# Wikisource:WikiProject 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Style Manual

 This page is a Wikisource guideline. It illustrates standards or conduct that are generally accepted by consensus to apply in many cases. Feel free to update the page as needed, but please use the discussion page to propose major changes.

## Entry titles

Capitalization of article titles:

• Capitalize title in title case, such as in "Eunuch Flute" instead of "Eunuch flute" or "EUNUCH FLUTE".
• Warning: this convention has not been agreed upon.
• This convention is not fully kept in the EB1911 project; many articles are created with sentence case ("Eunuch flute").
• The original edition of EB1911 as seen in bitmap scans uses title case ("Eunuch Flute") to refer to its articles, which is apparent from its links between articles set in small-caps (such as "see International Law"[1] in the article "Jurisdiction").

Multiple articles with the same name:

• EB sometimes has more than one article with the same name, examples being ABBOT, GEORGE and ABDERA. To ensure unique title of an article, add a distinguishing word or phrase in parentheses after the title, as in
• Leave the actual text of the article as in the original, so the page Abdera (Spain) begins:
ABDERA, an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain, ...
• The word or phrase to be added is up to your discretion as an editor creating the article, but they should be based on the first few words of the article.
• An alternative procedure is to use, if available, the page headings for the articles to distinguish them. For example, the two "Paul" articles are labeled "Paul, the Apostle" and "Paul (popes)" based on page headings.

Titles of nobility:

## Alphabetical listings

The alphabetical listing should be formatted and linked as in example 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 1:2. Note that the rules for alphabetical order have changed slightly over time. The original order should be used.

## Format

See also Wikisource:WikiProject 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Transclusion and {{EB1911set}}

All articles should have the header template, {{EB1911}}, at the top. The previous & next link should match the original source. The volume parameter should be filled in with the appropriate volume number (no leading zeros)

{{EB1911
| volume   = ''number''
| previous = Previous Article
| next     = Next Article
}}


Many of the following comments apply to text generated by an OCR process, and especially text currently generated in page space.

### Title

The raw text often lists the title entry as: AAGENSEN, ANDREW

This should be formatted as: AAGENSEN, ANDREW

A different format is used in many articles, which will be changed, but this format better represents the original work.

This creates a boxed out bit to the left similar to the headings used in the original text. Insert the template {{EB1911 Shoulder Heading}} just before the first word where the text is displaced by the heading.

...dignissim odio. {{EB1911 Shoulder Heading|Sample shoulder heading}}Nunc mollis...


Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam porta, lectus eu tristique pellentesque, risus nulla ornare erat, eu tincidunt neque purus ut neque. Vestibulum hendrerit dignissim odio. Sample shoulder headingNunc mollis facilisis tortor. Quisque blandit. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Phasellus ultricies risus non erat rhoncus auctor. Etiam blandit aliquet dui. Nullam rhoncus. Integer auctor, orci eu eleifend tristique, lacus est iaculis nibh, id porta turpis dolor vitae erat. Nunc id nisi vestibulum erat dignissim consequat. Nunc sagittis. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Nunc mollis facilisis tortor. Quisque blandit. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Phasellus ultricies risus non erat rhoncus auctor. Etiam blandit aliquet dui. Nullam rhoncus. Integer auctor, orci eu eleifend tristique, lacus est iaculis nibh, id porta turpis dolor vitae erat. Nunc id nisi vestibulum erat dignissim consequat. Nunc sagittis. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.

### Tables

see Wikisource:Style guide/Tables

### Quoted text

Double backticks and double apostrophes should be swapped for paired quotations marks (“...”). When something is quoted like this'', it should be changed to “this”. Paired quotation marks can be generated by clicking the “” in the selection of [symbol]s on the editing toolbar (while a pair of straight double quotes is available under [insert]).[1]

### Italics

Italicize foreign words or word origins themselves, but not the short English definition that sometimes follows the word sources.

