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Index:Haiti- Her History and Her Detractors.djvu

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Haiti- Her History and Her Detractors.djvu

Title Haiti: Her History and Her Detractors
Author Jacques Nicolas Léger
Year 1907
Publisher Neale Publishing Company
Location New York and Washington
Source djvu
Progress Done—All pages of the work proper are validated
Transclusion Fully transcluded
Validated in November 2010

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CONTENTS



PART I

HISTORY OF HAITI

CHAPTER I
Quisqueya or Haiti—Geographical position—The first inhabitants: their manners, religion and customs—Divisions of the territory. 19
CHAPTER II
Christopher Columbus—His arrival in Haiti—Behavior of the Spaniards toward the aborigines—Their cupidity—War—Caonabo—Anacaona—The Spanish domination—Cacique Henry. 22
CHAPTER III
The French freebooters and buccaneers—Their customs—Their settlement at La Tortue (Tortuga Island)—Little by little they invade Hispañola, now known as Saint-Domingue—Continual wars with the Spaniards—Treaty recognizing the French occupation. 31
CHAPTER IV
The French part of Saint-Domingue—Its prosperity—Its different classes of inhabitants: their customs—The color prejudice—The colonists: their divisions; their jealousy of the Europeans—Their desire to be in command—Their contempt for the affranchis (freedmen)—their cruelty toward the slaves—The maroons. 35
CHAPTER V
Number of inhabitants of Saint-Domingue—Savannah—The French revolution—Efforts of the colonists to take advantage of it—The affranchis claim their rights—The first conflicts—Atrocities committed by the colonists—Vincent Ogé and Chavannes—Uprising of the slaves—The first Civil Commissioners—Decree of April 4, 1792. 41
CHAPTER VI
Arrival of the new Civil Commissioners, Sonthonax, Polvérel and Ailaud—Application of the Decree of April 4, 1792—The Intermediary Committee—Resistance of the colonists—Fighting at Port-au-Prince and Cap-Français—The English land in Saint-Domingue—The Spaniards conquer a portion of the French territory—General freedom is granted to the slaves—The colored men are in power. 58
CHAPTER VII
The English occupy Port-au-Prince—Polvérel and Sonthonax try to cause disunion among the colored men—They leave Saint-Domingue—Toussaint Louverture deserts the Spanish cause and joins the French—André Rigaud expels the English from Léogane—The treaty of Bâle—The English attack Léogane—Toussaint Louverture goes to the help of General Laveaux imprisoned at Cap-Français by Villate—Arrival of the new Civil Commission—Sonthonax—Toussaint Louverture, Commander-in-Chief of the Army—Hédouville—The English abandon Saint-Domingue—Hédouville causes enmity between Toussaint Louverture and Rigaud—Civil war between Toussaint and Rigaud—Rigaud is defeated and compelled to leave the island. 68
CHAPTER VIII
Administrative measures taken by Toussaint Louverture—Occupation of the Spanish portion of the island—Meeting of the Central Assembly—Constitution of Saint-Domingue—Toussaint Louverture elected Governor-General—The French expedition—The "Crête-à-Pierrot"—Deportation of Rigaud—Surrender of Toussaint Louverture—His arrest and deportation—His death at Fort de Joux. 102
CHAPTER IX
Reactionary measures—The natives unite under the leadership of Dessalines—The war of independence—Death of Leclerc—Rochambeau—Atrocities committed by the French—Capois-la-Mort—Expulsion of the French. 126
CHAPTER X
Proclamation of independence—Saint-Domingue becomes Haiti—Dessalines, the first ruler of Haiti (January 1, 1804–October 17, 1806)—Intrigues of the English Military organization of Haiti—Discontent provoked by Dessalines's administration—His death. 152
CHAPTER XI
Henri Christophe, Chief of the Provisional Government—Alexandre Pétion—Convocation of a Constituent Assembly—Constitution of 1806—Christophe marches against Port-au-Prince—He is elected President of Haiti (December 28, 1806)—Civil war—The Senate dismisses Christophe, who at Cap is elected President of the State of Haiti (February 17, 1807)—The Senate at Port-au-Prince elects Pétion President of Haiti for four years (March 9, 1807)—Christophe assumes the title of King of Haiti (March, 1811)—French intrigues against the independence of Haiti—Pétion and Simon Bolivar—Pétion reelected President March 9, 1811, and March 9, 1815—Elected President for life on October 9, 1816; died on the 29th of March, 1818. 160
CHAPTER XII
