaders. 1901.

VII. INCREASE MATHER (1639–1723)[edit]

The difficulties in the way of preparing a definitive list of the writings of Increase and Cotton Mather are practically insuperable. After an immense amount of work by the most painstaking antiquarians, the bibliography—and in particular that of Cotton Mather—remains somewhat muddled. The list as here printed of the works of Increase Mather, has been compressed from the elaborate bibliography published in J. L. Sibley’s Harvard Graduates, supplemented by checking other lists.

A. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) The Mystery of Israel’s Salvation, Explained and Applyed: Or, A Discourse Concerning the General Conversion of the Israelitish Nation. Etc. London, 1669.
  • (2) The Life and Death of that Reverend Man of God, Mr. Richard Mather, Teacher of the Church in New-England. Cambridge, 1670.
  • (3) To the Church and Inhabitants of Northampton in N.E. Cambridge, 1671. [Prefixed to his brother Eleazar’s Serious Exhortation to the Present and Succeeding Generations in New-England.]
  • (4) Wo to Drunkards. Two Sermons Testifying against the Sin of Drunkenness: etc. Cambridge, 1673. Boston, 1712.
  • (5) The Day of Trouble is near. Two Sermons Wherein is shewed … What reason there is for New-England to expect a Day of Trouble. Etc. Cambridge, 1674.
  • (6) Some Important Truths About Conversion, Delivered in Sundry Sermons. London, 1674. Second ed., London, 1674. Boston, 1721.
  • (7) To the Reader. Prefixed to S. Torrey’s Exhortation unto Reformation. Boston, 1674.
  • (8) A Discourse Concerning the Subject of Baptisme Wherein the present Controversies, that are agitated in the New English Churches are from Scripture and Reason modestly enquired into. Cambridge, 1675.
  • (9) The First Principles of New-England, Concerning the Subject of Baptisme & Communion of Churches. Collected partly out of the Printed Books, but chiefly out of the Original Manuscripts of the First and chiefe Fathers in the New-English Churches; etc. Cambridge, 1675.
  • (10) The Times of men are in the hand of God. Or A Sermon Occasioned by that awfull Providence which hapned in Boston in New England, the 4th day of the 3d Moneth 1675 (when part of a Vessel was blown up in the Harbour, and nine men hurt, etc.). Boston, 1675.
  • (11) The Wicked mans Portion. Or a Sermon (Preached … when two men were executed, who had murthered their Master). Wherein is shewed That excesse in wickedness doth bring untimely Death. Boston, 1675, 1685. [The first book printed in Boston.]
  • (12) A Brief History of the War With the Indians in New-England, (From June 14, 1675. when the first English-man was murdered by the Indians, to August 12. 1676. when Philip … was slain). Wherein the Grounds, Beginning, and Progress of the Warr, is summarily expressed. Etc. Boston, 1676. London, 1676. Re-issued under the title, The History of King Philip’s War, together with A History of the same War, by C. Mather; with notes and introd. by Samuel G. Drake. Boston and Albany, 1862.
  • (13) An Earnest Exhortation To the Inhabitants of New-England, To hearken to the voice of God in his late and present Dispensations, etc. Boston, 1676. [A reprint of part of no.12]
  • (14) A Relation of the Troubles which have hapned in New-England, By reason of the Indians there. From the Year 1614 to the Year 1675. Wherein the frequent Conspiracyes of the Indians to cutt off the English, and the wonderfull providence of God, in disappointing their devices, is declared. Together with an Historical Discourse concerning the Prevalency of Prayer; etc. Boston, 1677. [The Historical Discourse is paged separately, with the following title:—]
  • (15) An Historical Discourse Concerning the Prevalency of Prayer Wherein is shewed that New-Englands late Deliverance from the Rage of the Heathen, is an eminent Answer of Prayer. Boston, 1677.
  • (16) Renewal of Covenant the great Duty incumbent on decaying or distressed Churches. Etc. Boston, 1677.
  • (17) Pray for the Rising Generation, Or A Sermon Wherein Godly Parents are Encouraged to Pray and Believe for their Children, etc. Cambridge, 1678. Boston, 1679, 1685. [The third impression appended to no. 19.]
  • (18) To the Reader. Prefixed to the second impression of E. Mather’s Serious Exhortation. Boston, 1678. [See no.3 above.]
  • (19) A Call from Heaven To the Present and Succeeding Generations, Or a Discourse Wherin is shewed … The exceeding danger of Apostasie especially as to those that are the Children and Posterity of such as have been eminent for God in their Generation. Etc. Boston, 1679, 1685.
  • (20) A Discourse Concerning the Danger of Apostasy, etc. Boston, 1679. [The second portion of no.19, printed separately.]
  • (21) Preface and Result of—The Necessity of Reformation With the Expedients subservient thereunto, asserted; … Agreed upon by the Elders and Messengers Of the Churches assembled in the Synod at Boston … Sept. 10. 1679. Boston, 1679. [Probably largely the work of I.M.]
  • (22) The Divine Right of Infant-Baptisme Asserted and Proved from Scripture and Antiquity. Boston, 1680.
  • (23) Returning unto God, the great concernment of a Covenant People. Etc. Boston, 1680.
  • (24) Preface to a Confession of Faith Owned and Consented unto by the Elders and Messengers of the Churches Assembled at Boston … May 12. 1680. [The second sermon of the Synod.]
  • (25) Brief Animadversions on the Narrative of the New England Anabaptists. Boston, 1681.
  • (26) Heavens Alarm to the World. Or A Sermon Wherein is shewed, That fearful Sights and Signs in Heaven are the Presages of great Calamities at hand. Boston, 1681, 1683. [The second impression included in no.33.]
  • (27) To the Reader, Nov.4.1681. Prefixed to S. Willard’s Ne Sutor ultra Crepidam. (28) Diatriba de signo Filii Hominis, et de Secundo Messiae Adventu; etc. Amstelodami, 1682.
  • (29) The Latter Sign Discoursed of … Wherein is shewed, that the Voice of God in Signal Providences … ought to be Hearkned unto. [Boston], 1682, 1683. [The second impression included in no.33.]
  • (30) Practical Truths Tending to Promote the Power of God-liness … Delivered in Sundry Sermons. Boston, 1682. A second ed. the same year.
  • (31) A Sermon Wherein is shewed that the Church of God is sometimes a Subject of Great Persecution … Occasioned by the Tidings of a great Persecution Raised against the Protestants in France. Boston, 1682.
  • (32) To the Reader. Prefixed to Urian Oakes’s Seasonable Discourse. 1682.
  • (33) KOMHTOTPAIIA. Or A Discourse Concerning Comets; Wherein the Nature of Blazing Stars is Enquired into: With an Historical Account of all the Comets which have appeared from the Beginning of the World unto this present Year … Their Motion, Forms, Duration; and the Remarkable Events which have followed in the World, so far as they have been by Learned Men Observed. As also two Sermons Occasioned by the late Blazing Stars. Boston, 1683. [The two sermons are nos. 26 and 29.] London, 1811.
  • (34) To the Reader. Prefixed to S. Torrey’s Plea for the Life of Dying Religion. Boston, 1683.
  • (35) An Arrow against Profane and Promiscuous Dancing. Drawn out of the Quiver of the Scriptures. By the Ministers of Christ at Boston, etc. [Written by I.M.] Boston, 1684, 1686.
  • (36) The Doctrine of Divine Providence, opened and applyed: Also Sundry Sermons on Several other Subjects. Boston, 1684. Probably re-issued the same year.
  • (37) An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences: Wherein an Account is given of many Remarkable and very Memorable Events, which have hapned this last Age; Especially in New-England. Boston, 1684. Re-issued the same year. Reprinted under title, Remarkable Providences Illustrative of the Earlier Days of American Colonization. With Introd. by George Offor. London, 1856. Replied to by G. Keith, The Presbyterian and Independent … Churches in New England … brought to the test … With an answer to the gross abuses, lies and slanders of I. Mather (in his book, called, “An Essay” etc.) London, 1691.
  • (38) The Greatest Sinners Exhorted and Encouraged To Come to Christ … Together with a Discourse about the Day of Judgement. Etc. Boston, 1686. Translated into Indian by S. Danforth, 1698.
  • (39) The Mystery of Christ opened and applyed. In Several Sermons, etc. Boston, 1686. [London?], 1686.
  • (40) A Sermon Occasioned by the Execution of a man found Guilty of Murder … Together with the Confession, Last Expressions, & solemn Warning of that Murderer … to beware of those Sins which brought him to his miserable end. Boston, 1686, 1687. [Appended are C. Mather’s Call of the Gospel, and J. Moody’s Exhortation to a Condemned Malefactor, with the minister’s discourse with the criminal on the way to the execution.] The same, without the sermons, appended to the Wonders of Free-Grace. Or, A Compleat History of … Remarkable Penitents That have been Executed at Tyburn, etc. London, 1690[?]. [Given in Sibley, and Evans, Amer. Bib. as 1691. In Brit. Mus. Cat. as 1690.]
  • (41) A Testimony Against several Prophane and superstitious Customs, Now Practised by some in New-England, etc. London, 1687. Boston, 1688.
  • (42) A Narrative of the Miseries of New-England, By Reason of an Arbitrary Government Erected there Under Sir Edmund Andros. London, 1688. Boston, 1688. London, 1689. A part of A Sixth Collection of Papers Relating to the Present Juncture of Affairs in England. Boston, 1775. Also in Andros Tracts, 11, 1, with note on authorship. Boston, 1869.
  • (43) De Successu Evangelij Apud Indos in Nova-Anglia, Epistola Ad Cl. Virum D. Johannem Lusdenum …. Scripta. London, 1688. Re-issued with minor changes, 1699. Translated into English, in C. Mather’s Magnalia, iii, 194; the greater portion in Andros Tracts, ii, 166. Boston, 1869. Re-issued in German with title, Ein Brieff von dem Gluecklichen Fortgang des Evangelii Bey den West-Indianern in Neu-Engeland an den Beruehmten Herrn Johann Leusden, etc. Halle, 1696.
  • (44) New-England Vindicated From the Unjust Aspersions cast on the former Government there, by some late Considerations Pretending to shew that the Charters in those Colonies were Taken from them on Account of their Destroying the Manufactures and Navigation of England. London, 1688. In the Andros Tracts, 11. 3.
  • (45) A Vindication of New-England, from the Vile Aspersions Cast upon that Country By a Late Address of a Faction there, Who Denominate themselves of the Church of England in Boston. [Boston, 1688.] In the Andros Tracts, 11. 19.
  • (46) A Brief Discourse Concerning the unlawfulness of the Common Prayer Worship, and Of Laying the Hand on, and Kissing the Booke in Swearing. [Boston, 1689?] London, 1689.
  • (47) A Brief Relation of the State of New-England, From the Beginning of that Plantation To the Present Year, 1689. In a Letter to a Person of Quality. London, 1689. Also in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., XXI. 93; in Force’s Tracts, IV, No. 11; and in the Andros Tracts, 11. 149.
  • (48) The Declaration of the Gentlemen, Merchants, and Inhabitants of Boston, and the countrey adjacent. Boston, 1689. [Attributed to I.M. by Hutchinson.] Reprinted in Neal’s Hist. of New-England. 11. 62; and in Andros Tracts, 1.2.
  • (49) The Present State of New-English Affairs. This is Published to prevent False Reports. Boston, 1689. In the Andros Tracts, 11.15.
  • (50) Reasons for the Confirmation of the Charters belonging to the several Corporations in New-England. 1689 [?]. In The Andros Tracts, 11.223.
  • (51) Reasons for the Confirmation of the Charter Belonging to the Massachusetts Colony in New-England. 1689 [?]. In the Andros Tracts, 11.223.
  • (52) “Several Papers relating to the State of New-England.” [Noted for 1690 by C. Mather, in his list of works by I.M.]
  • (53) A Brief Account concerning Several of the Agents of New-England, their Negotiation at the Court of England: With Some Remarks on the New Charter Granted to the Colony of Massachusetts. Shewing That … Greater Priviledges than what are therein contained, could not at this Time rationally be expected by the People there. London, 1691. In the Andros Tracts, 11.271.
  • (54) Preface to J. Flavell’s Exposition of the Assemblies Catechism, 1692.
  • (55) Cases of Conscience Concerning evil Spirits Personating Men, Witchcrafts, infallible Proofs of Guilt in such as are accused with that Crime. All Considered according to the Scriptures, History, Experience, and the Judgment of many Learned men. Boston, 1693. London, 1693. Appended to no. 56. Re-issued with C. Mather’s Wonders of the Invisible World. London, 1862. Library of Old Authors.
  • (56) A Further Account of the Tryals of the New-England Witches. With the Observations Of a Person who was upon the Place several Days when the suspected Witches were first taken into Examination. To which is added, Cases of Conscience Concerning Witchcrafts [no.55] … Written at the Request of the Ministers of New-England. London, 1693. Re-issued with C. Mather’s Wonders of the Invisible World. London, 1862.
  • (57) The Great Blessing, of Primitive Counsellors. Discoursed in a Sermon, Preached in the Audience of the Governour, etc. Boston. 1693. [Preface contains a vindication of his conduct as Massachusetts agent in England, and is reprinted in Andros Tracts, 11.301.]
  • (58) The Judgment Of Several Eminent Divines Of The Congregational Way. Concerning A Pastors Power. Etc. Boston, 1693.
  • (59) To the Reader. Prefixed to S. vol.1–26 Willard’s Doctrine of the Covenant of Redemption. Boston, 1693.
  • (60) Christian Reader. Prefixed to F. Makemie’s Answer to G. Keith’s Libel. Boston, 1694. [Signed by I.M. and four others.]
  • (61) The Answer of Several Ministers in and near Boston, To that Case of Conscience, Whether it is Lawful for a Man to Marry his Wives own Sister? Boston, 1695, 1711. [Signed by I.M. and seven others.]
  • (62) To the Reader. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Johannes in Eremo. Boston, 1695.
  • (63) Solemn Advice to Young Men Not to Walk in the Wayes of their Heart, etc. Boston, 1695.
  • (64) Angelographia, Or A Discourse Concerning the Nature and Power of the Holy Angels, and the Great Benefit which the True Fearers of God Receive by their Ministry … To which is added, A Sermon concerning the Sin and Misery of the Fallen Angels: Also a Disquisition concerning Angelical-Apparitions. Boston, 1696.
  • (65) A Disquisition concerning Angelical Apparitions, in cases of conscience, etc. Boston, 1696. [Bound with no. 64.]
  • (66) A Case of Conscience Concerning Eating of Blood, Considered and Answered. Boston, 1697.
  • (67) A Discourse Concerning the Uncertainty of the Times of Men, And The Necessity of being Prepared for Sudden Changes & Death. Delivered in a Sermon … On Occasion of the Sudden Death of Two Scholars belonging to Harvard Colledge. Boston, 1697.
  • (68) The Epistle Dedicatory. To the Church at Cambridge in New-England, and To the Students of the Colledge there. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Ecclesiastes or Life of J. Mitchel. Boston, 1697.
  • (69) David Serving His Generation … Occasioned by the Death, of the Reverend Mr. John Baily, etc. Boston, 1698.
  • (70) Masukkenukeeg Matcheseaenvog Wequetoog kah Wuttooanatoog, etc. Boston, 1698. [Five sermons of I.M. translated into Indian by S. Danforth.]
  • (71) A Faithful Advice from several Ministers of the Gospel, relating to Dangers that may arise from Imposters, Boston, [1699].
  • (72) The Folly of Sinning, Opened & Applyed, In Two Sermons. Occasioned by the Condemnation of one that was Executed at Boston … on November 17th. 1698. Boston, 1699.
  • (73) The Surest way to the Greatest Honour: Discoursed in a Sermon, Delivered In the Audience of … the Earl of Bellomont, etc. Boston, 1699.
  • (74) To the Reader. Prefixed to S. Willard’s Peril of the Times. Boston, 1699. London, 1700.
  • (75) Two Plain and Practical Discourses Concerning I. Hardness of Heart … II. The Sin and Danger of Disobedience to the Gospel. London, 1699.
  • (76) To the Reader. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Everlasting Gospel. 1699 [?].
  • (77) The Order of the Gospel, Professed and Practised by the Churches of Christ in New-England, Justified, by the Scripture, and by the Writings of many Learned men, etc. Boston, 1700. Reprinted the same year in Boston and London. [Answered by T. Woodbridge and “sundry Ministers of the Gospel,” in the Gospel Order Revived, printed in New York, 1700, because the influence of the Mathers with the printers closed the Boston press.]
