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Index:Darwin Journal of Researches.djvu

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Darwin Journal of Researches.djvu

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- - - - - -  i  ii  iii  iv  v  vi  vii  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  xiv  xv  xvi 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 - - - -

CONTENTS.


  1.  
    CHAPTER I.
  2. Porto Praya—Ribeira Grande—Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria—Habits of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-Fish—St. Paul's Rocks, non-volcanic—Singular Incrustations—Insects the first Colonists of Islands—Fernando Noronha—Bahia—Burnished Rocks—Habits of a Diodon—Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria—Causes of discoloured Sea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    Page 1
  3.  
    CHAPTER II.
  4. Rio de Janeiro—Excursion north of Cape Frio—Great Evaporation—Slavery—Botofogo Bay—Terrestrial Planariæ—Clouds on the Corcovado—Heavy Rain—Musical Frogs—Phosphorescent Insects—Elater, springing powers of—Blue Haze—Noise made by a Butterfly—Entomology—Ants—Wasp killing a Spider—Parasitical Spider—Artifices of an Epeira—Gregarious Spider—Spider with an unsymmetrical Web
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    19
  5.  
    CHAPTER III.
  6. Monte Video—Maldonado—Excursion to R. Polanco—Lazo and Bolas—Partridges—Absence of Trees—Deer—Capybara, or River Hog—Tucutuco—Molothrus, cuckoo-like habits—Tyrant Flycatcher—Mocking-bird—Carrion Hawks—Tubes formed by Lightning—House struck
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    39
  7.  
    CHAPTER IV.
  8. Rio Negro—Estancias attacked by the Indians—Salt Lakes—Flamingoes—R. Negro to R. Colorado—Sacred Tree—Patagonian Hare—Indian Families—General Rosas—Proceed to Bahia Blanca—Sand Dunes—Negro Lieutenant—Bahia Blanca—Saline Incrustations—Punta Alta—Zorillo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    63
  9.  
    CHAPTER V.
  10. Bahia Blanca—Geology—Numerous gigantic extinct Quadrupeds—Recent Extinction—Longevity of Species—Large Animals do not require a luxuriant Vegetation—Southern Africa—Siberian Fossils—Two species of Ostrich—Habits of Ovenbird—Armadilloes—Venomous Snake, Toad, Lizard—Hybernation of Animals— Habits of Sea-Pen—Indian Wars and Massacres—Arrow-head—Antiquarian Relic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  11.  
    CHAPTER VI.
  12. Set out for Buenos Ayres—Rio Sauce—Sierra Ventana—Third Posta—Driving Horses—Bolas—Partridges and Foxes—Features of the Country—Long-legged Plover—Teru-tero—Hailstorm—Natural Enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen—Flesh of Puma—Meat Diet—Guardia del Monte—Effects of Cattle on the Vegetation—Cardoon—Buenos Ayres—Corral where Cattle are slaughtered
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  13.  
    CHAPTER VII.
  14. Excursion to St. Fé—Thistle-Beds—Habits of the Bizcacha—Little Owl—Saline Streams—Level Plains—Mastodon—St. Fé—Change in Landscape—Geology—Tooth of extinct Horse—Relation of the Fossil and Recent Quadrupeds of North and South America—Effects of a great Drought—Parana—Habits of the Jaguar—Scissor-beak—King-fisher, Parrot, and Scissor-tail—Revolution—Buenos Ayres—State of Government
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    123
  15.  
    CHAPTER VIII.
  16. Excursion to Colonia del Sacramiento—Value of an Estancia—Cattle, how counted—Singular Breed of Oxen—Perforated Pebbles—Shepherd Dogs—Horses broken in, Gauchos Riding—Character of Inhabitants—Rio Plata—Flocks of Butterflies—Aëronaut Spiders—Phosphorescence of the Sea—Port Desire—Guanaco—Port St. Julian—Geology of Patagonia—Fossil gigantic Animal—Types of Organization constant—Change in the Zoology of America—Causes of Extinction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    142
  17.  