• As the Encyclopædia Britannica is intended to be a dictionary as well as a more exhaustive resource for words, there are etymologies listed for many entries, usually immediately after the title of the article. For example with raw text:
 ABDUCTION (Lat. abductio, abducere, to lead away), a
law term denoting the forcible or fraudulent removal of a
person, limited by custom to the case where a woman is the
... {more text of the article}


This entry lists the origin of the word "abduction" as coming from the Latin words "abductio" and "abducere". In this case (as as was originally done in the Encyclopædia Britannica text), these words should be italicized like this:

 ABDUCTION (Lat. ''abductio'', ''abducere'', to lead away), a
law term denoting the forcible or fraudulent removal of a
person, limited by custom to the case where a woman is the
... {more text of the article}


### The æ and œ ligatures

The æ ligature should be used only when the it was used in the original, such as with the name Encyclopædia Britannica, and the names of old English kings. Elsewhere, two separate letters should be used. DO NOT use it anywhere else. This standard was followed by the original editors of this work. The œ ligature is used in French-derived terms such as Cœur de Lion and manœuvre. The basic rule for editors is to carefully follow the orthography of the original work.

### Small caps

If the original text shows a word in Small Caps then use the template {{subst:small-caps|Text here}}, or just {{small-caps|Text here}} works too, or simply {{sc|Text here}} found in the toolkit at the bottom of the edit page. Note that the abbreviations B.C. and A.D. use smaller capitals (for example, {{smaller|B.C.}}).

### Ranges

Ranges of years should be joined by an en-dash, although OCR processing produces a hyphen. You can get the right dash by clicking on the symbol in the Insert toolbar (below the editing box in article space; above it in page space). Some editors prefer to use the HTML entity code &ndash; because it is easy for later editors to see that the character is not a hyphen, but convention for this project prefers using the character itself.

Other ranges, such as page numbers, are represented in the printed volumes by short dashes, or hyphens. For full fidelity, try to distinguish "pp. 123-125" from the date range "123–125".

### Fine print

For some entries, some paragraphs appear in a smaller-size print than others. These paragraphs can be formatted by including their text in the template {{EB1911 Fine Print}}:

{{EB1911 Fine Print|text goes here}}

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam porta, lectus eu tristique pellentesque, risus nulla ornare erat, eu tincidunt neque purus ut neque. Vestibulum hendrerit dignissim odio.

See T. W. Atkinson, Travels in the Region of the Amoor (1860).

### Fractions with a forward slash

Many of the more common fractions are available as unicode options.

• Some of the common ones are available as glyphs in the edit option box "Maths and Logic": ¼ ½ ¾ ⅓ ⅔ ⅛ ⅜ ⅝ ⅞
• Other can be constructed from the options available in the edit option box "Super- and Sub-scripts" ⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ and a the slash sign (Solidus U+002F) eg ¹²³/₄₅₆. If the slash looks too vertical compared to the glyphs then try the unicode fraction slash (U+2044) ⁄: ¹²³⁄₄₅₆ (see w:Unicode subscripts and superscripts).

There is also {{frac}}, displays common fractions using a fraction slash

### Fractions with straight line

For fractions displayed like this 123 or like this 1250, see the howto documentation with the template {{EB1911 tfrac}}.

• {{sfrac}}{{EB1911 tfrac}} is a wrapper around this template, but with different default font size. {{sfrac}} displayed like this 123 or like this 1250
• {{mfrac}} – another alternative that displayed like this ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {1{\frac {2}{3}}}}$ or like this ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\frac {1}{250}}}$

### Large braces

 See the documentation for ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ {{brace}} ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ on how to add large-braces/curly-brackets to a page {{brace2}}

created with:

{|
| rowspan=2|See the documentation for
| rowspan=2|{{brace2|2|l}}
| {{tlx|brace}}
| rowspan=2|{{brace2|2|r}} on how to add large-braces/curly-brackets to a page
|-
| {{tlx|brace2}}
|}

{{brace2}} with parameters {{brace2|2|r}}gives: ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left.{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right\}\,}}$ see Page:EB1911_-_Volume_03.djvu/242 for use in table

or

{{font-size|240%|<nowiki>}</nowiki>}} gives }.

