Sacred Books of the East/Volume 4

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THE
SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST
TRANSLATED
BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS
AND EDITED BY
F. MAX MÜLLER

VOL. IV
Second Edition


Oxford
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1895
[All rights reserved]

Oxford
PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

 

THE ZEND-AVESTA

 
 

PART I

THE VENDÎDÂD

 
 

TRANSLATED BY

JAMES DARMESTETER

 
 

Second Edition

 
 

Oxford

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1895

[All rights reserved]

NOTE.

The completion of this second edition of Professor Darmesteter's translation of the Avesta has been interrupted by the sudden and untimely death of the author. Fortunately, he had already revised the proof-sheets of his translation of the Vendiddd, and completed his manuscript of the Introduction and Fragments. And, as the original manuscripts and collations, from which the text of the Fragments was derived, are mostly in my possession, the revision of the remaining proof-sheets has been chiefly in my hands, but has been carried out strictly in accordance with the author's views, as ascertained from his French translation of the Avesta. I have only to add that, though differing from my lamented friend in some of his more speculative opinions, I am convinced that it would be difficult to find a sounder scholar, a more brilliant writer, and a more estimable man, all united in the same individual.

E. W. WEST. May 1895. CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION.

Chapter I. The Discovery of the Zend-Avesta . . xiii The Interpretation of the Zend-Avesta xxvii The Formation of the Zend-Avesta . xxxi Parthian Elements in the Avesta . . xlvii BrAhmanical, Buddhist, and Greek Ele- ments li Jewish Elements in the Religion . . Ivii Achaemenian and Earlier Elements . Ix Age and Growth of the Avesta . Ixiv Conclusions Ixvii The VendIdAd Ixx TRANSLATION OF THE VENDIdAD. Fargard I. An enumeration of sixteen perfect lands created by Ahura Mazda, and of as many plagues created in opposition by Angra Mainyu I Fargard II. Myths of Yima lo Fargard III. The Earth 21 I (1-6). What comforts most the Genius of the Earth? . 22 II (7-1 1). What discomforts most the Genius of the Earth ? 24 111(12-35). What rejoices the Earth most ? ... 26 IV (36-42). A development forbidding the burial of the dead 32 Fargard IV. Contracts and Outrages .... 34 (0 35 I a (2). Classification of the contracts according to the value of their object 35 (3-4). A contract is cancelled by paying the amount of the contract higher by one degree . . . .36 (5-10). Religious responsibility of the family for the breach of a contract by one of its members ... 36 (i I- 16). Punishment of the Mihir-Dru^ (one who breaks a contract) 38 II a (17). Definition of the outrages known as dgerepta (threatening attitude), avaoirlrta (assault), aredor (blows) 39 (18-21). Penalties for menaces 40 (22-25). Assaults 41 Digitized by Googk CONTENTS. IX PAGE (26-29), Blows 42 (30-33). Wounds 42 (34-36). Wounds causing blood to flow ... 43 (37-39)' Broken bones 44 (40-43). Manslaughter 44 III a (44-45). Contract of charity to co-religionists . . 45 IV a (46). Heinousness of false oath 46 ^ III b (47-49 a). Dignity of wealth ; of marriage ; of phy- sical weal 46 - IV b (49 b-55). Heinousness of false oath. Ordeal . . 48 Fargard V 49 I (1-7). If a man defile the fire or the earth with dead matter (Nasu) involuntarily or unconsciously, it is no sin . 50 II (8-9). Water and fire do not kill 52 III (10-14). Disposal of the dead during winter, when it is not possible to take them to the Dakhma . . . '53 IV (15-20). Why Ahura, while forbidding man to defile water, sends water from the heavens down to the Dakhmas, covered with corpses. How he purifies that water . . 54 V (21-26). On the excellence of purity and of the law that shows how to recover purity, when lost . . 56 VI (27-38), On the defiling power of the Nasu being greater or less, according to the greater or less dignity of the being that dies 58 VII (39-44). On the management of sacrificial implements defiled with Nasu . 61 VIII (45-62). On the treatment of a woman who has been delivered of a still-bom child ; and what is to be done with her clothes 62 Fargard VI 67 I (1-9). How long the earth remains unclean, when defiled by the dead . .67 II (10-25). Penalties for defiling the ground with dead matter 68 III (26-41). Purification of the different sorts of water, when defiled by the dead 71 IV (42-43). Purification of the Haoma • • • . 73 V (44-51). The place for corpses ; the Dakhmas . 74 Fargard VII 76 I (1-5). How long after death the Dru^ Nasu takes posses- sion of the corpse 76 II (6-9). How far the defiling power of the Dru^ Nasu extends 78 111(10-22). Cleansing of clothes defiled by the dead . . 79 IV (23-24). Eating of Nasu an abomination . . .81 V (25-27). Bringing Nasu to fire or water an abomination 82 Digitized by Googk CONTENTS. PACE VI (28-35). Cleansing of wood and com defiled by the dead 83 VII a (36-40). Physicians ; their probation .* . . 85 , VII b (41-44). Their fees 86 VIII (45-59). Purification of the earth, of the Dakhmas. •/ The Dakhmas and the Da^vas ^T^ IX (60-72). Treatment of a woman who has brought forth a still-born child 91 X (73-75). Cleansing of vessels defiled by the dead . . 92 XI (76-77). Cleansing of the cow 93 XII (78-79). Unclean libations 94 Fargard VIII 95 (1-3). Purification of the house where a man has died . 95 II (4-13). Funerals 96 III (14-22). Purification of the ways along which the ^ corpse has been carried 99 IV (23-25). No clothes to be thrown on a corpse . . 102 V (26-32). Unlawful lusts 103 VI (33-34). A corpse when dried up does not contaminate 105

