Archaeological Journal/Volume 1/Abstract of Report of the First Meeting of the British Archæological Association at Canterbury, September, 1844

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Archaeological Journal, Volume 1  (1845) 
Abstract of Report of the First Meeting of the British Archæological Association at Canterbury, September, 1844

British Archaeological Association.

FIRST ANNUAL MEETING, CANTERBURY, SEPTEMBER, 1844.


GENERAL COMMITTEE.

President.
The Lord Albert Denison Conyngham, K.C.H., F.S.A.

Treasurer.
Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Secretaries.

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A.

Albert Way, Esq., M.A., Dir. S.A.

The Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Sectional Committees.

Matthew Bell, Esq.

Rev. William Bennett, M.A.

Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.S.A.

Rev. Francis Dawson, M.A., Prebendary of Canterbury.

Rev. Godfrey Faussett, D.D.

Benjamin Ferrey, Esq., F.I.B.A.

The Ven. William Hale Hale, M.A., Archdeacon of London.

Rev. Stephen Isaacson, M.A.

William V. Pettigrew, Esq., M.D.

James Robinson Planché, Esq., F.S.A.

Ambrose Poynter, Esq., Hon. Sec. Inst. Brit. Arch.

William Henry Rolfe, Esq.

Thomas Stapleton, Esq., F.S.A.

The Right Hon. Viscount Strangford, G.C.B., G.C.H., F.R.S., F.S.A.

James Whatman, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Corresponding Member of the Institute of France.

Draftsman.
F. W. Fairholt, Esq., F.S.A.


SECTIONAL COMMITTEES.—Primeval Section.

President.
William Richard Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S., V.P.S.A.

Vice presidents.
The Very Rev. the Dean of Hereford, F.R.S., F.S.A.
Sir James Annesley, F.R.S., F.S.A.

Secretaries.

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A.

William V. Pettigrew, Esq., M.D.

W. Francis Ainsworth, Esq.

Edmund Tyrrell Artis, Esq., F.S.A.

Thomas Bateman, jun., Esq.

Sir William Betham, F.S.A., Ulster King at Arms.

Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A.

Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, Esq., F.S.A.

Rev. Professor William Buckland, D.D., F.R.S.

Rev. John Bathurst Deane, M.A., F.S.A.

William Jerdan, Esq., F.S.A. M.R.S.L., and Corresponding Member of the Real Academia de la Historia of Spain.

Charles König, Esq., K.H., F.R.S.

Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

John Sydenham, Esq.

MEDIEVAL SECTION.

President.
The Ven. Charles Parr Burney, F.R.S., F.S.A., Archdeacon of St. Alban's.

Vice presidents.
The Rev. J. H. Spry, D.D., Prebendary of Canterbury.
Sir Richard Westmacott, R.A., F.S.A.

Secretaries.

Thomas Stapleton, Esq., F.S.A.

James Robinson Planché, Esq., F.S.A.

William Beattie, Esq., M.D.

Rev. Henry Christmas, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A.

George R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A.

Rev. J. J. Ellis, M.A., F.S.A.

Rev. H. Parr Hamilton, M.A., F.R.S.

Rev. Charles Hassells, M.A.

Rev. Lambert B. Larking, M.A.

John Noble, Esq., F.S.A.

Dawson Turner, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Albert Way, Esq., M.A., Dir.S.A.

Matthew Cotes Wyatt, Esq.

Matthew Wyatt, Esq.


ARCHITECTURAL SECTION.

President.
The Rev. Robert Willis, M.A., F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor, Cambridge.

Vice presidents.

Thomas Amyot, Esq., F.R.S., Treas. S.A.

Rev. Joseph Bosworth, D.D., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Secretaries.
Benjamin Ferrey, Esq., F.I.B.A.
Ambrose Poynter, Esq., Honorary Secretary of the Institution of British Architects.

John Britton, Esq., F.S.A.

Decimus Burton, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.I.B.A.

George Godwin, jun., Esq., F.R.S. , F.S.A.

Joseph Gwilt, Esq., F.S.A.

Capt. H. G. Hamilton, R.N.

Rev. Charles H. Hartshorne.

Richard Charles Hussey, Esq.

Charles Manby, Esq., Secretary of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

John Henry Parker, Esq., Secretary of the Architectural Society, Oxford.

Charles James Richardson, Esq., F.S.A., F.I.B.A.