  • (78) The Blessed Hope, And the Glorious Appearing of the Great God our Saviour, … Opened & Applyed, in Several [six] Sermons. Boston, 1701.
  • (79) A Collection, Of Some Of the Many Offensive Matters, Contained in a Pamphlet, Entituled, The Order of the Gospel Revived. Boston, 1701. [See no. 77 above.]
  • (80) A Discourse Proving that the Christian Religion, Is the only True Religion: Wherein, The necessity of Divine Revelation is Evinced, in several Sermons. Boston, 1702.
  • (81) The Excellency of a Publick Spirit Discoursed: In a Sermon, Preached in the Audience of the General Assembly, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (82) The Glorious Throne: Or, A Sermon Concerning The Glory of the Throne of the Lord Jesus Christ, Which is now in Heaven, and shall quickley be seen on The Earth. Boston, 1702. [Appended to no. 83.]
  • (83) Ichabod. Or, A Discourse, Shewing what Cause there is to Fear that the Glory of the Lord is Departing from New-England. Delivered in Two Sermons. Boston. 1702.
  • (84) The Righteous Man A Blessing: Or, Seasonable Truths Encouraging unto Faith and Prayer In this Day of Doubtful Expectation. Delivered in Two Sermons. Boston, I702. [Appended to no.8I]
  • (85) Some Remarks On a late Sermon … By George Kieth M.A. Shewing That his pretended Good Rules in Divinity, are not built on the foundation of the Apostles & Prophets. Boston, 1702.
  • (86) The Duty of Parents To Pray For their Children, Opened & Applyed in a Sermon, Preached May 19. 1703. Which Day was set apart … to Seek unto God by Prayer with Fasting for the Rising Generation. Boston, 1703. Another ed. the same year. 1719.
  • (87) Soul-Saving Gospel Truths. Deliver’d in several Sermons: Wherein is shew’d, I. The Unreasonablness of those Excuses which Men make for their Delaying …II. That for Men to Despair of the Forginess of their Sins … is a great Evil. III. That every Man in the World is going into Eternity. Boston, 1703, 1712.
  • (88) A Brief Discourse Concerning the Prayse Due to God, for his Mercy, in Giving Snow like Wool … etc. Boston, 1704. [A Portion of no. 9I.]
  • (89) Practical Truth’s Tending to Promote Holiness in the Hearts & Lives of Christians. Delivered in several Sermons. Boston, 1704.
  • (90) To the Reader. Prefixed to J. Dummer’s Discourse on the Holiness of the Sabbath Day. Boston, 1704, 1763.
  • (91) The Voice of God, in Stormy Winds. Considered, in Two Sermons, Occasioned by the Dreadful and Unparallel’d Storm, in the European Nations. Boston, I704. [See no.88.]
  • (92) A Letter, About the Present State of Christianity, among the Christianized Indians of New-England. Written, To the Honourable, Sir William Ashurst, etc. Boston, I705.
  • (93) To the Church and Congregation at Maldon. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Faithful Man. Boston, 1705.
  • (94) Meditations on the Glory of the Lord Jesus Christ: Delivered in several Sermons. Boston, 1705.
  • (95) A Discourse Concerning Earthquakes. Occasioned by the Earthquakes which were in New-England … June 16 …. Also, Two Sermons, Shewing, That Sins is the Greatest Evil; And That To Redeem Time is the Greatest Wisdom. Boston, 1706.
  • (96) A Discourse Concerning the Maintenance Due to those That Preach the Gospel: In Which, That Question Whether Tithes Are by the Divine Law the Ministers Due, Is Considered, And the Negative Proved. Boston, I706. London, 1709.
  • (97) Needful Caution against a sin that easily besets us. Sermon at Boston Lecture. June 15th. 1706. Boston, 1706.
  • (98) A Plea for the Ministers Of the Gospel, Offered to the Consideration of the People of New-England. Being an Exposition of Galat. vi.6etc. Boston, I706.
  • (99) A Disquisition on the State of the Souls of Men when separated from their Bodies. Boston, 1707.
  • (100) The Doctrine of Singular Obedience, As the Duty and Property of the True Christian, etc. Boston, 1707.
  • (101) Meditations on Death … Wherein is shewed: I. That some True Believers … Are afraid of Death …II. That Good Men &hellip may be taken out of the World by a Sudden Death. III. That not Earth but Heaven is the Christians Home. Boston, 1707.
  • (102) To the Reader. Prefixed to S. Moodey’s Vain Youth Summoned. Boston, 1707.
  • (103) A Dissertation, wherein The Strange Doctrine Lately Published in a Sermon, The Tendency of which, is, to Encourage Unsanctified Persons … to Approach the Holy Table of the Lord, is Examined and Confuted. With an Appendix, Shewing What Scripture Ground there is to Hope, that within a very few years there will be a Glorious Reformation of the Church throughout the World. Boston, 1708. Edinburg, 1710, 1713. The Appendix seems to have been published separately in 1710. [An echo of the Stoddardean controversy over the grounds of admission to the Lord’s Supper. Stoddard replied in An Appeal to the Learned, which brought forth other replies.]
  • (104) Preface to Silesia, Praise out of the mouth of Babes, etc. London, 1708.
  • (105) To the Reader. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Good Evening for the Best of Dayes. Boston, I708.
  • (106) A Dissertation Concerning the Future Conversion of the Jewish Nation. Answering the Objections of … Mr. Baxter, Dr. Lightfoot, and others. With an Enquiry into the first Resurrection. London, I709. Reprinted Boston, I709.
  • (107) To the Reader. Prefixed to J. Danforth’s Blackness of Sins against Light. I709.
  • (108) To the Reader. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Winthropi Justa. I709 [?]
  • (109) Awakening Truths Tending to Conversion … Wherein is Shewed, I. That the greatest Sinners may be Converted … II. That Sinners … ought to Pray for Converting Grace. III. That Sinners who neglect … until the Day of Grace is past will wish … in vain, when it is too late. In Which Sermons notice is taken of some late Remarkable Conversions. Boston, I7I0.
  • (110) A Discourse Concerning Faith and Fervency in Prayer, And the Glorious Kingdom of the Lord … on Earth, Now Approaching &hellip in which the Signs of the present Times are Considered, with a true Account of the late wonderful and Astonishing Success of the Gospel in Ceilon, Amboina, and Malabar. Boston, 1710. Two other editions the same year. An edition, “somewhat abridged,” and with a slightly different title, issued in London, 1713 [?]
  • (111) A Discourse Concerning the Grace of Courage, Lamentable Fire Which was in Boston, Cotob. 2. 1711. In which the Sins which Provoke the Lord to Kindle Fires, are Enquired into. Boston, 1711, 1712.
  • (113) A Discourse Concerning the Death of the Righteous. Occasioned by the Death of … John Foster Esqr …. And of his Pious Consort, etc. Boston, 1711.
  • (114) A Discourse on sacramental occasions. Boston, 1711.
  • (115) An Earnest Exhortation To The Children of New-England, To Exalt the God of their Fathers. Boston, 1711. Appended is C. Mather’s Man Eating the Food of Angels.
  • (116) Meditations on the Glory of the Heavenly World. I, On the Happiness of the Souls of Believers, at the Instant of their Separation from their Bodies. II. On the Glory of the Bodies of God’s Children, in the Resurrection World, when they shall be as the Angels of Heaven. III. On the Glory of both Soul and Body … after the Day of Judgment, to all Eternity. Boston, 1711.
  • (117) Meditations On the Sanctification of the Lord’s Day, and On the Judgments which attend the Profanation of it. To which is added, Seasonable Meditations both for Winter and Summer. Boston, 1712. A Second impression the same year. [See no. 119.]
  • (118) A Plain Discourse, shewing who shall, and who shall not, Enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, and How far Men may go and yet fall short of Heaven, etc. Boston, 1712. [Evans’ Amer. Bib. enters this both in 1712 and 1713, with slight differences of form. The latter was probably a reprint. Sibley gives it 1713.]
  • (119) Seasonable Meditations both for Winter & Summer. being the Substance of Two Sermons. Boston, 1712. [See no. 117.]
  • (120) Some Remarks, On a Pretended. Answer, To a Discourse concerning the Common-Prayer Workship. With An Exhortation to the Churches in New-England, to hold fast the Profession of their Faith without Wavering. London, 1712.
  • (121) To the Reader. Prefixed to the Fourth Edition of A Letter [24 Aug., 1701] From Some Aged Nonconforming Ministers … Touching the Reasons of their Practice. Boston, 1712.
  • (122) The Believers Gain by Death: Opened and Applyed In a Sermon … Upon the Death of a Valuable Relative. [His daughter-in-law.] Boston, 1713.
  • (123) Now or Never Is the Time for Men to make Sure of their Eternal Salvation. Several Sermons, etc. Boston, I7I3.
  • (124) To the Reader. Prefixed to T. Reynolds’s Lives of Mrs. Mary Terry and Mrs. Clissould. London, 1713.
  • (125) To the Reader. Prefixed to H. Flint’s Doctrine of the Last Judgment. 1713.
  • (126) A Sermon Wherein is Declared That the Blessed God is Willing to be Reconciled to the Sinful Children of Men. [A portion of no. 118] Boston, 1713.
  • (127) A Sermon Concerning Obedience & Resignation to the Will of God in Every Thing. Occasioned by the Death of that Pious Gentlewoman Mrs. Mariah Mather Late Consort of Increase Mather, D. D., Who Entred into her Everlasting Rest … April 4, 1714. Boston, 1714.
  • (128) To the Reader. Prefixed to S. Stoddard’s Guide to Christ. 1714, 1819, 1825.
  • (129) Preface to C. Mather’s Utilia. 1715.
  • (130) Several Sermons Wherein is shewed, 1. That Jesus Christ is a Mighty Saviour. 11. That God Converts His Elect … Commonly before Old Age. 111. That when Godly Men dye, Angels carry their Souls to … a better World. With a Preface in which there is a brief and true Character of the Reverend Mr. Thomas Bridge, etc. Boston, 1715.
  • (131) A Discourse Concerning the Existence and the Omniscience of God … Being the Substance of several Sermons. 1716.
  • (132) A Disquisition Concerning Ecclesiastical Councils. Proving, that not only Pastors, But Brethren delegated by the Churches, have equally a Right to a decisive Vote in such Assemblies. To which is added, Proposals concerning a Consociation of Churches, Agreed upon by a Synod, which Convened at Boston … With a Preface, containing a further Vindication of the Congregational Discipline. Boston, 1716. Also in Cong. Quarterly, XII, 25.
  • (133) Two Discourses Shewing, I. That the Lords Ears are open to the Prayers of the Righteous. II. The Dignity & Duty of Aged Servants of the Lord. Also, A Preface in which the Congregational Discipline of the Churches in New-England is Vindicated, with the Authors Dying Testimony there-unto. Boston, 1716.
  • (134) To the Reader. Prefixed to J. Sewall’s Precious Treasure in Earthen Vessels. Boston, 1716.
  • (135) Preface to T. Prince’s God brings to the Desired Haven. Boston, 1717.
  • (136) Prefaceto C. Mather’s Hades Look’d into. 1717.
  • (137) To the Reader. Prefixed to J. Wise’s Prayer in Affliction. 1717.
  • (138) To the Reader. Prefixed to J. Capen’s Funeral Sermon Occasioned by the Death of Joseph Green. Boston, 1717.
  • (139) Practical Truths, Plainly Delivered: Wherein is Shewed, I. That true Believers … shall … enjoy Everlasting Life … II. That there is a blessed Marriage between Jesus Christ … & the true Believer. III. That Men are Infinitely concerned, not only to hear the Voice of Christ, but that they do it, To Day. IV. The Work of the Ministry, described, in an Ordination Sermon. Boston, 1718.
  • (140) Preface to I. Loring’s Duty and Interest of Young Persons to Remember their Creator. Boston, 1718.
  • (141) Preface to C. Mather’s Marah Spoken to, Or a Brief Essay to do good unto the Widow. Boston, 1718.
  • (142) Preface to C. Mather’s Sermon at E. Callender’s Ordination. Boston, 1718.
  • (143) A Sermon Wherein is Shewed, I. That the Ministers of the Gospel need, and ought to desire the Prayers of the Lord’s People for them. II. That the People of God ought to Pray for his Ministers. Boston, 1718.
  • (144) Sermons wherein Those Eight Characters of the Blessed Commonly called the Beatitudes, Are Opened & Applyed in Fifteen Discourses. To which is added, A Sermon concerning Assurance of the Love of Christ. Boston, 1718.
  • (145) Preface to J. White’s Secret Prayer Inculcated. 1718.
  • (146) Preface to T. Symmes’s Monitor for the Delaying Sinners. 1718.
  • (147) Attestation. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Ratio Disciplinae. 1719.
  • (148) Five Sermons on Several Subjects, I. A Birth Day Sermon, Preached on the Day when the Author attained to the Eightieth Year of his Age. II. A dying Testimony to the Sovereign Grace of God in the Salvation of his Elect, Containing Three Sermons. III. Believers encouraged to Pray, etc. Boston, 1719. Second impression the same year.
  • (149) Preface to William Boyd’s God’s Way the Best Way, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (150) Awakening Soul-Saving Truths Plainly Delivered in Several Sermons in which is shewed, I. That Many are called, who are not effectually Called. II. That Men may be of the Visible Church, and yet not be of the Lords Church. III.That the Chosen of God are comparatively but Few. Boston, 1720.
  • (151) A Further testimony against the scandalous proceedings of the New-North Church in Boston. Boston, 1720.
  • (152) Preface to Hillhouse’s Sermon on the Death of his Mother, Rachel Hillhouse. 1720. [Signed also by C. Mather.]
  • (153) Preface to the second ed. of C. Mather’s Right Way to Shake off a Viper. 1720.
  • (154) A Seasonable Testimony To Good Order in the Churches Of the Faithful. Particularly Declaring the Usefulness & Necessity of Councils in Order to Preserving Peace and Truth in the Churches. Boston, 1720.
  • (155) Advice to the Children of Godly Ancestors. [Printed from short-hand notes, in A Course of Sermons on Early Piety. By the Eight Ministers who carry on the Thursday Lecture in Boston.] Boston, 1721.
  • (156) Attestation. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Accomplished Singer. Boston, 1721.
  • (157) To the Reader. Prefixed to J. Belcher’s God Giveth the Increase. 1721.
  • (158) Several Reasons Proving that Inoculating or Transplanting the Small Pox, is a Lawful Practice, and that it has been Blessed by God for the Saving of many a Life. Boston, 1721. Replied to by J. Williams of Boston in Several Arguments, proving that inoculating … is not contained in the Law of Physick … and therefore unlawful. 1721. Reprinted in I. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., IX, 275.
  • (159) Some further Account from London, of the Small-Pox Inoculated. The Second Edition. With some Remarks on a late Scandalous Pamphlet Entituled, Inoculation of the Small Pox as practis’d in Boston, etc. Boston, 1721.
  • (160) Charge at W. Waldron’s Ordination, May 23, 1722. Printed in C. Mather’s Love Triumphant, 1722.
  • (161) A Dying Legacy of a Minister To his Dearly Beloved People, Shewing, I. That true Believers on Jesus Christ may be Assured, of the Salvation of their Souls. II. That Spiritual Wisdom … is of all things the most Desirable. III. That there is none whose Dignity and Glory may be compared with that which belongs to our Lord … Being the Three Last Sermons Preached. Boston, 1722.
  • (162) Elijah’s Mantle. A Faithful Testimony, To the Cause and Work of God, in the Churches of New-England. And the Great End and Interest of these Plantations, Dropt and Left by Four Servants of God [Jonathan Mitchel, John Higginson, William Stoughton, Increase Mather] Famous in the Service of the Churches. Highly Seasonable to be Offered unto the People, etc. Boston, 1722.
  • (163) The Original Rights of Mankind Freely to Subdue and Improve the Earth. Asserted and Maintained by I. M. Boston, 1722.
  • (164) Preface to the Reader. Prefixed to J. Monis’s Truth. 1722.
  • (165) An Attestation. Prefixed to C. Mather’s Coelestinus. Boston and London, 1723.
  • (166) A Call to the Tempted. A Sermon On the horrid Crime of Self-Murder, Preached on a Remarkable Occasion, by the Memorable Dr. Increase Mather. And now Published from his Notes, for a Charitable Stop to Suicides. Boston, 1723.
  • (167) Diary, during the year 1675–1676. II Mass Hist. Soc. Proc., XIII, 339-374.
  • (168) Extracts from a diary between 1674–1687. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Portions are printed in First series, III, 317-320, and other portions in Second series, XIII, 398-411.
  • (169) Letters: In Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., I; Amer. Antiquarian Soc. Proc., New Series, XIV; Colonial Soc. Mass. Pub., VIII.
  • (170) In manuscript: Autobiography; several vols. Sermons; Notes of Sermons by J. Cotton. In American Antiquarian Society Lib., Worcester, Mass.