Jean-Pierre Boyer, President of Haiti for life (March 30, 1818–March 13, 1843)—Pacification of "La Grand'Anse"—Death of Henri Christophe (October 8, 1820)—His kingdom made part of the Republic—The inhabitants of the Spanish portion of the island expel the Spaniards—They acknowledge the authority of the President of Haiti (January 19, 1822)—The Haitian flag floats over the whole island—Hostility of the Great Powers toward Haiti: the United States and Great Britain recognize the independence of Mexico, Colombia, etc., but refrain from recognizing the independence of Haiti—The Haitians abolish the preferential tariff hitherto granted to Great Britain—Haiti and France at odds over the question of the recognition of the Haitian independence—Preparations for war in Haiti—France strives to acquire a protectorate over Haiti—Promulgation of the Civil Code, the Code of Civil Procedure, the Penal Code, and of Code of Criminal Instruction—Charles X grants the Haitians their independence—His ordinance and its effects—Loan in France and paper money, consequences of the ordinance—Negotiations with France for the conclusion of a treaty destined to destroy the bad effects of the ordinance of Charles X—Negotiations with the Pope—Treaty of 1838 by which France recognizes Haitian independence—Treaties with Great Britain and France for the abolition of the slave-trade—The discontent provoked by the ordinance of Charles X affects President Boyer's popularity—Reforms indispensable after the conclusion of the treaty of 1838—The opposition takes advantage of Boyer's inaction—Charles Hérard, surnamed Rivière, takes up arms at Praslin (January 27, 1843)—Boyer resigns (March 13, 1843) and sails on the English sloop-of-war Scylla. 173
CHAPTER XIII
The revolutionists of 1843—Their reforms: the constitution of 1843—Charles Hérard ainé, surnamed Rivière (December 30, 1843–May 3, 1844)—Loss of the Spanish portion of the island—Claims of the peasants of the Southern Department—Jean-Jacques Acaau—The period of transition—Guerrier (May 3, 1844–April 15, 1845)—Pierrot (April 16, 1845–March 1, 1846)—Riché (March 1, 1846–February 27, 1847). 192
CHAPTER XIV
Faustin Soulouque (March 1, 1847–January 15, 1859)—Campaigns against the Dominicans—The Empire—Intervention of France, Great Britain and the United States on behalf of the Dominicans—Navassa—Gonaives in rebellion—Faustin Soulouque leaves Haiti 200.
CHAPTER XV
Fabre Geffrard (December 23, 1858–March 13, 1867)—Concordat with the Vatican—Reforms made by Geffrard: diffusion of public instruction; law permitting marriage between foreigners and Haitians—Attempt to induce the colored people of the United States to go to Haiti—Geffrard tried to have the whole island neutralized—Annexation of the Dominican Republic by Spain—The Rubalcava incident—Salnave takes up arms at Cap-Haitien—The Bulldog incident—Bombardment of Cap-Haitien by British men-of-war—Mr. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States, at Port-au-Prince—Geffrard leaves Haiti. 206
CHAPTER XVI
Sylvain Salnave (June 14, 1867–December 19, 1869)—Constitution of 1867—Abolition of the Presidency for life—Salnave becomes a dictator—Resistance of the country—Overthrow of Salnave; his trial and execution. 212
CHAPTER XVII
Nissage Saget (March 19, 1870–May 14, 1874)—Redeeming the paper money—The Batsch incident—The Hornet incident—The Dominican incident—The Haitians send a gold medal to Senator Charles Sumner—At the expiration of his term of office Nissage Saget leaves Port-au-Prince for Saint-Marc. 217
CHAPTER XVIII
Michel Domingue (June 11, 1874–April 15, 1876)—The loan of 1875—Discontent caused by the death of Generals Brice and Monplaisir Pierre—Riot at Port-au-Prince—Overthrow of Domingue. 223
CHAPTER XIX
Boisrond Canal (July 17, 1876–July 17, 1879)—Misunderstanding with France caused by the Domingue loan—The Autran incident; difficulties with Spain about Cuba—The Maunder claim—The Lazare and Pelletier claims—Attitude of the Legislative Power—The President's resignation. 227
CHAPTER XX
Lysius Salomon (October 23, 1879–August 10, 1888)—Insurrection at Miragoane—Misunderstanding with the Catholic clergy—Various foreign claims: Lazare, Pelletier, Maunder (continued)—The Domingue loan—Bank of Haiti—Financial scandal—Universal Postal Union—Telegraph Agricultural exposition—Reelection of Salomon—Discontent at Cap-Haitien—Salomon leaves Haiti. 239
CHAPTER XXI
Seide Thélémaque—F. D. Légitime (December 16, 1888–August 22, 1889)—The incident of the steamship Haytian Republic—Légitime leaves Port-au-Prince. 243
CHAPTER XXII
Florville Hyppolite (October 9, 1889–March 24, 1896)—The United States try to gain possession of Môle Saint-Nicolas—The United States and Samana Bay—Incident with France concerning Haitians registered at the French Legation—The Chicago Exposition—Telegraph—Telephone—Public works—Death of Hyppolite. 245
CHAPTER XXIII
T. Simon-Sam (March 31, 1896–May 12, 1902)—The Lüders incident—The Northern Railroad—Railroad from Port-au-Prince to L'Etang—Misunderstanding as to the duration of Sam's power—His resignation. 249
CHAPTER XXIV
Legislative elections—Affray at Cap-Haitien—A. Firmin at Gonaives—The Markomania incident—The blowing up of the Crête-à-Pierrot by Killick—Nord Alexis elected President on the 21st of December, 1902—The "Consolidation" scandal. 252