    CHAPTER IX.
  18. Santa Cruz—Expedition up the River—Indians—Immense Streams of Basaltic Lava—Fragments not transported by the River—Excavation of the Valley—Condor, habits of—Cordillera—Erratic Boulders of great size—Indian Relics—Return to the Ship—Falkland Islands—Wild Horses, Cattle, Rabbits—Wolf-like Fox—Fire made of Bones—Manner of hunting Wild Cattle—Geology—Streams of Stones—Scenes of Violence—Penguin—Geese—Eggs of Doris—Compound Animals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  19.  
    CHAPTER X.
  20. Tierra del Fuego, first arrival—Good Success Bay—An Account of the Fuegians on board—Interview with the Savages—Scenery of the Forests—Cape Horn—Wigwam Cove—Miserable Condition of the Savages—Famines—Cannibals—Matricide—Religious Feelings—Great Gale—Beagle Channel—Ponsonby Sound—Build Wigwams and settle the Fuegians—Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel—Glaciers—Return to the Ship—Second Visit in the Ship to the Settlement—Equality of Condition amongst the Natives
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204
  21.  
    CHAPTER XI.
  22. Strait of Magellan—Port Famine—Ascent of Mount Tarn—Forests—Edible Fungus—Zoology—Great Sea-weed—Leave Tierra del Fuego—Climate—Fruit-Trees and Productions of the Southern Coasts—Height of Snow-line on the Cordillera—Descent of Glaciers to the Sea—Icebergs formed—Transportal of Boulders—Climate and Productions of the Antarctic Islands—Preservation of Frozen Carcases—Recapitulation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    231
  23.  
    CHAPTER XII.
  24. Valparaiso—Excursion to the Foot of the Andes—Structure of the Land—Ascend the Bell of Quillota—Shattered Masses of Greenstone—Immense Valleys—Mines—State of Miners—Santiago—Hot Baths of Cauquenes—Gold-Mines—Grinding-Mills—Perforated Stones—Habits of the Puma—El Turco and Tapacolo—Humming-birds
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    252
  25.  
    CHAPTER XIII.
  26. Chiloe—General Aspect—Boat Excursion—Native Indians—Castro—Tame Fox—Ascend San Pedro—Chonos Archipelago—Peninsula of Tres Montes—Granitic Range—Boat-wrecked Sailors—Low's Harbour—Wild Potato—Formation of Peat—Myopotamus, Otter and Mice—Cheucau and Barking-bird—Opetiorhynchus—Singular Character of Ornithology—Petrels
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    273
  27.  
    CHAPTER XIV.
  28. San Carlos, Chiloe—Osorno in eruption, contemporaneously with Aconcagua and Coseguina—Ride to Cucao—Impenetrable Forests—Valdivia—Indians—Earthquake—Concepcion—Great Earthquake—Rocks fissured—Appearance of the former Towns—The Sea black and boiling—Direction of the Vibrations—Stones twisted round—Great Wave—Permanent Elevation of the Land—Area of Volcanic Phenomena—The connexion between the Elevatory and Eruptive Forces—Cause of Earthquakes—Slow Elevation of Mountain-chains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    291
  29.  
    CHAPTER XV.
  30. Valparaiso—Portillo Pass—Sagacity of Mules—Mountain-Torrents—Mines, how discovered—Proofs of the gradual Elevation of the Cordillera—Effect of Snow on Rocks—Geological Structure of the two main Ranges—Their distinct Origin and upheaval—Great Subsidence—Red Snow—Winds—Pinnacles of Snow—Dry and clear Atmosphere—Electricity—Pampas—Zoology of the opposite sides of the Andes—Locusts—Great Bugs—Mendoza—Uspallata Pass—Silicified Trees buried as they grew—Incas Bridge—Badness of the Passes exaggerated—Cumbre—Casuchas—Valparaiso
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    313
  31.  