B. Biography and Criticism[edit]

The public careers of Increase and Cotton Mather were so closely associated, that most of the works which consider the influence of either deal with both. Such titles have been listed under the latter.

  • The Mather Papers. Mass. Hist. Soc., Fourth Series, vol. VIII. (A collection of miscellaneous papers, with letters of I.M., serving to throw light on his career, especially during his years abroad.)
  • Calamy, E. Memoirs of the Life of … Increase Mather. London, 1725.
  • Colman, B. The Prophet’s death; lamented and improved in a sermon preached … after the funeral of their venerable and aged pastor Increase Mather, D.D., etc. Boston, 1723.
  • Mather, C. A Father departing. A Sermon on the departure of the venerable and memorable Dr. Increase Mather. … By One who, as a Son with a Father, served with him in the Gospel, etc. Boston, 1723.
  • —Parentator. Memoirs of Remarkables in the Life and Death of the Ever Memorable Dr. Increase Mather. Etc. Boston, 1724, 1742. [Reprint of I.M.’s Conversation with King William. 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. IX, 245.]
  • Sibley, J. L. Harvard Graduates. Vol. I, pp. 410-470. Cambridge, 1873. (With elaborate bibliography.)
  • Walker, W. Ten New England Leaders. 1901.
  • Whitmore, W.H. Andros Tracts. Prince Soc. Pub. Vol. II. Boston, 1868– 74. (Devoted chiefly to his mission to England, and contains his defense.)
  • —Memoir of the Rev. Increase Mather. N.E. Hist. and Gen. Reg., II.

VIII. COTTON MATHER (1663–1728)[edit]

The list of Cotton Mather’s works as here printed, has been compressed from the elaborate bibliography published in Sibley’s Harvard Graduates. It has been checked with other lists, and upwards of two score titles added, the most noteworthy of which are those recovered by Professor Kittredge in his study entitled Some Lost Works of Cotton Mather. The list doubtless contains a plentiful share of errors which have escaped the present editor; nevertheless he is content to leave it so, in the conviction that more time and labour have been expended upon the work of cataloguing the publications of Cotton Mather than their value justifies.

A. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) A Poem Dedicated to the Memory of … Mr. Urian Oakes, etc. Boston, 1682.
  • (2) The Boston Ephemeris. An Almanack for the Year of the Christian Aera MDCLXXXIII, etc. Boston, 1683.
  • (3) An Elegy on the Muchto-be-deplored Death of that Never-to-be-forgotten Person, The Reverend Mr. Nathanael Collins; etc. Boston, 1685.
  • (4) The Call of the Gospel Applyed unto All Men in general, and unto a Condemned Malefactor in particular, etc. Boston, [1686?]. Reprinted in Magnalia, VI, 40. [Given in Brit. Mus. Cat. as 1687.]
  • (5) Military Duties, Recommended to an Artillery Company; etc. Boston, 1687.
  • (6) Early Piety, Exemplified in the Life and Death of Mr. Nathaniel Mather … whereto are Added Some Discourses, etc. London, 1689. Sec. ed. same year. Boston, 1690. Reprinted in Magnalia.
  • (7) Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions, etc. Boston, 1689. Second ed. abridged. London, 1691. Edinburgh, 1697.
  • (8) Right Thoughts in Sad Hours, Representing the Comforts and Duties of Good Men, under all their Afflictions; And Particularly, That one, the Untimely Death of Children; etc. London, 1689. Dunstable, 1811.
  • (9) Small Offers Towards the Service of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness. Four Discourses, etc. Boston, 1689. Reprinted under title The Resolved Christian, 1700.
  • (10) Souldiers Counselled and Comforted. A Discourse, etc. Boston, [1689].
  • (11) Work upon the Ark. Meditations upon the Ark as a Type of the Church, etc. Boston, 1689.
  • (12) Addresses to Old Men, and Young Men, and Little Children. In Three Discourses, etc. Boston, 1690.
  • (13) A Companion for Communicants. Discourses upon … the Lords Supper, etc. Boston, 1690.
  • (14) The Present State of New-England … Upon the News of an Invasion by bloody Indians and French-Men, begun upon Us. Boston, 1690.
  • (15) The Principles of the Protestant Religion Maintained, and Churches of New-England … defended, against all the Calumnies of one George Keith, a Quaker, etc. [By the Ministers of the Gospel in Boston.] Boston, 1690.
  • (16) The Serviceable Man. A Discourse … unto the General Court, etc. Boston, 1690.
  • (17) Speedy Repentance Urged. A Sermon preached … in the Hearing … of One Hugh Stone … Under a just Sentence of Death … To which are Added certain Memorable Providences, etc. Boston, 1690.
  • (18) The Way to Prosperity. A Sermon Preached to the … Governour, Council, and Representatives … on May 23, 1689. Boston, 1690. [A re-issue of the latter portion of no.19.]
  • (19) The Wonderful Works of God Commemorated … in a Thanksgiving Sermon … particularly in the remarkable revolutions of Providence which are everywhere the matter of present observation: With … an account of some very stupendous accidents, which have lately happened in France … To which is added a Sermon [no.18] … With a short Narrative of several prodigies, which New-England hath of late had the alarms of Heaven in. Boston, 1690.
  • (20) Balsamum Vulnerarium e Scriptura; or the Cause and Cure of a Wounded Spirit. Boston, 1691.
  • (21) Good Souldiers a great Blessing. Boston, 1691.
  • (22) Some Considerations on the Bills of Credit, now passing in New-England, etc. Boston, 1691. [An anonymous pamphlet ascribed to C.M. by Trumbull.]
  • (23) Fair Weather. Or Considerations to Dis pel the Clouds and Allay the Storms of Discontent, etc. Boston, 1691. Re issued the same year. 1694.
  • (24) Late Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions, etc. Sec. impression, London, 1691.
  • (25) Little Flocks Guarded against Grievous Wolves, etc. Boston, 1691. [An attack upon the Quakers.]
  • (26) The Old Man’s honour; or, the hoary head found in the way of Righteousness. Boston, 1691.
  • (27) Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion. Or the Character and Happiness of a Vertuous Woman. Cambridge, 1691, 1692. London, 1694. Boston, n.d. [1741]. [Listed in Evans’ Amer. Bib. as first issued in 1692.]
  • (28) A Scriptural Catechism, etc. Boston, 1691.
  • (29) Things to be Look’d for . Discourses on the Glorious Characters, With Conjectures on the Speedy Approaches of that State, Which is Reserved for the Church of God in the Latter Dayes, etc. Cambridge, 1691.
  • (30) The Triumphs of the Reformed Religion, in America. The Life of the Renowned John Eliot … With some Account concerning thelate and strange Success of the Gospel, etc. Boston, 1691. London, 1691, 1694, 1820. Reprinted in Magnalia, III, 170. [2nd ed. issued with the title The Life and Death of the renown’d Mr J. Eliot, who was the first preacher of the Gospel to the Indians in America … carefully corrected. London, 1691.]
  • (31) Blessed Unions. An Union with the Son of God by Faith, And an Union in the Church of God by Love, etc. Boston, 1692.
  • (32) Essay concerning Witchcraft. Letter to John Richards. Boston, 1692. Reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., XXXVIII, 391.
  • (33) A Midnight Cry. An Essay for our Awakening out of a Sinful Sleep, etc. Boston, 1692.
  • (34) Optanda. Good Men Described, and Good Things propounded, etc. [Two sermons.] Boston, 1692.
  • (35) Preparatory Meditations upon the Day of Judgment. Boston, 1692.
  • (36) The Day, and the Work of the Day. Boston, 1693. [Fast day sermon in time of drought.]
  • (37) Preface to C. Morton’s Spirit of Man. Boston, 1693.
  • (38) Rules for the Societies of Negroes. [Boston, 1693.] With introd. by G. H. Moore, 1888.
  • (39) A True Account of the Tryals, Examinations, Confessions, Condemnations, and Executions of divers Witches, at Salem, etc. London, 1693.
  • (40) Unum Necessarium … Or the Nature and Necessity of Regeneration. Boston, 1693.
  • (41) Warnings from the Dead … In Two Discourses, Occasioned by a Sentence of Death, Executed on some Unhappy Malefactors, etc. Boston, 1693.
  • (42) Winter-Meditations. Directions How to Employ the Leisure of the Winter for the Glory of God, etc. Boston, 1693.
  • (43) The Wonders of the Invisible World. Observations … upon the Nature, the Number, and the Operations of the Devils, etc. Boston, 1693. 2d. ed. Boston and London, 1693. 3d ed. much abridged, Boston and London, 1693. Re-issued with I. Mather’s Account of the Tryals of the New-England Witches. Lib. of Old Authors. London, 1862. Also, with title, Salem Witchcraft, etc., with notes by S. P. Fowler. Cambridge, 1861; edition criticised by Charles Deane [pseud. Delta] in Bibliographical Tracts, no. 1. Boston, 1865.
  • (44) Early Religion, Urged in a Sermon, etc. Boston, 1694.
  • (45) The Short History of New-England. A Recapitulation of wonderful Passages … in the Protections, and then in the Afflictions, of New-England. Boston, 1694. [See F. J. Turner: First Official Frontier of Mass. Pub. Col. Soc. of Mass. XVII, 269.]
  • (46) Batteries upon the Kingdom of the Devil. Seasonable Discourses upon Some … Instances, Wherein Men Gratifie the Grand Enemy of their Salvation. London, 1695.
  • (47) Brontologia Sacra: The Voice of the Glorious God in the Thunder, etc. London, 1695. Reprinted in the Magnalia, VI, 14.
  • (48) Durable Riches. Two Brief Discourses. etc. Boston, 1695, 1715.
  • (49) Help for Distressed Parents. Boston, 1695,
  • (50) Johannes in Eremo. Memoirs, Relating to the Lives of … Mr John Cotton … Mr John Norton … John Wilson … Mr John Davenport … And Mr Thomas Hooker, etc. [Boston], 1695. Reprinted in Magnalia, III, 8.
  • (51) Mather-Calef Paper on Witchcraft. [Manuscript by C. M. with notes and criticisms by Robert Calef.] [1695?]. Printed in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Vol. lvii, 240–268. With introd. by W. C. Ford.
  • (52) Memoria Wilsoniana. Or, some Dues unto the Memory of … Mr John Wilson, etc. [Boston] 1695. [See no. 50.]
  • (53) Observanda. The Life and Death of the Late Q. Mary, etc. Boston, 1695.
  • (54) Piscator Evangelicus. Or, The Life of Mr Thomas Hooker, etc. [Boston] 1695. [See no. 50.]
  • (55) Seven Select Lectures, etc. London, 1695. [Among other things, The Stage-player Unmasked.]
  • (56) The Christian Thank-Offering. A Brief Discourse … Made on a Solemn Thanksgiving, etc. Boston, 1696.
  • (57) Cry against Oppression. Serm. on Prov. II. 26. Boston, 1696.
  • (58) A Good Master well-Served. A Brief Discourse on the Necessary Properties & Practices of a Good Servant in every-kind of Servitude: And of the Methods that should be taken by the Heads of a Family, to Obtain such a Servant. Boston, 1696.
  • (59) Things for a Distress’d People to think upon. [Election sermon] Boston, 1696.
  • (60) Ecclesiastes. The Life of the Reverend & Excellent Jonathan Mitchel, etc. Boston, 1697.
  • (61) Faith at Work. A Brief and Plain Essay, upon Certain Articles of the Gospel, etc. Boston, 1697.
  • (62) Gospel for the Poor. Boston, 1697.
  • (63) Great Examples of Judgment and Mercy; with Memorables occurring in the Sufferings of Captives among the Indians. Boston, 1697. [Listed by Sibley as of 1696.]
  • (64) Humiliations followed with Deliverances. With an Appendix containing a Narrative of Wonderful Passages relating to the Captivity and Deliverance of Hannah Swarton. Boston, 1697. The Narrative reprinted in the Magnalia, VI, 10.
  • (65) Pietas in Patriam: The Life of His Excellency Sir William Phips, etc. London, 1697, 1699. Reprinted in the Magnalia, II, 35.
  • (66) The Songs of the Redeemed: A Book of Hymns. [Boston, 1697.]
  • (67) Terribilia Dei. Remarkable Judgments of God, on several Sorts of Offenders, etc. [Two sermons.] Boston, 1697. Reprinted in the Magnalia, VI, 23.
  • (68) The Thoughts of a Dying Man. A … Report of Matters uttered by many, in the Last Minutes of their Lives. Boston, 1697.
  • (69) The Way to Excel. Meditations, Awakened by the Death of the Reverend Mr Joshua Moodey, etc. Boston, 1697.
  • (70) The Bostonian Ebenezer. Some Historical Remarks on the State of Boston, etc. [A sermon.] Boston, 1698. Reprinted in the Magnalia, 1, 30. In Old South Leaflets. III, no. 67; Boston, 1896.
  • (71) Eleutheria: Or, An Idea of the Reformation in England, etc. London, 1698.
  • (72) A Good Man making a Good End. The Life and Death of the Reverend Mr John Baily, etc. Boston, 1698.
  • (73) Mens Sana in Corpore Sano. Boston, 1698.
  • (74) A Pastoral Letter to the English Captives in Africa. Boston, 1698.
  • (75) Decennium Luctuosum. An History of Remarkable Occurrences, in the Long War, which New-England hath had with the Indian Salvages, from the Year 1688. Reprinted in the Magnalia, VII, 57. Boston, 1699. Edited by S. G. Drake, 1862. Reprinted in Narratives of the Indian Wars, 1675–1699. By Chas. H. Lincoln. New York, 1913.
  • (76) Observable things. The history of ten years rolled away under the great calamities of a war, with Indian Salvages … A Sermon. Boston, 1698. [Listed as of 1699 in Brit. Mus. Cat. Included in no. 75.]
  • (77) The Faith of the Fathers. Or, The Articles of the True Religion, etc. Boston, 1699.
  • (78) A Family Well-Ordered. Or an Essay to Render Parents and Children Happy in one another, etc. Boston, 1699.
  • (79) La Fe del Christiano, etc. Boston, 1699.
  • (80) An History of Some Imposters, Remarkably and Seasonably detected, in the Churches of New-England, etc. Boston, 1699.
  • (81) Pillars of Salt. An History of Some Criminals Executed in this Land, for Capital Crimes: With some of their Dying Speeches, etc. Boston, 1699. Reprinted in the Magnalia, VI, 37.
  • (82) The Serious Christian: Or, Three Great Points of Practical Christianity, etc. London, 1699.
  • (83) Thirty Important Cases, Resolved … by Several Pastors, etc. Boston, 1699.
  • (84) A Cloud of Witnesses against Balls and Dances. [Boston, 1700?]
  • (85) A Defence of Evangelical Churches. [Boston, 1700.]
  • (86) The Everlasting Gospel. The Gospel of Justification by the Righteousness of God, etc. Boston, 1700. Philadelphia, 1767.
  • (87) The Good Linguist. [Boston, 1700.]
  • (88) Grace Triumphant. [Boston, 1700.]
  • (89) The Great Physician. [Boston, 1700.]
  • (90) A Letter of Advice to the Churches of the Non-conformists in the English Nation, etc. London, 1700.
  • (91) A Monitory and Hortatory Letter, to those English who debauch the Indians, by Selling Strong Drink unto them. Boston, 1700.
  • (92) Monitory “Letter about ye Maintenance of Ministers.” Boston, 1700.
  • (93) The Old Principles of New-England. Or Thirty-Three Articles … of The Platform of Church-Discipline. [Boston, 1700.]
  • (94) A Pillar of Gratitude. Or, A brief Recapitulation of the Matchless Favours, with which the God of Heaven hath obliged the Hearty Praises of His New-English Israel. [Election sermon.] Appended is an Extract of some Accounts, concerning the Wonderful Success of the Glorious Gospel in the East-Indies. Boston, 1700.
  • (95) Reasonable Religion. Or, The Truth of the Christian Religion Demonstrated, etc. Boston, 1700. Reprinted together with The Religion of the Closet, and Family Religion Urged. London, 1713.