VII (35-72). Purification of the man defiled by the dead . 105^ 

^ VIII (73-80). Purification of the fire defiled by the dead . 113 IX (81-96). The Bahr^m fire 115' X (97-107). Purification in the wilderness . . . . 119 / Fargard IX. The Nine Nights' BarashnCm . . .122 la(i-ii). Description of the place for cleansing the un- clean (the Barashn(im-gih) 123 I b (12-36). Description of the cleansing . . . .126 (37-44). Fees of the cleanser 132 III (47-57). The false cleanser ; his punishment . . 134 "^ Fargard X. Spells recited during the process of THE cleansing I36 Fargard XI. Special spells for the cleansing of the SEVERAL OBJECTS 1 42 Fargard XII. The Upaman: how long it lasts for different relatives 148 Fargard XIII. The Dog 155 I (1-7). The dog of Ormazd and the dog of Ahriman . 155 I a (1-4). Holiness of the dog Vanghipara (*the hedge-hog *) 1 55 I b (5~7)' Hatefulness of the dog Zairimyangura (* the tortoise') 157 II (8-16). The several kinds of dogs. Penalties for the murder of a dog 157 III (17-19). On the duties of the shepherd's dog and the house-dog 159 Digitized by Googk CONTENTS. XI PACE IV (20-28). On the food due to the dog .... 160 V (29-38). On the mad dog and the dog diseased ; how they are to be kept, and cured 163 VI (39-40). On the excellence of the dog . . .164 VII (41-43). On the wolf-dog 165 VIII (44-48). On the virtues and vices of the dog . .166 IX (49). Praise of the dog 168 X (50-56). The water-dog 168 Fargard XIV. The atonement for the murder of a WATER-DOG . . 169 Fargard XV 176 I (1-8). On five sins the commission of which makes the sinner a Peshdtanu 176 II a (9-12). On unlawful unions and attempts to procure miscarriage 178 II b (13-19). On the obligations of the illegitimate father towards the mother and the child 179 III (20-45). On the treatment of a bitch big with young . 180 IV (46-51). On the breeding of dogs 184 Fargard XVI 185 (1-7). On the uncleanness of women during their sickness 185 II (8-12). What is to be done if that state lasts too long . 187 III (13-18). Sundry laws relating to the same matter . 188 Fargard XVII. Hair and Nails 190 Fargard XVIII 193 I (1-13). On the unworthy priest and enticers to heresy . 193 II (14-29). The holiness of the cock, the bird of Sraosha, who awakes the world for prayer and for the protection of Atar 196 , III (30-59). On the four sins that make the Dru^ pregnant ^ with a brood of fiends 200'^ IV (60-65). On the evil caused by the Gahi (* the prostitute *) 204 V (66-76). How intercourse with a Dashtin woman is to be atoned for 206 Fargard XIX 208 I (1-3). Angra Mainyu sends the demon Bftiti to kill Zarathortra : Zarathujtra sings aloud the Ahuna-Vairya, and the demon flies away, confounded by the sacred words and by the Glory of Zarathortra 209 I a (4-10). Angra Mainyu himself attacks him and pro- pounds riddles to be solved under pain of death . .210 II (11 -1 6). How to destroy the uncleanness born from a contact with the dead 212 III (17-19). How to promote the prosperity of the creation 214- Digitized by Googk Xll CONTENTS. PACK IV (20-25). How to purify man and clothes defiled by the dead 215 V (26-34). On the remuneration of deeds after death; on the fate of the wicked and the righteous ; the Kinv2ui bridge 217 I I a (35-42). A series of invocations 220 , VI (43-47). The demons, dismayed by the birth of the Prophet, rush back into hell 224 Fargard XX. Thrita and the origin of medicine . 225 Fargard XXI 230 I (i). Praise of the holy bull . . . . . .231 (2-3). Invocation addressed to rain as a healing power . 231 III a (4-7). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the light of the sun 231 III b (8-11). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the light of the moon 233 III c (12-17). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the light of the stars 233 IV (18-23). Spells against disease 235 Fargard XXII. Angra Mainyu creates 99,999 diseases: 'Ahura Mazda applies for healing to the Holy Word and to Airyaman 236 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. I. Westergaard's Fragments 245 II. Zend Fragments in the Zend-Pahlavi Farhang . 252 III. Zend Fragments quoted in the Pahlavi Com- mentary OF the Yasna 258 IV. Zend Fragments quoted in the Pahlavi Com- mentary OF THE VENDIdAd 260 V. Tahmuras' Fragments 275 VI. ErpatistAn and NIrangistAn 300 VII. Sundry Fragments 369 VIII. AOGEMAID& 372 Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Transla- tions of the Sacred Books of the East 387 Digitized by Googk