### Extended text entry

EB1911 contains some textual elements that the OCR process usually gets wrong, and are non-trivial to correct in the usual page editor. There are several techniques for entering them:

• On Windows, if you know the Unicode value for a character, you can type it by holding down the ALT key and typing the code on the numeric keypad (not the keyboard's top row). Three-digit numbers require the leading zero. For example, é is (hold down ALT), keypad 0 2 3 3.
• Latin characters are also on the various palettes available in the dropdown on the bar at the bottom of this page (article space) or at the top (page space) and can be added by a simple mouse-click.
• On Windows 8, activate the on-screen keyboard and use press-and-hold to produce a palette of related characters. For example, press "e" with the mouse or touch, and you will be able to slide to the top left and release to produce é.

Some other specific notes:

#### Latin

Extended Latin characters, such as é or æ, can be entered in several ways.

• On Windows, if you know the Unicode value for a character, you can type it by holding down the ALT key and typing the code on the numeric keypad (not the keyboard's top row). In some cases you need a leading zero; experiment to learn the right combination. For example, é is (hold down ALT), keypad 0 2 3 3. The æ ligature (see above) can be produced with ALT 0230 and œ with ALT 0156. For a Mac, hold down the Option key while pressing another key; for example the apostrophe key (Option-') for æ, and 'q' (Option-q) for œ.
• Latin characters are also on the various palettes available in the dropdown on the bar at the bottom of this page (article space) or at the top (page space) and can be added by a simple mouse-click.
• On Windows 8, activate the on-screen keyboard and use press-and-hold separate keys to produce a palette of related characters. For example, press "e" with the mouse or on the touchscreen, and you will be able to slide to the top left and release to produce é.

é (e-acute) is the only accented character that the OCR process consistently gets right. Take care to distinguish it from e-grave è.

The æ ligature (see above) can be produced with ALT 0230 and œ with ALT 0156. For a Mac, hold down the Option key while pressing another key; for example the apostrophe key (Option-') for æ, and 'q' (Option-q) for œ.

#### Greek

Use the Greek palette on the editing toolbar; it helps to have a rudimentary understanding of the Greek alphabet. Classical Greek text printed in 1911 used polytonic orthography; the multiple-diacritic entries are all available on the toolbar. In addition, wrap the text in the {{Polytonic}} template, not to produce the characters, but because it renders in a more authentic font that shows the diacritics better. Do not use italics for Greek text.

In addition to the Wikipedia article "Greek diacritics", unless you are familiar with ancient Greek, the online resources:

will probably prove to be useful.

Consider using transliteration for the Greek text (as used in the Gutenberg version of EB1911 e.g. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/33295/33295-h/33295-h.htm 'Centaurs' article). Just wrap the Polytonic template and text in a "span" statement including the English equivalent. e.g.
<span title="Alphabet">{{Polytonic|Αλφάβητ}}</span> will show as Αλφάβητ
(the English equivalent shows when you hover the mouse over the Greek word.) Just paste the Greek phrase into http://transliterate.com/ to get the transliterated English.

#### Hebrew

Use the Hebrew palette. If you don't know the alphabet, match the characters by eye; take care to distinguish ד (dalet) from ר (resh); the original does not make a clear typographical distinction. Remember that a sequence of Hebrew characters will render right-to-left.

#### Degrees and minutes

Degrees and minutes are often used in articles to indicate a geographical location. Both are available on the "Math & logic" palette. The degree symbol ° can be entered as ALT-0176, while the minutes symbol ′ also called prime, is ALT-8242 (and also available on the Symbols palette). Do not use the ASCII apostrophe ' or acute accent for minutes.

## Categories

A hierarchy of categories has been established for categorization of 1911 Encyclopædia articles. Many editors do not currently use categories, so inserting them should be viewed as very optional. While categorization seems a useful aspect of the project, it may be later in the project when it gets implemented more thoroughly.

To get an idea of what categories are available for a particular article, please consult this page: Wikisource:WikiProject 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Category hierarchy. Feel free to add to the hierarchy. Keep in mind that over 40,000 articles are going to be created for this project, so try and push articles as deep into the hierarchy as possible. An article can also belong to more than one category, and an individual category can have more than one "parent", but this is a good search tool.

To add a category, all you need to do is put the category name in brackets somewhere in the article, with the DEFAULTSORT template (so the article is sorted correctly) :


{{DEFAULTSORT:Denmark}}
[[Category:EB1911:Cities:Europe:Denmark]]

The preferred location for this category name should be at the very beginning of the article, but that is only an editing convention. The MediaWiki software will allow you to put it just about anywhere in the article, even in the middle of a bunch of text.