  • (96) The Religious Marriner. A brief discourse … to direct the course of sea-men … which may bring them to the Port, of Eternal happiness. Boston, 1700. [Listed in Sibley as of 1699.]
  • (97) The Resolved Christian; Pursuing the Designs of Holiness and Happiness. [Boston], 1700. [A reprint of no. 9.]
  • (98) Things that Young People should Think upon. Or, The Death of Young People Improved, etc. Boston, 1700.
  • (99) A Token for the Children of New-England. Or, Some Examples of Children to whom the Fear of God was Remarkably Budding, before they Dyed, etc. Boston, 1700.
  • (100) A Warning to the Flocks Against Wolves in Sheeps Cloathing. Or, A Faithful Advice … unto the Churches of New England, relating to the Dangers that may arise from Imposters, Pretending to be Ministers, etc. Boston, 1700. Reprinted in the Magnalia, VII, 30.
  • (101) Wussukwhonk En Christianeue asuh peantamwae Indianog … An Epistle to the Christian Indians, etc. Boston, 1700, 1706.
  • (102) Ye Young Man’s Monitor. Boston, 1700.
  • (103) American Tears upon the Ruines of the Greek Churches. A … History of the Darkness come upon the Greek Churches, in Europe and Asia, etc. Boston, 1701.
  • (104) A Christian at his Calling. Two Brief Discourses, etc. Boston, 1701.
  • (105) A Collection, of some of the many offensive matters, contained in a pamphlet, entituled The Order of the Gospel revived. Boston, 1701 [See no. 77 under I. M.]
  • (106) A Companion of the Afflicted. The Duties and the Comforts of Good Men under their Afflictions, etc. Boston, 1701.
  • (107) Consolations. November, 1701. [Boston, 1701.] [A poem on blindness.]
  • (108) Death made Easie & Happy. London, 1701.
  • (109) Some Few Remarks upon A Scandalous Book, against the Government and Ministry of New-England. Written by one Robert Calef. Detecting the Unparall’d Malice & Falsehood, of the said Book; and Defending the Names of several particular Gentlemen, by him therein aspersed and abused, etc. Boston, 1701. [Cf. no. 51.]
  • (110) Thaumatographia Christiana. The Wonders of Christianity, etc. Boston, 1701.
  • (111) Triumphs over Troubles. Boston, 1701.
  • (112) Ye Young mans Preservative. Boston, 1701.
  • (113) An Advice to the Churches of the Faithful: Briefly Reporting the Present State of the Church, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (114) Arma Virosq; Cano: Or, The Troubles which the Churches of New-England have undergone in the Wars, which the People of that Country have had with the Indian Salvages. In the Magnalia, VII, 41. Reprinted with The History of King Philip’s War, by I. Mather. Andros Tracts. Boston, 1862.
  • (115) Cares about the Nurseries. Two brief Discourses … offering Methods and Motives for Parents to Catechise their Children, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (116) Christianity to the Life. Boston, 1702.
  • (117) Christianus per Ignem …. With Devout and Useful Meditations, Fetch’d out of the Fire, by a Christian in a Cold Season, Sitting before it, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (118) A Letter to the Ungospellized Plantations, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (119) Magnalia Christi Americana: Or the Ecclesiastical History of New-England, from its First Planting in the Year 1720. unto the Year of our Lord, 1698. London, 1702. Re-issued in two vols. Hartford and New Haven, 1820. The same with notes by T. Robbins, and translations of foreign quotations by L. F. Robinson, together with a life of C. M. by S. G. Drake. Hartford, 1853. [Replied to by G. Bishop (a Quaker) in New-England Judged … with … an answer to C. Mather’s abuses of the said people, in his late History of New England, etc. 1702.]
  • (120) Maschil, Or, The Faithful Instructor … Twenty Six Exercises Upon the New-English Catechism, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (121) A monitory Letter to them who Needlessly and Frequently Absent themselves from the publick Worship of God. Boston, 1702, 1712, 1738.
  • (122) Much in Little; or three Brief Essays to sum up the whole Christian Religion. Boston, 1702.
  • (123) Necessary Admonitions … Or, A Brief Discourse Concerning Sins of Omission. Boston, 1702.
  • (124) Notes of a Sermon delivered on a Fast at Woburn. [Boston? not in Evans], 1702.
  • (125) The Pourtraiture of A Good Man, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (126) A Seasonable Testimony to the Glorious Doctrines of Grace, At this Day many ways undermined in the World, etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (127) Sound Words, to be held fast, in Faith and Love. Or, The Christian Religion, Epitomized and Inculcated in Three Essayes. Etc. Boston, 1702.
  • (128) Agreeable Admonitions for Old and Young. Boston, 1703.
  • (129) The Day which the Lord hath made. A Discourse Concerning The Institution and Observation of the Lords-Day. Boston, 1703, 1707. [Sec. ed. includes translation into Indian.]
  • (130) The Duty of Children Whose Parents have Pray’d for them. Etc. Boston, 1703, 1719.
  • (131) Eureka, Or a Vertuous Woman found. An Essay on the Death of Mrs Mary Brown. Boston, 1703.
  • (132) A Family Sacrifice. A Brief Essay to Direct and Excite Family-Religion, etc. Boston, 1703, 1707, 1714 [with Indian translation], 1720, 1727, 1740. [Also reprinted in Lond.]
  • (133) The Glory of Goodness; with Remarks on the Redemption of Captives from the Cruelties of Barbary. Boston, 1703.
  • (134) Great Consolations: or a Tempted Christian Triumphing over his Temptations. Boston. 1703.
  • (135) The High attainment. A Discourse on resignation. Boston, 1703.
  • (136) The House of Mourning … a sermon occasioned by the death of Mrs Abagail Mather. Boston, 1703. [The second part of no. 135.]
  • (137) Jedidiah: or a Favorite of Heaven described. Boston, 1703.
  • (138) Meat out of the Eater. Or, Funeral-Discourses, Occasioned by the Death of Several Relatives. Etc. Boston, 1703. [See no. 136.]
  • (139) Methods and Motives for Society to suppress Disorders. Boston, 1703.
  • (140) Notes of a Sermon at Boston Lecture, 16 September, 1703. [n. d.]
  • (141) The Retired Christian. Or, The Duty of Secret Prayer, Publickly inculcated; etc. Boston, 1703.
  • (142) Wholesome Words. Advisit of advice, given unto families that are visited with sickness, etc. Boston, 1703, 1713, 1721.
  • (143) The Wonderful works of God commemorated, etc. Boston, 1703. [A re-issue of a portion of no. 19.]
  • (144) The Armour of Christianity. A Treatise, Detecting … the Plots of the Devil against our Happiness … the Wiles by which those Plots are managed. And … the Thoughts by which those Wiles may by Defeated. Boston, 1704.
  • (145) Baptistes: A Conference about the Subject and Manner of Baptism. Between C. M. and D. R. Boston, 1704, 1724.
  • (146) A Comforter of the Mourners. An Essay for the Undoing of Heavy Burdens, etc. Boston, 1704.
  • (147) A Faithful Monitor. Offering, An Abstract of the Lawes in the Province of the Massachusett-Eay, New-England Against those Disorders, the Suppression whereof is desired and pursued by them that wish well to the worthy Designs of Reformation, etc. Boston, 1704.
  • (148) Faithful Warnings to prevent Fearful Judgments … by a Tragical Spectacle, in a Number of Miserables under a Sentence of Death for Piracy, etc. Boston, 1704. [A second title, Conversion exemplified. A poem.]
  • (149) The Nets of Salvation. A Brief Essay upon the Glorious Designs & Methods of Winning the Minds of Men unto Serious Religion. New London, 1704. [Given in Evans Amer. Bib., as Boston.]
  • (150) The Reprover doing his Duty. Boston, 1704. [The second portion of no. 147.]
  • (151) A Servant of the Lord not ashamed of his Lord. Boston, 1704.
  • (152) A Tree planted by the Rivers of Water. Or, An Essay, upon the Godly and Glorious Improvements, which Baptised Christians are to make of their Sacred Baptism. Boston, 1704.
  • (153) Le Vrai Patron des Saines Paroles. Boston, 1704.
  • (154) A Weaned Christian. Or, Some Things, by which a Serious Christian may be made Easy when Great Things are Deny’d unto him. Etc. Boston, 1704.
  • (155) Youth under a Good Conduct. A Short Essay to render Young People Happy, by Engaging them in the wayes of Early & Serious Religion. Etc. Boston, 1704.
  • (156) A Faithful Man, Described and Rewarded. Some Observable & Serviceable Passages in the Life and Death of Mr Michael Wigglesworth. Late Pastor of Maldon; etc. Boston, 1705, 1849.
  • (157) The Hatchets to hew down the Tree of Sin, which bears the Fruit of Death. Or, the Laws, by which the Magistrates are to punish Offenses among the Indians as well as among the English. Etc. [With Indian translation.] Boston, 1705. [See Proc. of Amer. Antiquar. Soc., no. LXI, 58.]
  • (158) A Letter, About the Present State of Christianity, among the Christianized Indians in New-England. Written to … Sir William Ashurst, etc. Boston, 1705. [Signed by I. Mather, Cotton Mather, Nehemiah Walter.]
  • (159) Lex Mercatoria. Or, The Just Rules of Commerce Declared, etc. Boston, 1705.
  • (160) Mare Pacificum; or the Statisfactions of afflicted Christianity. Boston, 1705.
  • (161) Monica Americana. A Funeral-Sermon Occasioned by the Death of Mrs. Sarah Leveret, etc. Boston, 1705
  • (162) Nicetas. Or, Temptations to Sin, and Particularly to the Sin Wherewith Youth is most Usually and Easily Ensnared, etc. Boston, 1705.
  • (163) Parental Wishes and Charges. Or, The Enjoyments of a Glorious Christ, Proposed, as the great Blessedness which Christian Parents desire for themselves, and for their Children. Boston, 1705.
  • (164) The Religion of the Closet. Etc. Boston, 1705, 1706. 4th ed., 1715.
  • (165) The Rules of a Vist … How the Visits of Christians to one another, may be so Managed, as to Answer the Noble Designs of Christianity. Etc. Boston, 1705.
  • (166) The Christian Temple. Or, An Essay Upon A Christian Considered as A Temple. Etc. Boston, 1706.
  • (167) Free-Grace, Maintained & Improved. Etc. Boston, 1706.
  • (168) Good fetch’d out of Evil: A Collection of Memorables relating to our Captives. Boston, 1706.
  • (169) Good Lessons for Children, in Verse. Boston, 1706. [“It quickly had a second edition.”]
  • (170) The Good Old Way. Or, Christianity Described … In the Lives of the Primitive Christians. Etc. Boston, 1706.
  • (171) Heavenly Considerations: or the Joy of Heaven over them that answer the Call of Heaven. Boston, 1706.
  • (172) The Impenitent Sinner disarm’d of his Plea for Impenitency. Boston, 1706.
  • (173) The Negro Christianized. An Essay to Excite and Assist … The Instruction of Negro-Servants in Christianity. Boston, 1706.
  • (174) New and Remarkable Discoveries of Quakerism. [Manuscript sent to London; perhaps not printed.]
  • (175) Private Meetings Animated and regulated. Etc. Boston, 1706.
  • (176) Vigilantius. Or, A Servant of the Lord Found Ready for the Coming of the Lord. A Discourse Occasioned by the Early Death of Seven Young Ministers, etc. Boston, 1706.
  • (177) A Young Follower of a Great Saviour. Boston, 1706. (178) Another Tongue brought in, to confess the great Saviour of the World; or, Some Communications … put into a Tongue used among the Iroquois Indians, etc. Boston, 1707. (179) The Best Ornaments of Youth. Etc. Boston, 1707. (180) The Fall of Babylon. Boston, 1707. [A portion of no. 181, issued separately.
  • (181) Frontiers Well-Defended. An Essay To Direct the Frontiers of a Countrey Exposed unto the Incursions of a Barbarous Enemy, How to behave, etc. Boston, 1707. [See note to no. 45.] (182) The Greatest Concern in the World. [?], 1707. New London, 1718.
  • (183) A Memorial of the Present Deplorable State of New-England, With the Many Disadvantages it lyes under by the Male-Administration of their Present Governour, Joseph Dudley, Esq. and his Son Paul, etc. [London], 1707. Reprinted in Preface to vol. II of Sewall’s Diary. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. Fifth Series, vol. VI.
  • (184) Ornamental Piety. [?], 1707.
  • (185) “Ye soldier told what he shall do.” [?], 1707, [?], 1709.
  • (186) The Spirit of Life entring into the Spiritually Dead. Etc. Boston, 1707.
  • (187) A Treacle fetch’d out of a Viper. A Brief Essay Upon Falls into Sins; etc. Boston, 1707.
  • (188) A Very Needful Caution. A Brief Essay to Discover the Sin that Slayes its Ten Thousands … With some Antidotes against the Infection of Covetousness, etc. Boston, 1707.
  • (189) Corderius Americanus. An Essay upon the Good Education of Children …. In a Funeral Sermon upon Mr Ezekiel Cheever … Master of the Free-School in Boston, etc. Boston, 1708, 1774. 1828 [Abridged and with new material].
  • (190) The Deplorable State of New-England, By Reason of a Covetous and Treacherous Governour and Pusillanimous Counsellors, with a Vindication of the Honble Mr Higginson, Mr Mason … To which is Added, An Account of the Shameful Miscarriage of the Late Expedition against Port-Royal. London, 1708. [A reply to a reply to no. 183. Ascribed to C. M. by Palfrey. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. Preface to vol. VI. Fifth Series.]
