Sacred Books of the East/Volume 4

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THE
SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST
TRANSLATED
BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS
AND EDITED BY
F. MAX MÜLLER

VOL. IV
Second Edition


Oxford
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1895
[All rights reserved]

Oxford
PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

 

THE ZEND-AVESTA

 
 

PART I

THE VENDÎDÂD

 
 

TRANSLATED BY

JAMES DARMESTETER

 
 

Second Edition

 
 

Oxford

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1895

[All rights reserved]

NOTE.

The completion of this second edition of Professor Darmesteter's translation of the Avesta has been interrupted by the sudden and untimely death of the author. Fortunately, he had already revised the proof-sheets of his translation of the Vendiddd, and completed his manuscript of the Introduction and Fragments. And, as the original manuscripts and collations, from which the text of the Fragments was derived, are mostly in my possession, the revision of the remaining proof-sheets has been chiefly in my hands, but has been carried out strictly in accordance with the author's views, as ascertained from his French translation of the Avesta. I have only to add that, though differing from my lamented friend in some of his more speculative opinions, I am convinced that it would be difficult to find a sounder scholar, a more brilliant writer, and a more estimable man, all united in the same individual.

E. W. WEST.

May 1895.

CONTENTS.


INTRODUCTION.
PAGE
Chapter I.

The Discovery of the Zend-Avesta

xiii
Chapter II.

The Interpretation of the Zend-Avesta

xxvii
Chapter III.

The Formation of the Zend-Avesta

xxxi
Chapter IV.

Parthian Elements in the Avesta

xlvii
Chapter V.

Brâhmanical, Buddhist, and Greek Elements

li
Chapter VI.

Jewish Elements in the Religion

lvii
Chapter VII.

Achaemenian and Earlier Elements

lx
Chapter VIII.

Age and Growth of the Avesta

lxiv
Chapter IX.

Conclusions

lxvii
Chapter X.

The Vendîdâd

lxx


TRANSLATION OF THE VENDÎDÂD.


Fargard I. An enumeration of sixteen perfect lands created by Ahura Mazda, and of as many plagues created in opposition by Angra Mainyu

1

Fargard II. Myths of Yima

10

Fargard III. The Earth

21

I (1–6). What comforts most the Genius of the Earth?

22

II (7–11). What discomforts most the Genius of the Earth?

24

III (12–35). What rejoices the Earth most?

26

IV (36–42). A development forbidding the burial of the dead

32

Fargard IV. Contracts and Outrages

34

I (1).

35

I a (2). Classification of the contracts according to the value of their object

35

(3–4). A contract is cancelled by paying the amount of the contract higher by one degree

36

(5–10). Religious responsibility of the family for the breach of a contract by one of its members

36

(11–16). Punishment of the Mihir-Drug (one who breaks a contract)

38

II a (17). Definition of the outrages known as âgerepta (threatening attitude), avaoirista (assault), aredus (blows)

39

(18–21). Penalties for menaces

40

(22–25). Assaults

41

(26–29). Blows

42

(30–33). Wounds

42

(34–36). Wounds causing blood to flow

43

(37–39). Broken bones

44

(40–43). Manslaughter

44

III a (44–45). Contract of charity to co-religionists

45

IV a (46). Heinousness of false oath

46

III b (47–49 a). Dignity of wealth; of marriage; of physical weal

46

IV b (49 b–55). Heinousness of false oath. Ordeal

48

Fargard V.

49

I (1–7). If a man defile the fire or the earth with dead matter (Nasu) involuntarily or unconsciously, it is no sin

50

II (8–9). Water and fire do not kill

52

III (10–14). Disposal of the dead during winter, when it is not possible to take them to the Dakhma

53

IV (15–20). Why Ahura, while forbidding man to defile water, sends water from the heavens down to the Dakhmas, covered with corpses. How he purifies that water

54

V (21–26). On the excellence of purity and of the law that shows how to recover purity, when lost

56

VI (27–38). On the defiling power of the Nasu being greater or less, according to the greater or less dignity of the being that dies

58

VII (39–44). On the management of sacrificial implements defiled with Nasu

61

VIII (45–62). On the treatment of a woman who has been delivered of a still-born child; and what is to be done with her clothes

62

Fargard VI.

67

I (1–9). How long the earth remains unclean, when defiled by the dead

67

II (10–25). Penalties for defiling the ground with dead matter

68

III (26–41). Purification of the different sorts of water, when defiled by the dead

71

IV (42–43). Purification of the Haoma

73

V (44–51). The place for corpses; the Dakhmas

74

Fargard VII.

76

I (1–5). How long after death the Drug Nasu takes possession of the corpse

76

II (6–9). How far the defiling power of the Drug Nasu extends

78

III (10–22). Cleansing of clothes defiled by the dead

79

IV (23–24). Eating of Nasu an abomination

81

V (25–27). Bringing Nasu to fire or water an abomination

82

VI (28–35). Cleansing of wood and corn defiled by the dead

83

VII a (36–40). Physicians; their probation

85

VII b (41–44). Their fees

86

VIII (45–59). Purification of the earth, of the Dakhmas. The Dakhmas and the Daêvas

87

IX (60–72). Treatment of a woman who has brought forth a still-born child

91

X (73–75). Cleansing of vessels defiled by the dead

92

XI (76–77). Cleansing of the cow

93

XII (78–79). Unclean libations

94

Fargard VIII.