Keep in mind that when using geographical terms, try to use naming conventions that existed in 1911, instead of the modern names of countries. Examples include Persia (now called Iran) and United Provinces (now called The Netherlands). If necessary, a list of these countries and their counterparts can be provided, but it should be obvious what the country was called in 1911 based on article content.

Subsequent thoughts on categories: A discussion can be found on the talk page proposing that the scheme actually constructed for EB1911 on its publication is adopted instead of this one. These categories (excluding the articles they relate to) can be found at 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Classified List of Articles.

Beyond the usage, mentioned in this section and "Images section" below, hyperlinks are generally not used within the body of Encyclopædia Britannica articles.

### Linking to another EB1911 article

Within articles, there are often specific references to other EB1911 articles. These are noted by being in small caps or being followed by a (q.v.). These should be linked to the appropriate EB1911 article. For references in small caps, use {{EB1911 article link|Other Article}}. For words or names followed by a (q.v.), use {{EB1911 article link|nosc=x|Other Article}} ("nosc" means "no small caps"). For many links, it is possible that the text used in the local article will be different from the text used to link to the target article. In such cases, the actual name of the target article should follow as another parameter, for example {{EB1911 article link|nosc=x|Abraham Lincoln|Lincoln, Abraham}}. Leaving the hyperlinks redlinked is perfectly okay: someone will enter the missing articles later.

Some large articles will refer to other section or paragraphs within the same article. For example the lead section of "Napoleonic Campaigns" contains the sentence "When, therefore, on the 25th of August 1805, he learnt definitely that Villeneuve (see Naval operations below) had failed...".

It takes two steps to create such a link. At the target location in the text create an anchor point. There are two templates to do this {{anchor}} and {{section}}. To demonstrate, an anchor point has been placed at the beginning of this paragraph using the {{section}} template with the syntax of {{section|Demonstration}}. To link to that point create a link [[#Demonstration]] which will display like this #Demonstration.

To hide the unsightly "#" use a pipe symbol: <nowkik>[[#Demonstration|link to demo]] which looks like this: link to demo.

This method can also be used to link to sections within other EB1911 articles using {{EB1911 article link|nosc=x|Other Article#section}} as in this example {{EB1911 article link|nosc=x|Napoleonic Campaigns#Moscow}} which displays as Napoleonic Campaigns#Moscow. It too can be altered to display alternative text by using a second parameter (as described in the previous section), like so: Napoleonic Campaigns § Moscow

### Linking from an EB1911 article to an author in Author namespace

Another possibility for internal linking is for articles about people who are also Wikisource authors. In these cases, the article title can be linked to the author page, as in '''[[Author:Abraham Lincoln|LINCOLN, ABRAHAM]]''', which appears as: LINCOLN, ABRAHAM

In addition, although most articles were written anonymously, some have authors listed at the end of the sections which they wrote. If the article has the author's initials after a section, the initials should be linked to the appropriate author page (one can be created if a search does not show up anything appropriate, or just leave it as a red link). There is a template to help with this {{EB1911 footer initials}}.

For example Pierre Jean de Béranger has, at the end, an author attribution which can be added thus {{EB1911 footer initials|Robert Louis Stevenson|R. L. S.}} which appears so:  (R. L. S.)

As an alternative this can also be constructed so ([[Author:Robert Louis Stevenson|R. L. S.]]) which appears so: (R. L. S.). — unlike the template the initials are not placed to the right of the window.

Although most associated with the initial are fairly stable between volumes, authors and initials can sometimes differ between volumes. There is an alphabetic list at the start of each volume that can be viewed to find out from the initials in an article in a volume which author(s) wrote an article or a section in an article.

The {{EB1911}} header contains two parameters to assist with linking to authors. See the template documentation for details:

To reference other articles in Wikisource, the Override_contributor parameter of the {{EB1911}} header template can be used. For example, the article Munkács uses this parameter to refer to a 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article using the parameter setting:

Override_contributor = [[Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Munkács|Munkács]] in the [[Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)|1913 ''Catholic Encyclopedia'']]

### Linking from Author namespace to an EB1911 article

Some EB1911 articles may refer to people who are Wikisource authors. For such articles, you can link from the Wikisource author page to the EB1911 article using the {{EB1911 Link}} template. Such a link should appear in a special section called "Works about ..." rather than in the "Works" section.