  • (191) A Good Evening for the Best of Dayes. An Essay to Manage an Action of Trespass, against Those who Misspend the Lords-Day Evening, etc. Boston, 1708.
  • (192) Letter to Governor Joseph Dudley. I. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., III, 128.
  • (193) The Man of God Furnished. The Way of Truth, Laid out; etc. Boston, 1708, 1721.
  • (194) Sober Considerations, on a Growing Flood of Iniquity … and to Warn People, particularly of the Woful Consequences [of] the Prevailing Abuse of Rum. Boston, [1708].
  • (195) Winthropi Justa. A Sermon at the Funeral of … John Winthrop, Esq. Late Governor of … Connecticut. Etc. Boston, 1708, 1709. London, 1709. Boston and London, 1710.
  • (196) The Bonds of the Covenant. Boston, 1709.
  • (197) A Christian Conversing with the Great Mystery of Christianity. The Mystery of the Trinity, etc. [Boston], 1709.
  • (198) The Cure of Sorrow. An Essay directing Persons under Sadness what Course to take, etc. Boston, 1709.
  • (199) The Desires of the Repenting Believer. Boston, 1709.
  • (200) An Essay on the Streets of the Holy City. [Boston? not in Evans], 1709.
  • (201) Family Religion Urged. Etc. Boston, 1709, 1747.
  • (202) A Golden Curb, for the Mouth, which … Rushes into the Sins of Profane Swearing and Cursing. Boston, 1709.
  • (203) Nunc Dimittis … The Happy Dismission, of the Holy Believer … Considered in a Funeral Sermon, for … Mr John Higginson, etc. Boston, 1709.
  • (204) The Sailours Companion and Counsellour. Etc. Boston, 1709.
  • (205) “Ye Sum of ye matter: Abridgmt of ye Assemblies Catechism. 1709.”?
  • (206) The Temple Opening. A Particular Church Considered as a Temple of the Lord. Etc. Boston, 1709.
  • (207) Work Within-Doors. An Essay to Assist the Serious in the Grand Exercise of Conversing with Themselves, etc. Boston, 1709.
  • (208) Youth in its Brightest Glory. An Essay, Directing them that are Young in Age, to become Strong in Grace, etc. Boston, 1709.
  • (209) Bonifacius. An Essay Upon the Good, that is to be Devised and Designed, by those Who Desire to Answer the Great End of Life, and Do Good While they Live. Etc. [Boston, 1710.] [Title of later editions changed to Essays to do Good, etc.] New York, 1805. Improved by George Burder, London, 1807, 1808. Boston, 1808. Johnstown, 1815. London, 1824. With introd. by Andrew Thomson, Glasgow, 1825. Dover, 1826. London, 1842. Boston, 1845.
  • (210) Christianity Demonstrated. Etc. Boston, 1710.
  • (211) Dust and Ashes. An Essay upon Repentance to the Last. Boston, 1710.
  • (212) Elizabeth in her Holy Retirement; An Essay to Prepare a Pious Woman for her Lying-In, etc. Boston, 1710.
  • (213) The Heavenly Conversation, An Essay upon the Methods of Conversing with a Glorious Christ, etc. Boston, 1710.
  • (214) Letter … To the … University of Glasgow, acknowledging the degree of Doctor of Divinity. [Boston, 1710.]
  • (215) Man Eating the Food of Angels. The Gospel of the Manna, to be Gathered in the Morning … Especially, the … History of Christlieb … Von Extor, etc. Boston, 1710.
  • (216) Nehemiah. A Brief Essay on Divine Consolations, etc. Boston, 1710.
  • (217) A New Offer to the lovers of religion and learning. [Boston, 1710.] The prospectus of his Biblia Americana.
  • (218) Theopolis Americana … A Testimony against the Corruptions of the Market-Place. Etc. Boston, 1710.
  • (219) Advice from Taberah. A Sermon after the Terrible Fire, which … Laid a Considerable Part of Boston in Ashes. Etc. Boston, 1711. [Cf. I. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. V, 52.]
  • (220) Compassions Called for. An Essay … on Miserable Spectacles … Especially, The Surprising Distresses and Deliverances of a Company lately Shipwrecked … on the coast of New-England. Boston, 1711. 2d impression the same year.
  • (221) Manly Christianity. Etc. London, 1711.
  • (222) Memorials of Early Piety. Occurring in the Holy Life & Joyful Death of Mrs Jerusha Oliver. Etc. Boston, 1711.
  • (223) The Old Pathes Restored. Etc. [On the doctrine of grace.] Boston, 1711. London, 1712.
  • (224) Orphanotrophium. Or, Orphans Well-provided for. An Essay, On the Care taken in the Divine Providence for Children when their Parents forsake them. Etc. Boston, 1711.
  • (225) Perswasions from the Terror of the Lord. A Sermon concerning The Day of Judgment; etc. Boston, 1711.
  • (226) The Right Way to shake off a Viper … What shall Good Men do, when they are Evil Spoken of. London, 1711. Boston, 1720. A second impression the same year.
  • (227) Awakening Thoughts on the Sleep of Death. Etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (228) Curiosa Americana. Not published. 1712. [First series.] Excerpted in Philosophical Transactions, London. April-June, 1714. The original MSS. in the Letter-Book of the Royal Soc.
  • (229) The Fishermans Calling. A Brief Essay, to Serve the Great Interests of religion among our Fisher-men. Etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (230) Grace Defended. Etc. Boston, 1712. ["One of the earliest Christmas sermons preached from a Puritan pulpit in New England."]
  • (231) Grata Brevitas … To demonstrate … The most Weighty Matters of Religion, offered in several Abridgments, etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (232) Pastoral Desires. A Short Catalogue of Excellent Things, which a True Pastor, will Desire to see … among his People. Etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (233) Preface to J. Pierpont’s Sundry False Hopes of Heaven Discovered and Decryed. Boston, 1712.
  • (234) Reason Satisfied: and Faith Established. The Resurrection of a Glorious Jesus Demonstrated by many Infallible Proofs: etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (235) Repeated Warnings. Another Essay, to Warn Young People against Rebellions that must be Repented of; etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (236) Seasonable Thoughts upon Mortality. A Sermon Occasioned by the raging of a Mortal Sickness in the Colony of Connecticut, etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (237) A Soul Well-Anchored. A Little Manual for Self-Examination; etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (238) Thoughts for the Day of Rain … The Gospel of the Rainbow … The Saviour with His Rainbow. Etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (239) A Town in its truest Glory. A discourse wherein the state of all our towns is considered. Boston, 1712.
  • (240) A True Survey & Report of the Road. A Brief Essay to Rectify the Mistakes of Men, about the Way taken by them. Etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (241) The Wayes and Joyes of Early Piety. One Essay more to Describe and Commend, A Walk in the Truth of our Great Saviour, unto the Children of His People. Etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (242) Winter Piety. A Very Brief Essay, in the Methods of Piety, etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (243) The Young Man Spoken to. Another Essay, to Recommend & Inculcate the Maxims of Early Religion, etc. Boston, 1712.
  • (244) The A, B, C, of Religion. Lessons Relating to the Fear of God, etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (245) Adversus Libertinos. Or, Evangelical Obedience Described and Demanded, etc. Boston, 1713. [An attack upon Antinomianism.]
  • (246) Advice from the Watch Tower … A brief Essay to Declare the Danger … of all Evil Customes in general; And … a more particular Catalogue of Evil Customes growing upon us; etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (247) The Best Way of Living; Which is to Die Daily: etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (248) A Christian Funeral … What should be the Behaviour of a Christian at a Funeral? Boston, 1713.
  • (249) The Curbed Sinner … Occasioned by a Sentence of Death, passed on a poor Young Man, for the Murder of his Companion, etc. Boston, 1713. [The second part of no. 258.]
  • (250) A Flying Roll, Brought forth, to Enter into the House and Hand of the Thief. The Crime & the Doom of the Thief declared, etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (251) Golgotha. A Lively Description of Death … Occasioned by some fresh Instances … With a more particular Memorial of … Mr Recompense Wadsworth, a Late School-Master in Boston. Boston, 1713.
  • (252) Hezekiah. A Christian Armed with Strength from above; etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (253) Instructions for Children, in verse, including the Body of Divinity versified. Boston, 1713. [Appended to no. 244.]
  • (254) A Letter About a Good Management under the Distemper of the Measles, at this time Spreading in the Country. Etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (255) A Man of his Word … on Fidelity in Keeping of Promises and Engagements. Boston, 1713.
  • (256) Nepenthes Evangelicum … A Sermon Occasioned by the Death of a Religious Matron, Mrs Mary Rock, etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (257) A Present of Summer Fruit … To Offer Some Instructions of Piety, Which the Summer-Season … Leads us to; etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (258) The Sad Effects of Sin. A True Relation of the Murder Committed by David Wallis, on his Companion Benjamin Stolwood. Etc. Boston, 1713. [Three titles: the second is no. 249, the third, The Hainous nature of the sin of Murder, by B. Colman.]
  • (259) Tabitha Rediviva. An Essay to Describe and Commend the Good Works of a Vertuous Woman … With some Justice done to the Memory of … Mrs Elizabeth Hutchinson. Boston, 1713.
  • (260) A Testimony against Evil Customs Given by Several Ministers. Boston, 1713.
  • (261) Things to be more thought upon. A Brief Treatise on the Injuries Offered unto the Glorious and Only Saviour of the World, etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (262) What should be most of All Tho’t upon. A Brief Essay to Awaken … A Proper and a Lively Concern for a Good State after Death. Etc. Boston, 1713.
  • (263) The Will of a Father Submitted to. The Duty of Patient Submission to every Condition, which the Providence of God, Orders for the Children of Men. Boston, 1713.
  • (264) Death Approaching. Boston, 1714.
  • (265) Duodecennium Luctuosum. The History of a Long War With Indian Salvages, And their Directors and Abettors; From the Year, 1702. To the Year, 1714. Etc. Boston, 1714.
  • (266) The Glorious Throne. A Short View of Our Great Lord-Redeemer, On His Throne … And most Particularly … the Death of our Late Memorable Sovereign, And the Legal Succession … to the Illustrious House of Hanover. Etc. Boston, 1714.
  • (267) Insanabilia; or an Essay upon Incurables; etc. Boston, 1714.
  • (268) A Life of Piety Resolv’d upon … A Walk before the Glorious God. And the Resolutions Wherewith such a Walk is to be come into. Made upon the Death of … Mrs Sarah Thing; etc. Boston, 1714.
  • (269) Maternal Consolations … on the Death of Mrs Maria Mather, the Consort of the Eminent Dr. Increase Mather. Boston, 1714.
  • (270) A Monitor for Communicants. An Essay to Excite and Assist … Religious Approaches to the Table of the Lord. Etc. Boston, 1714, 1715, 1716 [in English and Indian]. New London, 1732. Boston, 1750.
  • (271) Pascentius. A very brief Essay upon the Methods of Piety. Etc. Boston, 1714.
  • (272) A Perfect Recovery … Exhibited in a Brief Discourse to the Inhabitants of a Place, that had Pass’d thro’ a very Sickly Winter, And a Time of much Adversity. Boston, 1714.
  • (273) The Religion of the Cross … Occasioned by what was Encountred in the Death of … Mrs. Elizabeth Mather [his wife], etc. Boston, 1714.
  • (274) The Sacrificer. An Essay upon the Sacrifices, Wherewith a Christian … Endeavours to Glorify God. Boston. 1714.
  • (275) The Saviour with his Rainbow … the Covenant which God will remember in the Times of Danger passing over his Church. London, 1714.
  • (276) A Short Life, yet not a vain one: occasioned by some Instances of Mortality. Boston, 1714.
  • (277) A Short View of our Glorious Redeemer on his Throne. Boston, 1714.
  • (278) Verba Vivifica: some Words of Life, produced by the Death of some young Persons. Boston, 1714.
  • (279) Vita brevis: an Essay upon Withering Flowers. Boston, 1714.
  • (280) Benedictus. Good Men Described … With Some Character & History of … Mr Thomas Bridge, A Late Pastor of the First-Church in Boston; etc. Boston, 1715.
  • (281) The Grand Point of Sollicitude. A very brief Essay upon Divine Desertions, the Symptoms of them, etc. Boston, 1715.
  • (282) Just Commemorations. The Death of Good Men Considered; and The Characters of Some who have Lately Died in the Service of the Churches … Unto which there is added, A brief Account of the Evangelical Work among the Christianized Indians of New-England; Whereof One of the Persons here Commemorated was a valuable … Instrument. [Life of Grindal Rawson.] Boston, [1715.]
  • (283) “Monitor for ye Children of ye Covent.” [Boston], 1715. [Possibly identical with no.271]