95

I (1–3). Purification of the house where a man has died

95

II (4–13). Funerals

96

III (14–22). Purification of the ways along which the ^ corpse has been carried

99

IV (23–25). No clothes to be thrown on a corpse

102

V (26–32). Unlawful lusts

103

VI (33–34). A corpse when dried up does not contaminate

105

VII (35–72). Purification of the man defiled by the dead

105

VIII (73–80). Purification of the fire defiled by the dead

113

IX (81–96). The Bahrâm fire

115

X (97–107). Purification in the wilderness

119

Fargard IX. The Nine Nights' Barashnûm

122

I a (1–11). Description of the place for cleansing the un- clean (the Barashnûm-gâh)

123

I b (12–36). Description of the cleansing

126

II (37–44). Fees of the cleanser

132

III (47–57). The false cleanser; his punishment

134

Fargard X. Spells recited during the process of the cleansing

136

Fargard XI. Special spells for the cleansing of the several objects

142

Fargard XII. The Upaman: how long it lasts for different relatives

148

Fargard XIII. The Dog

155

I (1–7). The dog of Ormazd and the dog of Ahriman

155

I a (1–4). Holiness of the dog Vanghâpara ('the hedge-hog')

155

I b (5–7). Hatefulness of the dog Zairimyangura ('the tortoise')

157

II (8–16). The several kinds of dogs. Penalties for the murder of a dog

159

III (17–19). On the duties of the shepherd's dog and the house-dog

159

IV (20–28). On the food due to the dog

160

V (29–38). On the mad dog and the dog diseased; how they are to be kept, and cured

163

VI (39–40). On the excellence of the dog

164

VII (41–43). On the wolf-dog

165

VIII (44–48). On the virtues and vices of the dog

166

IX (49). Praise of the dog

168

X (50–56). The water-dog

168

Fargard XIV. The atonement for the murder of a water-dog

169

Fargard XV.

176

I (1–8). On five sins the commission of which makes the sinner a Peshôtanu

176

II a (9–12). On unlawful unions and attempts to procure miscarriage

178

II a (13–19). On the obligations of the illegitimate father towards the mother and the child

179

III (20–45). On the treatment of a bitch big with young

180

IV (46–51). On the breeding of dogs

184

Fargard XVI.

185

I (1–7). On the uncleanness of women during their sickness

185

II (8–12). What is to be done if that state lasts too long

187

III (13–18). Sundry laws relating to the same matter

188

Fargard XVII. Hair and Nails

190

Fargard XVIII.

193

I (1–13). On the unworthy priest and enticers to heresy

193

II (14–29). The holiness of the cock, the bird of Sraosha, who awakes the world for prayer and for the protection of Atar

196

III (30–59). On the four sins that make the Drug pregnant with a brood of fiends

200

IV (60–65). On the evil caused by the Gahi ('the prostitute')

204

V (66–76). How intercourse with a Dashtân woman is to be atoned for

206

Fargard XIX.

208

I (1–3). Angra Mainyu sends the demon Bûiti to kill Zarathustra: Zarathustra sings aloud the Ahuna-Vairya, and the demon flies away, confounded by the sacred words and by the Glory of Zarathustra

209

I a (4–10). Angra Mainyu himself attacks him and propounds riddles to be solved under pain of death

210

II (11–16). How to destroy the uncleanness born from a contact with the dead

212

III (17–19). How to promote the prosperity of the creation

214

IV (20–25). How to purify man and clothes defiled by the dead

215

V (26–34). On the remuneration of deeds after death; on the fate of the wicked and the righteous; the Kinvad bridge

217

II a (35–42). A series of invocations

220

VI (43–47). A series of invocations

224

Fargard XX. Thrita and the origin of medicine

225

Fargard XXI.

230

I (1). Praise of the holy bull

231

II (2–3). Invocation addressed to rain as a healing power

231

III a (4–7). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the light of the sun

231

III b (8–11). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the light of the moon

233

III c (12–17). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the light of the stars

233

IV (18–23). Spells against disease

235

Fargard XXII. Angra Mainyu creates 99,999 diseases: Ahura Mazda applies for healing to the Holy Word and to Airyaman

236


FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS.

I.

Westergaard's Fragments

245
II.

Zend Fragments in the Zend-Pahlavi Farhang

252
III.

Zend Fragments quoted in the Pahlavi Commentary of the Yasna

258
IV.

Zend Fragments quoted in the Pahlavi Commentary of the Vendîdâd

260
V.

Tahmuras' Fragments

275
VI.

Erpatistân and Nîrangistân

300
VII.

Sundry Fragments

369
VIII.

Aogemaidê

372

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East

387