For example, the code for the Author:Tacitus article has the line:

* {{EB1911 Link|Tacitus, Cornelius}}

which appears on the page as:

## Links between articles on other wikies

The header template has a default to link between the 1911 Encyclopedia and Wikipedia, as well as other Wikimedia projects. Please verify the links to Wikipedia. Names for persons on wikipedia go by <given name> <family name> rather than the convention with the 1911 Encyclopedia of <family name>, <given name>. Make the appropriate change as is necessary, using the "wikipedia" parameter. It may even be necessary to search Wikipedia for a related entry. If you are absolutely certain that the article is not on Wikipedia (please check first... really hard) it is suggested that you can use 1911 Encyclopedia content to begin a new Wikipedia article. Many of the current Wikipedia articles were started in exactly this fashion, and for names of obscure places or people (from a 21st Century viewpoint) it is likely that you will find an article on Wikipedia that is exactly word for word identical to 1911 Encyclopedia content.

{{EB1911}} has an optional "other_projects" parameter which can be used to link to Wiktionary entries. This is useful for the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica articles which have substantial dictionary content. Some of these dictionary articles may not, and should not, have corresponding Wikipedia articles (for example, rung). In these cases, the "wikipedia" argument can be left blank, and only the "other_projects" argument filled in. Most of the time though, a 1911 article with dictionary content should have both a Wikipedia and a Wiktionary link.

As an example, to link to the Wiktionary article on store, the "other_projects" argument in {{EB1911}} would be specified as:

|other_projects=[[Wiktionary:store|store]] on [[Wiktionary:Main Page|Wiktionary]]

### Links from Wikipedia and Wiktionary

Finally, when you have gone through and put in the links to Wikipedia and Wiktionary, it is also suggested that you put in a link from Wikipedia and Wiktionary to the 1911 Encyclopaedia Project. This can be done with the following template that is supported on Wikipedia:

{{EB1911 poster|Fehmarn}}

This appears as the box to the right of this paragraph which you see. When you put this template on a Wikipedia article, please be kind to the regular Wikipedians who are working on those articles. This should be placed at the bottom of the article, usually the External links section. For more information, visit the Wikipedia Sister Projects page. Sometimes it simply won't fit within the Wikipedia article at the bottom, so you may have to use some judgement: use the inline version (see immediately below) of the template and/or enlist the cooperation of Wikipedians who normally edit the article, particularly if it is a larger and more popular article with many recent changes.

The inline version of the template is used as follows:

{{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Fehmarn}}

In Wikipedia, this appears as follows:

"Fehmarn". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), 1911.

In Wikipedia, this fits in as a normal reference citation, or in a list of external links; in lists, the template should be preceded by an asterisk ('*'). In Wikipedia, this template also has many other optional arguments see the template's documentation

If a Wikipedia article contains text copied from a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article on Wikisource, then to avoid accusations of plagiarism, clear attribution must be given in the Wikipedia article. This is done using the {{EB1911}} template (which is similar to {{Cite EB1911}} but prepends attribution text. For details of how to avoid plagiarism with public domain text copied into a Wikipedia article see the Wikipedia plagiarism guideline and the {{EB1911}} template documentation.

In Wiktionary, use:

{{projectlink|1911|Sleigh}}

The display is different, and the asterisk is automatically included (see Wiktionary:Template talk:PL:1911 for details and also information on placement).

When Project Gutenberg (through Distributed Proofreaders) is done with volumes 2 through 5, it is likely that a considerable portion of that content will not be on Wikipedia, or not in as high of quality in terms of typos and other problems. Still, tread lightly, and by no means should an existing article, even a stub, be deleted in favor of content from this Encyclopedia. If you need help with trying to format articles to Wikipedia standards (instead of just the style guide for this Encyclopedia project), feel free to make note of the name of the article in the Wikiproject discussion pages, or related pages that will be dealing with updating and correcting Wikipedia content generated by this project. (More about organizing that issue should be put here.)