(284) Nuncia Bona e Terra Longinqua. A Brief Account of Some Good & Great Things A Doing For the Kingdom of God, In the Midst of Europe; etc. Boston, 1715.

  • (285) Parentalia. An Essay Upon the Blessings and Comforts Reserved for Pious Children after the Death of their Pious Parents. Etc. Boston, 1715.
  • (286) Shaking Dispensations. An Essay Upon the Mighty Shakes, which the Hand of Heaven … is giving to the World. With … Remarks on the Death of the French King, etc. Boston, 1715.
  • (287) A Sorrowful Spectacle. In Two Sermons Occasioned by a Just Sentence of Death, on a Miserable Woman, for the Murder of a Spurious Offspring … With some Remarkable Things, relating to the Criminal; proper for All to be Informed of. Boston, 1715. [Appended is B. Colman’s The Divine Compassions declar’d and magnified.]
  • (288) Successive Generations. Remarks upon the Changes of a Dying World, Made by One Generation passing off, and another Generation coming on. Boston, 1715.
  • (289) Verba Opportuna: The Circumstances of Boston considered, with fresh Inculcations of Piety. Boston, 1715.
  • (290) The Christian Cynick. A` brief Essay On a Merciful Saviour, Address’d by an Unworthy Sinner; etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (291) Curiosa Americana, continued in Letters to ye Learned & Famous John Woodward M.D. …. from Cotton Mather, etc. 1716. Contains, 1, Monstrous Impraegnations; 2, A Monstrous Calf; 3, The Nidification of Pigeons; 4, A Triton; 5, A Serpent securely handled; 6, A Strange Mischief to the Eyes; 7, Strength of Imagination; 8, The Stone Mistaken; 9, Surprizing Influences of the Moon; 10, Curiosities of the Small Pox; 11, The Fagiana. [The second series of Cur. Amer., written in 1714, was sent to England for publication by the Royal Soc. Fearful that they were lost, Mather reproduced them as above. See Kittredge, under Biography and Criticism.]
  • (292) A brief Essay on Tokens for Good. [Boston?], 1716.
  • (293) The City of Refuge. The Gospel of the City Explained, etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (294) Directions How to spend the Lords Day Evening. Boston, 1716.
  • (295) The Echo’s of Devotion. A very brief and plain Essay on those Acts of Compliance which all Calls to Piety are to be entertained withal. Boston, 1716.
  • (296) Fair Dealing between Debtor and Creditor. A very brief Essay upon The Caution to be used, about coming into Debt, And getting out of it. Boston, 1716.
  • (297) Letter to Dr. John Woodward, of London, respecting Bridget and Jane Moulton, etc. 1716. Col. New Hamp. Hist. Soc., III, 122.
  • (298) Life swiftly Passing and quickly Ending. A very Short Sermon … after the Death of Mrs. Mehetabel Gerrish, etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (299) Marah spoken to. A brief Essay to do good unto the Widow. Etc. Boston, 1716, 1718.
  • (300) Menachem … On Tokens of Good … also some Good Things of a Late Occurrence … which have a Comfortable Aspect on the Protestant Religion in General, etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (301) Piety Demanded. [Boston?], 1716.
  • (302) The Pleasures of True Piety. Boston, 1716.
  • (303) The Resort of Piety. Our Saviour Considered and Exhibited as a Tree of Life, etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (304) The Servant of Abraham. With Motives for the Instruction of Servants. Boston, 1716.
  • (305) vol.1–27 Some Seasonable Advice unto the Poor To be annexed unto the Kindnesses of God, etc. [Boston, 1716.]
  • (306) The Stone Cut out of the Mountain. And The Kingdom of God, in Those Maxims of it, that cannot be shaken. Etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (307) Utilia. Real and Vital Religion Served, in the Various & Glorious Intentions of it. Etc. Boston, 1716.
  • (308) Anastasius; The Resurrection of Lazarus improved. Boston, 1717. (309) A Brief Account of the State of the Province of the Massachusetts-Bay in New-England, Civil and Ecclesiastical. Boston, 1717.
  • (310) The Case of a troubled Mind … Which apprehends the Face of a gracious God Hidden from it. Etc. Boston, 1717, 1741.
  • (311) Febrifugium. An Essay for the Cure of Ungodly Anger. Boston, 1717.
  • (312) Hades Look’d into. The Power of Our Great Saviour Over the Invisible World, and the Gates of Death … Considered, In a Sermon Preached at the Funeral of … Wait Winthrop, Esq; etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (313) Icono-clastes. An Essay upon the Idolatry, too often committed under the Profession of the most Reformed Christianity; etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (314) Instructions to the Living, from the Condition of the Dead. A Brief Relation of Remarkables in the Shipwreck of above One Hundred Pirates, Who were Cast away in the Ship Whido … April 26. 1717. And in the Death of Six, who … were Convicted & Condemned … And Executed, etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (315) Malachi. Or, The Everlasting Gospel Preached unto the Nations. Etc. Boston, 1717. Philadelphia, 1767.
  • (316) Piety and Equity United. In Two Essays: etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (317) Preface by Dr. Increase Mather and Dr. Cotton Mather to Bridgewater’s Monitor, by James Keith and Samuel Danforth. Boston, 1717.
  • (318) Proposals for printing by subscription Psalterium Americanum. Boston, 1717.
  • (319) Raphael: The Blessings of an healed Soul considered. Boston, 1717.
  • (320) A Speech made unto his excellency, Samuel Shute Esq … By the Reverend Dr. Cotton Mather, Attended with the Ministers … May 30. 1717. Boston, 1717.
  • (321) The Thankful Christian. A brief Essay, Upon those Returns of Thankfulness and Obediance to the Glorious God, etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (322) The Tribe of Asher. A brief Essay on the Conspicuous Blessings with which the People of God and their Offspring are known to be the Blessed of the Lord. Etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (323) The Valley of Baca. The Divine Sov’reignty, Displayed & Adored … A Sermon Preached on the Death of Mrs Hannah Sewall; The Religious & Honourable Consort of Samuel Sewall Esq; etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (324) The Valley of Hinnom. The Terrours of Hell demonstrated … In a Sermon Preached in the Hearing, and at the Request of a Man under a Sentence of Death for a Murder; etc. Boston, 1717.
  • (325) Victorina. A Sermon Preach’d On the Decease and At the Desire, of Mrs Kathrin Mather, By her Father. Etc. Boston, 1717. With additions, 1727.
  • (326) The Voice of the Dove; with Memoirs of Mr Robert Kitchen. Boston, 1717.
  • (327) Zelotes. A Zeal For the House of God; Blown up, in a Sermon, etc. Boston, 1717. [A dedication sermon on a new meeting-house in Summer Street.]
  • (328) Brethren dwelling together in Unity. The True Basis for an Union Among the People of God … In a Sermon. Preached at the Ordination of a Pastor, in the Church of the Baptists. Boston, 1718.
  • (329) Early Piety, exemplified in Elizabeth Butcher of Boston, etc. Boston, 1718.
  • (330) Faith Encouraged … a Strange Impression from Heaven, on the Minds of Some Jewish Children, At the City of Berlin, etc. Boston, 1718.
  • (331) A Man of Reason. A Brief Essay to demonstrate That all Men should hearken to Reason, etc. Boston, 1718.
  • (332) The Obedient Sufferer. Boston, 1718.
  • (333) Providence asserted and adored: A Sermon occasioned by the Death of several who were drowned. Boston, 1718. [1716?].
  • (334) Psalterium Americanum. The Book of Psalms, In a translation exactly conformed unto the original; but all in blank verse, fitted unto the tunes commonly used in our churches. Etc. Boston, 1718. [See no. 318.]
  • (335) Right Hand of Fellowship of the Churches at the Ordination of Thomas Prince. [Boston?], 1718.
  • (336) Vanishing Things. An Essay on Dying Man … In a Sermon Preached on the Departure … of Mr Thomas Bernard, etc. Boston, 1718.
  • (337) Concio ad Populum. A Distressed People Entertained with Proposals for the Relief of their Distresses, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (338) Desiderius. Or, A Desirable Man Describ’d … Commemoration of … Mr James Keith, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (339) The Duty of Children, Whose Parents have Pray’d for them, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (340) Genethlia Pia; Or, Thoughts for a Birth-Day. Boston, 1719.
  • (341) A Glorious Espousal. A Brief Essay to Illustrate the Marriage, wherein Our Great Saviour offers to Espouse unto Himself the Children of Men; And … to Recommend … a Good Carriage in the Married Life. Etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (342) An Heavenly Life. A Christian taught how to live. etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (343) History of Seasonable Interposition Especially Relating to the Fifth of November. Boston, 1719.
  • (344) Letter to Rev. Thomas Bradbury Septemb 7. 1719. Prefixed to Bradbury’s Necessity for Revealed Religion. 1719.
  • (345) A Letter giving the "Character of the Inhabitants of New England, and of Col. Shute, their present Governour." Nov. 4. 1718. 1719.
  • (346) Mirabilia Dei. An Essay on the very Seasonable & Remarkable Interpositions of the Divine Providence … Especially relating to that Twice-Memorable Fifth of November. Etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (347) A New-Year Well-begun. An Essay Offered on a New-Years-Day, etc. Boston, 1719. New-London, 1719.
  • (348) The Religion of an Oath. Plain Directions How the Duty of Swearing May be Safely Managed, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (349) Sincere Piety described, and the Trial of Sincerity assisted. Boston, 1719.
  • (350) A Testimony against Evil Customs. Given by Several Ministers of the Gospel. Etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (351) The Tryed Professor. A very Brief Essay, to Detect and Prevent Hypocrisy, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (352) Vigilius. Or The Awakener … To Rebuke first the Natural Sleep Which too often proves a Dead Fly … And then the Moral Sleep, etc. Boston, 1719.
  • (353) A Voice from Heaven. An Account of an uncommon Appearance in the Heavens, with Remarks upon it. Boston, 1719.
  • (354) Youth Advised: An Essay on the Sins of Youth. Boston, 1719.
  • (355) A Brother’s Duty: An Essay on every Man his Brothers Keeper. Boston, 1720.
  • (356) Coheleth. A Soul upon Re-collection … Offering the Advice of a Father going out of the World, unto a Son coming into it. Boston, 1720.
  • (357) Detur Digniori. The Righteous Man described … In a Sermon upon the Death of the Reverend Mr Joseph Gerrish, etc. Boston, 1720.
  • (358) Letter [supposed] "To the Hone Judge Sewall," April, 1720. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. XXXII, 122.
  • (359) The Quickened Soul. A Short and Plain Essay on, The Withered Hand Revived and Restored. Boston, 1720.
  • (360) The Salvation of the Soul considered, etc. Boston, 1720.
  • (361) Undoubted Certainties. Or, Piety Enlivened … In a Sermon Preached on the Death of Mrs Abigail Sewall, etc. Boston, 1720.
  • (362) A Year and a Life Well Concluded … A Sermon Preached on the Last Day of the Year, 1719. Boston, 1720.
  • (363) The Accomplished Singer … Intended for the Assistance of all that would Sing Psalms with Grace in their Hearts, etc. Boston, 1721.
  • (364) Address to the Physicians of Boston. 1721. [The first pamphlet (unpublished) of the inoculation controversy. Printed in large part in no. 377. The remainder in no. 411.]
  • (365) American Sentiments on the Arian Controversy. London, 1721.
  • (366) The Christian Philosopher: A Collection of the Best Discoveries in Nature, with Religious Improvements. London, 1721. Charles-town, 1815. [For a history of this work, see Pub. Colonial Soc. of Mass. XIV, 98, note 5.]
  • (367) Curiosa Americana. 1721. Fourth series. [Ten papers, one of which was incorporated in no. 411. See note to no. 377.]
  • (368) The Embassadors Tears. A Minister of the Gospel, Making his Just and Sad Complaint of an Un-successful Ministry. Boston, 1721.
  • (369) A Faithful Account of what has occur’d under the late Experiments of the Small-Pox managed and governed in the way of Inoculation. Published, partly to put a stop unto that unaccountable way of Lying, which fills the Town & Country on this occasion; and partly for the Information & Satisfaction of our Friends in other places. Printed in the Boston Gazette, No. 101, 30 Oct., 1721. [See note to no. 377.]
  • (370) Genuine Christianity … A Sermon On the Departure of Mrs. Frances Webb, etc. Boston, 1721.
  • (371) Honesta Parsimonia. Or Time Spent as it should be. Etc. Boston, 1721.
  • (372) India Christiana. A Discourse Delivered unto the Commissioners, for the Propagation of the Gospel among the American Indians, etc. Boston, 1721.
  • (373) A Letter to a Friend in the Country, Attempting a Solution of the Scruples & Objections … commonly made against the New Way of receiving the Small-Pox. Boston, 1721.
  • (374) A Pastoral Letter, to Families Visited with Sickness. Third impression. Boston, 1721. A re-issue, with changed title, of no. 142.
  • (375) Sentiments on the Small Pox Inoculated. Part two of Several Reasons proving that Inoculating or Transplanting the Small Pox, is a Lawful Practice. Boston, 1721. [The first part by I. Mather.]
  • (376) Sil-entarius. A Brief Essay on the Holy Silence and Godly Patience, that Sad Things are to be Entertained withal. A Sermon … On the Death of Mrs. Abigail Willard … By her Father. Boston, 1721.
  • (377) Some Account of what is said of Inoculating or Transplanting the Small Pox. By … Dr Emanuel Timonius, and Jacobus Pylarinus. With some Remarks thereon. To which are added A Few Quaeries in Answer to the Scruples of many about the Lawfulness of this Method. Published by Dr. Zabdiel Boylstone. 1721. [Largely by C.M. For a full discussion of this and other Inoculation titles, see Kittredge, Some Lost Works of Cotton Mather.]
  • (378) [Some Letters from New-England, Relating to the Controversy of the Present Time. London, 1721.
  • (379) Tremenda. The Dreadful Sound with which the Wicked are to be Thunder-struck. In a Sermon delivered unto a Great Assembly, in which was present, a Miserable African, just going to be Executed, etc. Boston, 1721. Second ed. the same year.
  • (380) A Vision in the Temple. The Lord of Hosts Adored … at the Opening of the New Brick Meeting-House in the North part of Boston, etc. Boston, 1721.
  • (381) The Way of Truth laid out. A Catechism, etc. Boston, 1721. [A re-issue of portions of nos. 193, 180, 120.]
  • (382) What the pious parent wishes for. Boston, 1721. [The first sermon in a series by eight ministers on Early Piety.]
  • (383) The World Alarm’d. A Surprizing Relation, Of a New Burning-Island Lately raised out of the Sea, near Tercera … And a Brief History of the other Ignivomous Mountains at this day flaming in the World. Boston, 1721.
  • (384) An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox in Boston in New England. In a letter from a Gentleman there, to his Friend in London. London, 1722. Dedicatory letter by J. Dummer. [See note to no. 377.]
  • (385) Bethiah. The Glory Which Adorns the Daughters of God. Boston, 1722.
  • (386) Columbanus. Or, The Doves Flying to the Windows of their Saviour. Boston, 1722.
  • (387) Curiosa Variolarum. 1722. [See note to no. 377.]
  • (388) Divine Afflations. An Essay, To Describe and Bespeak Those Gracious Influences of the Holy Spirit, etc. New-London, 1722.
  • (389) Love Triumphant. A Sermon at the Gathering of a New Church, etc. Boston, 1722.
  • (390) The Minister. A Sermon Offer’d unto the Anniversary Convention of Ministers, etc. Boston, 1722.
  • (391) Pia Desideria. Or the Smoaking Flax, raised into a Sacred Flame; etc. Boston, 1722.
  • (392) Repeated Admonitions. In a Monitory Letter, About the Maintainance Of an Able and Faithful Ministry; etc. Boston, 1722, 1725.
  • (393) Sober Sentiments. In an Essay upon the Vain Presumption of Living & Thriving In the World … Produced by the … Death of Mr Joshua Lamb, etc. Boston, 1722.
  • (394) The Soul upon the Wing. An Essay on the State of the Dead. Etc. Boston, 1722.
  • (395) The Way of Proceeding in the Small Pox inoculated in New England. Published in Philosophical Transactions, Jan.-March, 1722. London. [See note to no. 377.]
  • (396) A Brief memorial, of matters, and methods for pastoral visits. Boston, 1723.
  • (397) The Case of the Small-Pox Inoculated; further Cleared. To Dr. James Jurin [Sec. of the Royal Soc.]. 1723.
  • (398) Coelestinus. A Conversation in Heaven, Quickened and Assisted, with Discoveries Of Things in the Heavenly World. Etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (399) An Essay on Remarkables in the Way of Wicked Men. Boston, 1723.
  • (400) Euthanasia. A Sudden Death Made Happy and Easy to the Dying Believer, Exemplified in John Frizell, Esq; etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (401) A Father Departing. A Sermon On the Departure of the Venerable and Memorable Dr. Increase Mather … By One who, as a Son with a Father, served with him in the Gospel. Boston, 1723.
  • (402) A further Account, of the Method & Success of the Small-Pox Inoculated. 1723. [See note to no. 377.]
  • (403) A Good Character. Or A Walk with God Characterized. With Some Dues paid unto the Memory of Mr Joseph Belcher, etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (404) Good Lessons for Children in verse. New-London, 1723. [Cf. no. 253.]
  • (405) The Lord-High-Admiral of all the Seas, Adored. A Brief Essay upon the Miracle of our Saviour Walking upon the Water. Etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (406) A Pacificatory Letter [on psalm singing in churches]. Boston, 1723.
  • (407) The Pure Nazarite. Advice to a Young Man, etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (408) Some seasonable enquiries offered, for the consideration and satisfaction of them that are willing to weigh things in even balances. And for the establishment of the Reformed Churches, etc. [Boston], 1723.
  • (409) Valerius: or Soul Prosperity. Etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (410) The Voice of God in a Tempest. A Sermon Preached in the Time of the Storm; etc. Boston, 1723.
  • (411) The Angel of Bethesda, Visiting the Invalids of a Miserable World. [1724?] [Listed by Sibley and Evans as of the year 1722, New-London; by Kittredge as of the year 1724. See note to no. 377.]
  • (412) Decus ac Tutamen. A Brief Essay on the Blessings Enjoy’d by a People that have Men of a Right Character Shining among them. Offered in Commemoration of … the Honourable Gurdon Saltonstall Esq; etc. New-London, 1724.
  • (413) Light in Darkness. An Essay on the Piety Which by Remembering the Many Days of Darkness, Will Change them into a Mervellous Light. With a Notable Example of it, etc. Boston, 1724.
  • (414) The Nightingale. An Essay on Songs among Thorns. Etc. Boston, 1724.
  • (415) Parentator. Memoirs of Remarkables in the Life and Death of the Ever-Memorable Dr. Increase Mather. Etc. Boston, 1724, 1741.
  • (416) Religious Societies. Proposals For the Revival of Dying Religion, By Well-Ordered Societies for that Purpose. Etc. Boston, 1724.
  • (417) Stimulator, or the Case of a Soul walking in Darkness. [New-London], 1724.
  • (418) Tela Praevisa. A Short Essay on Troubles to be Look’d for. Etc. Boston, 1724. [Sermon on the death of his son Increase.]
  • (419) The True Riches … In a brief Essay on the Unsearchable Riches of Christ. Boston 1724.
  • (420) Une grand Voix du Ciel a la France. Boston, 1724.
  • (421) The Words of Understanding. Three Essays; I. The Philomela … II. The Ephemeron … III. Jonah, etc. Boston, 1724.
  • (422) The Christians daily devotion: A continuation of the Pastoral-letter. Boston, 1725.
  • (423) Christo-dulus. A Good Reward of a Good Servant … With some Commemoration of Mr Thomas Walter, etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (424) Deus Nobiscum. A Very brief Essay on the Enjoyment of God. Etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (425) Edul-corator. A brief Essay on the Waters of Marah Sweetened … In the Praemature Death of Captain Josiah Winslow, Who Sacrificed his Life … Engaging an Army of Indians, etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (426) El-Shaddai … Produced by the Death of that Vertuous Gentlewoman, Mrs Katharin Willard, etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (427) Memoirs of the Life of the late Reverend Increase Mather D.D. Etc. London, 1725. [Abridged and altered from no. 415.]
  • (428) The New Settlement of the Birds in New England. In Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. XXI, 126, and in Andros Tracts, II, 324, under title Political Fables.
  • (429) The Palmbearers. A brief Relation of Patient and Joyful Sufferings; etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (430) A Proposal for an Evangelical Treasury humbly tendered unto the Churches. [Boston, 1725.]
  • (431) Renatus. A brief Essay on A Soul passing From Death to Life … And the Mystery of the Two Adams, etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (432) Virtue in its Verdure. A Christian Exhibited as a Green Olivetree … with a Character of the Virtuous Mrs Abigail Brown, etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (433) Vital Christianity: A Brief Essay on the Life of God, in the Soul of Man; etc. Charlestown and Philadelphia, 1725.
  • (434) Zalmonah. The Gospel of the Brazen Serpent, in the Mosaic History. Etc. Boston, 1725.
  • (435) The Choice of Wisdom. A Brief … Essay on the Best of Blessings, To be Obtained by the Chusing of them and Asking for them. Etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (436) The Comforts of one walking thro’ the Valley of the Shadow of Death. 1726. [Perhaps identical with no. 441.]
  • (437) Diluvium Ignis. De Secundo ac Optando Jehovae-Jesu Adventu; etc. [Boston], 1726.
  • (438) Ecclesiae Monilia. The Peculiar Treasure of the Almighty King Opened … Whereof One is more particularly Exhibited, in the Character of Mrs Elizabeth Cotton, etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (439) Fasciculus Viventium. Or, All Good Wishes in One … A Soul bound up in the Bundle of Life; etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (440) A Good Old Age. A Brief Essay on the Glory of Aged Piety. Etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (441) Hatzar-Maveth. Comfortable words; … on the comforts of one living to God, but walking through the valley of the shadow of death; etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (442) The Instructor in the truths of the Gospel. Boston, 1726.
  • (443) Lampadarius. A very brief Essay, To Show the Light, Which Good Men have in Dark Hours Arising to them. Etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (444) Manuductio ad Ministerium. Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry. Etc. Boston, 1726. Re-issued under title, Student and Preacher, with introd. by J. Ryland, London, 1781, 1789. "The famous Latin preface" reduced "into ordo verborum," with literal translation, by H. Walford. London [?], 1800 [?]
  • (445) Nails Fastened. Or, Proposals of Piety Reasonably and Seasonably Complyed withal. Boston, 1726.
  • (446) Pietas Matutina. One Essay more, to bespeak and engage Early Piety, made … from the Early Departure of Mrs Elizabeth Cooper, etc. By her Father. Boston, 1726.
  • (447) Ratio Disciplinae Fratrum Nov-Anglorum. A Faithful Account of the Discipline Professed and Practised; in the Churches of New-England. Etc. Boston, 1726. Extracts reprinted, Portland, 1829.
  • (448) A Serious Address to those who unnecessarily frequent the Tavern, and often spend the Evening in Publick Houses. By Several Ministers. To which is added, a private letter … by the late Reverend Dr. Increase Mather. Boston, 1726.
  • (449) Some Seasonable Advice unto the Poor; etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (450) Suspiria Vinctorum. Some Account of the Condition to which the Protestant Interest in the World is at this Day reduced. Etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (451) Terra Beata. A Brief Essay, on the Blessing of Abraham; etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (452) The Vial poured out upon the Sea. A Remarkable Relation of Certain Pirates, Brought unto a Tragical and Untimely End. Etc. Boston, 1726.
  • (453) Agricola. Or, The Religious Husbandman: etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (454) The Balance of the Sanctuary. A Short and Plain Essay; Declaring, The True Balance Wherein Every Thing Should be Weighed, etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (455) Baptismal Piety. Two Brief Essays … The Angel of the Waters … The Angel of the Little Ones, etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (456) Boanerges. A Short Essay to preserve and strengthen the Good Impressions Produced by Earth-quakes, etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (457) Christian Loyalty. Or, Some Suitable Sentiments On the Withdraw of King George the First … And the Access of King George the Second, etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (458) The Evident Tokens of Salvation. Boston, 1727.
  • (459) Family Religion excited and assisted. Boston, 1727.
  • (460) Hor-Hagigad … An Happy Departure. Occasioned by the Decease of … Mr William Waldron, etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (461) Ignorantia Scientifica. A brief Essay on Mans not knowing his Time: etc. Boston, 1727.
  • (462) Juga Jucunda. A brief Essay to obtain from Young People, an early and hearty submission to the yoke of their Saviour …