PART II

CALUMNIES AND THEIR REFUTATION

CHAPTER I
Limits of Haiti—Area—Mountains and rivers—Adjacent islands—Population—Government—Divisions of the territory into Departments, arrondissements, communes, and rural sections—Financial organization; the national debt—Academic organization; public instruction—Judiciary organization—Religious organization. 257
CHAPTER II
Climate of Haiti—Sanitary condition—The absence of poisonous insects—Fauna—Flora: fruit-trees; vegetables—Fertility of the land. 272
CHAPTER III
Customs and manners of the people; their hospitality—Marriage and divorce—The Haitian woman—The Haitians are not lazy—They entertain no race prejudice—Advantages which foreigners enjoy; their safety—Naturalization—Right to hold real estate. 281
CHAPTER IV
Commerce of Haiti—Her products of the present day compared with those at the time of the French domination—Haiti at the Saint Louis Exposition—The various industries—Timber and cabinet woods—Mines. 292
CHAPTER V
Origin of the calumnies against Haiti—Unsympathetic attitude of the foreign Powers toward her: Great Britain, Spain, France and the United States—Even Simon Bolivar forgot the help rendered him by Haiti—Germany—Conditions in Haiti at the time of her independence—Difference between these conditions and those of the United States at the time when they severed their relations with Great Britain—Civil wars in Haiti as compared with those of Germany, Great Britain and France—Some of the causes of civil strife in Haiti. 300
CHAPTER VI
Corruption—Cannibalism—Voodooism—Papa-loi—Superstitions—False assertion that the Haitians are reverting to savagery. 342