## Images

Images for the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica should be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons rather than to Wikisource.

If the image scan is from a source on Project Gutenberg, add, in addition to the Britannica tag, the tag {{PD-Gutenberg}}.

The mentioned tags automatically put images to the category commons:Category:PD Britannica.

### Formatting of images (simple)

Within article text, when an image is being used, there is often a caption that is included in the source text. Particularly with volume 1 of the Project Gutenberg archives, this caption text can often be right in the middle of a paragraph, sometimes interrupting a sentence midway like this:

 These lay abbacies were not merely a question of
overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands
of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the
foundations, i.e. the more or less complete secularization of

Fig. 1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is
charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.

spiritual institutions.  The lay abbot took his recognized...


Instead of interrupting the text like this, it is best to upload the image to Wikimedia Commons and then insert it into the article as a thumbnail at the beginning of the paragraph where this footnote is listed. A tag for this article could be inserted like this:

[[Image:Walworth_Britannica.jpg|thumb|left|F{{ig}}. 1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930,
is charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.]]


By making this a thumbnail instead of a "normal" image reference, it will display the text of the image caption within the article rather than just as an "ALT" text to the image (which it also does). Whether you put the image on the right or left is a matter of personal taste, but it would be generally recommended to be on the left as most navigation bars would tend to be on the right, and sometimes these images might interfere with the navigation boxes, appearing several paragraphs from the intended target, depending on which web browser the reader is using.

### Formatting of images (using template)

Use of the [[File...]] markup forces a paragraph break. In the printed encyclopaedia, images are often floated left or right in the middle of a paragraph. For full fidelity, the image can be inserted in approximately the same place (depending on the rendered line breaks) using the {{Img float}} template. This uses an HTML "span" element to place the image.

{{Img float|file=Walworth_Britannica.jpg|width=120px|align=left|capalign=left|style=font-size: 85%; line-height: 85%;|cap=F{{sc|ig}}. 1 Walworth,
the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.}}


The template can be placed on a line (or lines) of its own; there will still be no paragraph break.

(to be added as needed and when more image resources become known.)

### Plates

If the image is a whole page (a plate) then there is an option. To use the djvu image use the {{raw image}} template:

{{raw image|EB1911 - Volume 27.djvu/613}


If the raw image is not clear enough and an alternative page image exists on Commons then the image can be imported in the usual manner:

{{center|[[Image:Encyclopaedia-Britannica-1911-27-0625.jpg|800px]]}}


## Endnotes

A very simplified explanation is given at Wikipedia:Help:Footnotes

Creation of endnotes or footnotes:

1. Place a <ref> ... </ref> where the footnote reference number appears in an article—type the text of the note between the ref tags.
2. Place the {{smallrefs}} tag at the end of the article or the footer of the Page:—the list of notes will be generated here. The Britannica style is to precede this listing with a {{rule}} when the end of the column is in fine print. In a transcription, this corresponds to fine print at the end of the right column on a Page:, or fine print at the end of an article.

Citing a footnote more than once: This is useful occasionally in Britannica transcriptions. To give a footnote a unique identifier, use <ref name="name"> ... </ref>. You can then refer to the same footnote again by using a ref tag with the same name. The name cannot be a number, or the extension will return an error. The ref name need not be placed within quotes unless it consists of more than one word (the wiki parser converts single word quoteless attribute values into validly quoted XHTML).

Only the first occurrence of text in a named ref will be used, although that occurrence may be located anywhere in the article. You can either copy the whole footnote, or you can use a terminated empty ref tag that looks like this: <ref name="name"/>. Such forward-slash-terminated named tags may precede the definition of the named reference.[2]

Spreading a footnote over two Page:s: This is useful rarely in Britannica transcriptions. On the first page give the footnote a unique identifier, and for content just use what is on the first page. On the second page, use <ref follow="name"> ... </ref> to enclose the portion of the footnote that is on the second page, and place the footnote at the beginning of the Page: body, directly followed by the rest of the Page: text. In the transcluded text both portions will be merged into a single note.

## Pagination

There are two choices for pagination.