With a relation of the glorious peace and joy, which brightened the dying hours of Mrs Abiel Goodwin, etc. Boston, 1727, 1728. [Given in Sibley under the title, Some Remarkables on the Peaceful and Joyful Death of Mrs Abiel Oood-win, etc. 1727. The title Juga Jucunda, affixed to the ed. of 1728.]

  • (463) The Marrow of the Gospel. A very brief Essay, on the Union Between the Redeemer and the Beleever. Boston, 1727.
  • (464) Preface to J. Emerson’s Important Duty of a Timely Seeking of God. 1727.
  • (465) Restitutus. The End of Life Pursued, And then, The Hope in Death Enjoyed, by the Faithful … The Declaration of One Returning from the Gates of the Grave. Boston, 1727.
  • (466) Signatus. The Sealed Servants of our God … Or, The Witness of the Holy Spirit, with the Spirit of the Beleever, to his Adoption of God, etc. Boston, 1727, 1748.
  • (467) The Terror of the Lord. Some Account of the Earth-quake that shook New-England, In the Night, Between the 29 and the 30 of October 1727. Etc. Boston, 1727. Three editions published the same year.
  • (468) The Comfortable Chambers. Opened and Visited, upon the Departure of … Mr Peter Thatcher, etc. Boston, 1728, 1796. [The last sermon delivered by him. Printed after his death.]
  • (469) The Mystical Marriage. A Brief Essay, on The Grace of the Redeemer Espousing the Soul of the Believer. Etc. Boston, 1728.
  • (470) The Widow of Nain. Remarks On the Illustrious Miracle Wrought by Our Almighty Redeemer, on behalf of a Desolate Widow. Boston, 1728.
  • (471) Discipline Practised in the Churches of New England, containing the Principles owned and the Endeavours used by them. Whit-church, Salop. 1823.
  • (472) The Life of Mr. Thomas Dudley, Several Times Governor of the Colony of Massachusetts. Written, as is supposed, By Cotton Mather. Ed. by Charles Deane, Cambridge, 1870. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. Jan., 1870. Also, in Adler, The Sutton-Dudleys of England and the Dudleys of Massachusetts. New York, 1862.
  • (473) Diary. Edited by Worthington C. Ford. Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. Seventh Series, vols. VII-VIII. Boston, 1911, 1912.
  • (474) Letters: In N.E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. 16, 24, and 39; 1 Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. 1 and 2; Colonial Soc. Mass. 5; New Hampshire Hist. Soc. Col. 3; Lit. and Hist. Soc. Quebec, 2.
  • (475) In manuscript. In Amer. Antiquar. Soc. Lib.–Letters [more than 200]; Apologetical Preface to Davenport’s Essay; Heads of Sermons [1 vol.]; Problema Theologicum; Misc. Fragments; Confutation of Shepard’s Observations respecting the Lord’s Supper; Tri-Paradisus; Quotations [4 vols.]; Sermons [3 vols.] In Mass. Hist. Soc. Lib.–Biblia Americana [6 folio vols.]; Papers relating to Witchcraft.

B. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Calef, Robert. More Wonders of the Invisible World. London, 1700. [An attack on the Mathers’ activity during the Witchcraft trials.]
  • Colman, Benjamin. The Holy walk and glorious translation of blessed Enoch. A sermon preached at the Lecture in Boston, two days after the death of the Reverend and learned Cotton Mather D.D. & F.R.S. who departed this life Febr. 13. 1728. ætat. 65. Boston, 1728.
  • Deane, Chas. The Light shed upon Cotton Mather’s "Magnalia" by his Diary. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. VI, 404–414.
  • Dexter, Henry M. The Mather Family and its Influence. In Winsor’s Memorial History of Boston, II, 297. Boston, 1880–86. [Sympathetic.]
  • Drake, S.G. Memoir, with a genealogy of the Mather family. N.E. Hist. and Gen. Reg. VI, 9.
  • Francke, Kuno. Cotton Mather and August Hermann Francke. Harvard Studies in Phil. and Lit. v, 57–67.
  • Gee, Joshua. Israel’s mourning for Aaron’s death. A sermon preached on the Lord’s-day after the death of the very Reverend and learned Cotton Mather. Boston, 1728.
  • Goddard, Delano A. The Mathers [Cotton and Increase] weighed in the balances … and found not wanting. Boston and London, 1870.
  • Haven, Sam’l F. The Mathers and the Witchcraft Delusions. Worcester, 1874. [Reprinted from Am. Antiquar. Soc. Proc.]
  • Haynes, Henry W. Cotton Mather and his Slaves. Am. Antiquar. Soc. Proc. New Series, VI.
  • Kittredge, G.L. Some Lost Works of Cotton Mather. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc. XLV, 418–479. Boston, 1912. [Important for the light it sheds on the Inoculation controversy.]
  • Marvin, Rev. A.P. The Life and Times of Cotton Mather. Boston, 1892.
  • Mather, Samuel. The Departure and Character of Elijah considered and improved. A sermon after the decease of … C. Mather, etc. Boston, 1728.
  • —Life of Cotton Mather. Boston, 1729. Re-issued in abridged form, Boston, 1744.
  • Peabody, W.B.O. Life of Cotton Mather. In Sparks’s Amer. Biog. VI, 163–350. 1854.
  • Peirce, B. History of Harvard University. Cambridge, 1833.
  • Poole, W.F. Cotton Mather and Salem Witchcraft. Boston, 1869. Reprinted from North American Review, CVIII, 337–397. [An able defense, written in reply to Upham.]
  • Prince, Thomas. The Departure of Elijah lamented. A sermon occasioned by the great & publick loss in the decease of the very Reverend & learned Cotton Mather, D.D. F.R.S. etc. Boston, 1728.
  • Quincy, J. History of Harvard University. Cambridge, 1840.
  • Robbins, C. A History of the Second Church, or Old North, in Boston, Etc. Boston, 1852.
  • Sibley, J.L. Harvard Graduates. III, 42–158. Cambridge, 1885. [With full bibliography.]
  • Sprague, Wm. B. Annals of the American Pulpit. 1, 189–195. 1857.
  • Upham, C.W. Lectures on Witchcraft, comprising a History of the delusion in Salem in 1692, etc. Boston, 1831.
  • —Salem Witchcraft; with an Account of Salem Village, and a History of Opinions on Witchcraft and Kindred Subjects. 2 vols. Boston, 1867. [An enlargement of the preceding.]
  • —Salem Witchcraft and Cotton Mather. Reprinted from Hist. Mag. Sept., 1869. [A reply to Poole’s criticism.]
  • Walker, Williston. The Services of the Mathers in New England Religious Development. Amer. Soc. Church History. V.
  • Wendell, B. Cotton Mather. The Puritan Priest. 1891. [The best life.]

IX. JOHN WISE (1652–1725)[edit]

A. Separate Works[edit]

  • (1) Instructions for the Emigrants from Essex County, Mass. to South Carolina. 1697. New Eng. Hist. and Gen. Reg., XXX, 64.
  • (2) A Narrative of an Expedition against Quebec. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings. Nov. 1901. Reprinted, with introd. by Sam. A. Green. Cambridge, 1902.
  • (3) The Churches Quarrel Espoused: or A Reply in Satyre, to certain Proposals Made, in Answer to this Question, What further steps are to be taken, that the Councils may have due Constitution and Efficacy in Supporting, Preserving, and Well-Ordering the Interest of the Churches in the Country? [Commonly given as Boston, 1710. Evans lists it as New York, 1713.] Boston, 1715, 1745, 1772. Re-issued with no. 4, and with introd. by Rev. J.S. Clark. Boston, 1860.
  • (4) A Vindication of the Government of New England Churches. Drawn from Antiquity; the Light of Nature; Holy Scripture; its Noble Nature; and from the Dignity Divine Providence has put upon it. With a Testimony to the order of the Gospel, in the Churches of New-England: left in the hands of the Churches; by the Two most aged Ministers of the Gospel yet surviving in the Countrey. [John Higginson, Wm. Hubbard.] Boston, 1717, 1772. [Two editions in latter year]. Re-issued with no. 3, Boston, 1860. A portion reprinted in Old South Leaflets, no. 165, vol. 7.
  • (5) A Friendly check, from a kind relation. To the chief cannoneer. Founded on a late information, dated N.E. castle-William, 1720, 21. Boston, 1721. [Signed, Amicus Patriæ, and ascribed to Wise by Evans, Amer. Bib.]
  • (6) A Word of Comfort to a Melancholy Country. Or the Bank of Credit … fairly defended by a Discovery of the Great Benefit, accruing by it to the whole Province, etc. Humbly dedicated to the Merchants in Boston. Boston, 1721. [Signed, Amicus Patriæ, and ascribed to Wise by Sibley and Evans. “A well-managed and witty plea for paper money and ‘inflation,‘”]
  • (7) [Prayer for a Succession and Full Supply of Gospel Ministers. Sermon at Dover, 28 Oct., 1730. Boston 1731. Listed by Dexter. Doubtful. If by Wise the date is wrong.]

B. Biography and Criticism[edit]

  • Clark, Rev. J.S. Introd. to ed. issued by Cong. Board of Pub. Boston, 1860.
  • Dexter, Henry M. Congregationalism … as seen in its Literature. 1880. Sibley, J.L. Harvard Graduates. 11, 441.
  • Tyler, M.C. History of American Literature during the Colonial Period. 1904.
  • Walker, Williston. History of the Cong. Churches in the U.S. 1894.
  • White, John. The Gospel treasure in earthen vessels. A funeral sermon on the death of Rev. John Wise; preached 11th April, 1725. [With A character of the Reverend John Wise. By Another Hand.] Boston, 1725.

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