The Panchatantra has over 200 versions in over 50 languages. This version is from the Panchakhyanaka recension of the Jain monk, Purnabhadra, the longest of the 25 Indian recensions. Known as the North Western Family Sanskrit text, the critical edition of the original, by Johannes Hertel, can be found in the Harvard Oriental Series, vols 11 (), 12 () and 13 ().
On the translator of this version, G. R. Noyes had commented, "Taken as a whole, Ryder's work as a translator is probably the finest ever accomplished by an American. It is also probably the finest body of translation from the Sanskrit ever accomplished by one man, if translation be regarded as a branch of literary art, not merely as a faithful rendering of the meaning of the original text."
1862978The Panchatantra (Purnabhadra's Recension of 1199 CE)Vishnu SharmaArthur William Ryder1925
THE PANCHATANTRA Translated from the Sanskrit by ARTHUR W. RYDER
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO ♦ ILLINOIS
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 37
Cambridge University Press, London, N.W. 1, England
The University of Toronto Press, Toronto 5, Canada
Copyright 1925 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. Published 1925. Sixth Impression 1955. Composed and printed byThe University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
The author died in 1938, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 75 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.
Works published in 1925 would have had to renew their copyright in either 1952 or 1953, i.e. at least 27 years after it was first published / registered but not later than in the 28th year. As it was not renewed, it entered the public domain on .