    CHAPTER XVI.
  32. Coast-road to Coquimbo—Great Loads carried by the Miners—Coquimbo—Earthquake—Step-formed Terraces—Absence of recent Deposits—Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary Formations—Excursion up the Valley—Road to Guasco—Deserts—Valley of Copiapó—Rain and Earthquakes—Hydrophobia—The Despoblado—Indian Ruins—Probable change of Climate—River-bed arched by an Earthquake—Cold Gales of Wind—Noises from a Hill—Iquique—Salt Alluvium—Nitrate of Soda—Lima—Unhealthy Country—Ruins of Callao, overthrown by an Earthquake—Recent Subsidence—Elevated Shells on San Lorenzo, their decomposition—Plain with embedded Shells and fragments of Pottery—Antiquity of the Indian Race
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    337
  33.  
    CHAPTER XVII.
  34. Galapagos Archipelago—The whole group volcanic—Number of Craters—Leafless Bushes—Colony at Charles Island—James Island—Salt-lake in Crater—Natural History of the Group—Ornithology, curious Finches—Reptiles—Great Tortoises, habits of—Marine Lizard, feeds on Sea-weed—Terrestrial Lizard, burrowing habits, herbivorous—Importance of Reptiles in the Archipelapo—Fish, Shells, Insects—Botany—American Type of Organisation—Differences in the Species or Races on different Islands—Tameness of the Birds—Fear of Man, an acquired Instinct
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    372
  35.  
    CHAPTER XVIII.
  36. Pass through the Low Archipelago—Tahiti—Aspect—Vegetation on the Mountains—View of Eimeo—Excursion into the Interior—Profound Ravines—Succession of Water-falls—Number of wild useful Plants—Temperance of the Inhabitants—Their Moral State—Parliament convened—New Zealand—Bay of Islands—Hippahs—Excursion to Waimate—Missionary Establishment—English Weeds now run wild—Waiomio—Funeral of a New Zealand Woman—Sail for Australia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    402
  37.  
    CHAPTER XIX.
  38. Sydney—Excursion to Bathurst—Aspect of the Woods—Party of Natives—Gradual Extinction of the Aborigines—Infection generated by associated men in health—Blue Mountains—View of the grand gulf-like Valleys—Their Origin and Formation—Bathurst, general civility of the lower orders—State of Society—Van Diemen's Land—Hobart Town—Aborigines all banished—Mount Wellington—King George's Sound—Cheerless aspect of the Country—Bald-head, calcareous casts of Branches of Trees—Party of Natives—Leave Australia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    431
  39.  
    CHAPTER XX.
  40. Keeling Island—Singular appearance—Scanty Flora—Transport of Seeds—Birds and Insects—Ebbing and flowing Wells—Fields of dead Coral—Stones transported in the roots of trees—Great Crab—Stinging Corals—Coral-eating Fish—Coral Formations—Lagoon Islands, or Atolls—Depth at which reef-building Corals can live—Vast Areas interspersed with low Coral Islands—Subsidence of their Foundations—Barrier Reefs—Fringing Reefs—Conversion of Fringing Reefs into Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls—Evidence of Changes in Level—Breaches in Barrier Reefs—Maldiva Atolls; their peculiar Structure—Dead and submerged Reefs—Areas of Subsidence and Elevation—Distribution of Volcanos—Subsidence slow, and vast in amount
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    452
  41.  
    CHAPTER XXI.
  42. Mauritius, beautiful appearance of—Great crateriform Ring of Mountains—Hindoos—St. Helena—History of the Changes in the Vegetation—Cause of the Extinction of Land Shells—Ascension—Variation in the imported Rats—Volcanic Bombs—Beds of Infusoria—Bahia—Brazil—Splendour of Tropical Scenery—Pernambuco—Singular Reef—Slavery—Return to England—Retrospect on our Voyage
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    483
  43. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    507