If the article is Translucent, then the pagination is automatic. If the article is not formatted as a Translucent then a similar affect can be achieved using the following. At the top of the page (after the heading) add:

‹div class=indented-page>{{page break|page number|left}}


Place the text on the next line down to the next page break then add the next page number. Do not embed it in the text inline but place it on its own line so that other editors can easily spot it. The automatic formatting of the text will embed the pagination point between words within a paragraph.

{{page break|next page number|left}}


repeat until the end of article then terminate with

‹/div>


For an example see 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Grillparzer, Franz:

<div class=indented-page>{{page break|596|left}}
'''GRILLPARZER, FRANZ''' (1791-1872), the greatest dramatic
poet of Austria, was born in Vienna, on the 15th of January
1791. His father, severe, pedantic, a staunch upholder of the
{{page break|597|left}}
of some standing; his mother, a nervous, finely-strung woman,
belonged to the well-known musical family of Sonnleithner.
After a desultory education, Grillparzer entered in 1807 the
university of Vienna as a student of jurisprudence; but two
years later his father died ...
</div>

[ 596 ]

GRILLPARZER, FRANZ (1791-1872), the greatest dramatic poet of Austria, was born in Vienna, on the 15th of January 1791. His father, severe, pedantic, a staunch upholder of the liberal traditions of the reign of Joseph II., was an advocate [ 597 ] of some standing; his mother, a nervous, finely-strung woman, belonged to the well-known musical family of Sonnleithner. After a desultory education, Grillparzer entered in 1807 the university of Vienna as a student of jurisprudence; but two years later his father died ...

NB: The precise place where the page break occurs is not clear until a block copy is made. If text is marked for copying, if the block of highlighted text crosses a page break the page number will also be highlighted.

## Transclusion and page boundaries

If the article consists of transcluded pages, then occasionally the format of the text between the end of one page and the start of the next may require special handling to make the article appear similar to the original, (for example if the next page starts with a new paragraph). See the sections:

## Table examples

 June 14. Paris, cheques 25 f. 18 c. " Mkt. discount 2½-⅝ p.c. *B. Ayres, 90 days 48⅛d. * These rates are telegraphed on the day preceding their receipt.

This table is an fragment of one created to mimic a table that appears in the EB1911 Exchange article, volume 10, page 54. It may be useful as a guide to how to format other similar tables as many EB1911 tables use column line dividers without row line dividers.

{|style="border-spacing: 0px;  text-align: center;" class="floatleft"
|+''Foreign Exchanges.''
|-
|style="border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: solid solid solid solid;"
|style="border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: solid solid solid solid;"|June 14.
|-
|style="text-align: left; border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: none solid none solid"| Paris, cheques
|style="border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: none solid none solid;"|25 f. 18 c.
|-
|style="text-align: left; border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: none solid none solid"|  " Mkt. discount
|style="border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: none solid none solid;"| 2½-⅝ p.c.
|-
|style="text-align: left; border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: none solid solid solid"|*B. Ayres, 90 days
|style="border: 1px solid darkgray; border-style: none solid solid solid;"|48⅛d.
|-
|style="text-align: left;" colspan="3"|* These rates are telegraphed on the day preceding their receipt.
|}


## Breaking up into multiple pages

Several articles in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica are quite long, sometimes going over 100KB of text or even more, to over 1MB of raw text data. Both because it is easier to edit the article, and because it takes less time to load the content from the server, these articles should be broken up into multiple pages.

Keep in mind that you should still not add or delete text in the process of doing this. What should be done instead is to put a summary from the article (usually the first paragraph or so from the original source material), and then have "sub-articles" that are hyperlinked to the "parent article". In many cases there will even be titles for these sub articles directly in the text of the article itself that suggest clear subdivisions to the article. It may even be necessary to further sub-divide the articles into smaller sections if they are still over the 34K recommended limit. For further discussion on article length see the archives.

Example articles: United States, The and Boston, Massachusetts.

## Notes

1. Single quotation marks should use the standard apostrophe key (the straight single quotation mark '). There has been some debate on the talk page over the use of straight double quotation marks " " or curly ones “ ”. It was decided that curly ones should be used, because if the decision is later taken to convert them it is straightforward to automate such a conversion from curly to straight, while conversions the other way would need to be checked manually.
2. Wikipedia Signpost. November 13, 2006.