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Tolkāppiyam  (4th century BCE) 
by Tolkappiyar, translated from Tamil by Sengai Podhuvan and  Wikisource
The Tolkāppiyam is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature.



  1. Phoneme, traditional classifications
  2. Phoneme, traditional positions
  3. Phoneme, articulation
  4. Morphophonemic coalescence
  5. Coalescences, Elisions and addition
  6. Coalescence of case-morphemes
  7. Vowel coalescence
  8. Consonant coalescence
  9. Shorted-u coalescence


  1. Sequence of sentence
  2. Case systems
  3. Interchange of case morphemes
  4. Vocative case
  5. Nouns
  6. Verbs
  7. Structural morphemes
  8. Literary participles
  9. Residual components

Subject matter of life and literature style[edit]

  1. Love affairs (Agam composition)
  2. Public life (Pur’am composition)
  3. Clandestine love
  4. Wedded love
  5. Residual aspect
  6. Manifest emotions
  7. Modes of comparison
  8. Prosody
  9. Traditions