Henry Wyatt, Esq.


HISTORICAL SECTION.

President.
Lord Albert Denison Conyngham, K.C.H., F.S.A.

Vice presidents.

Charles Barry, Esq., R.A.

Edward Blore, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Secretaries.
Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.A.
Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Corresponding Member of the Institute of France.

William Harrison Ainsworth, Esq.

Joseph Arden, Esq.

William Ayrton, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Rev. Richard Harris Barham, M.A.

John Barrow, Esq., F.S.A.

William Burge, Esq., Q.C., F.R.S., F.S.A.

Peter Cunningham, Esq.

James Orchard Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

G. P. R. James, Esq.

Thomas William King, Esq., F.S.A., Rouge Dragon.

John Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A.

Sir Cuthbert Sharp.

LOCAL COMMITTEE.

George Neame, Esq., Mayor of Canterbury.

John Brent, Esq., Alderman.

Henry Cooper, Esq., Alderman.

William Masters, Esq., Alderman.

Edward Plummer, Esq., Alderman.

George Austen, Esq., Town Councillor.

John Brent, Jun., Esq., Town Councillor.

William Plummer, Esq., Town Councillor.

Henry Kingsford, Esq.

Monday, Sept. 9.

The proceeding's of the general meeting were opened at half past three o'clock by an address from the President upon the objects of the Association, and the benefits it was calculated to realize. His lordship remarked that a disposition to cultivate intellectual pursuits was making rapid progress in this country, as well as on the continent, and this growing feeling was especially manifested with regard to archæology. Most men of cultivated minds were now beginning to take an interest in examining and pondering over the remains of past ages. They were no longer satisfied with taking for truth the baseless vagaries of the human mind; they wished to judge for themselves, and to form theories that would spring from a study of facts, well scrutinized and established by the test of personal examination and severe criticism. Archæology, thus placed on a sound footing, would go hand in hand with history. The antiquary was no longer an object of ridicule, for it was becoming too palpable that his researches and discoveries, perhaps in themselves apparently trivial, if not immediately applied to practical purposes, were often seized by some master-mind, and rendered subservient to the elucidation of unsettled points of the highest historical importance. In order to foster and direct this growing taste, the Archæological Association had been formed, purposing to embrace a more numerous class of persons, and to enter upon a wider field of active research, than that to which the exertions of the Society of Antiquaries have hitherto been directed. It aspires to enrol among its members, individuals in all parts of the kingdom who will examine and describe antiquities that may be brought to light in their respective localities, and co-operate to preserve them. His lordship then gave a long list of reasons for the selection of Canterbury for the first annual meeting, and referred to the peculiar attractions it afforded to every section of the Association, from an investigation of which the institution could not fail being benefited.

Mr. C. Roach Smith, the Secretary, then read the list of papers which were to be brought before the meeting, and subsequently an address explanatory of the objects, operations, and prospects of the Association.

It having been suggested, that owing to a large accumulation of papers it would be desirable at once to bring forward some portion of them. Sir William Betham read from an elaborate paper on the origin of idolatry.

In the evening, at

THE PRIMEVAL SECTION,

the chair was taken at eight o'clock by the very Rev. the Dean of Hereford, and the proceedings commenced with a paper by the Rev. John Bathurst Deane, on the early sepulchral remains extant in Great Britain, and the connection with similar monuments in Brittany. The paper was illustrated by a large and beautifully executed plan of the extensive Celtic monuments on the plains of Carnac.

Sir William Betham, in reference to certain portions of Mr. Deane's paper, observed that it was very gratifying to trace a progress towards truth by the examination of these ancient remains. It was not long since, that any one presuming to think they were sepulchral, would have been laughed at. Many which had generally been considered as altars, modern researches have proved to be sepulchral monuments. To this class he also referred the well-known round towers of Ireland.

Mr. C. Roach Smith read an account by Mr. Thomas Bateman, jun., of the opening of barrows in the vicinity of Bakewell, in Derbyshire; illustrated by drawings, and an exhibition of objects discovered.

The meeting then adjourned to Barnes's rooms, where a conversazione was held. The tables were covered with an interesting variety of antiquities, which from their nature could have been only imperfectly inspected at the sectional meeting. Around the walls were suspended numerous well-executed rubbings of brasses, executed by Mr. Sprague of Colchester, and by Mr. Richardson of Greenwich; the latter by a new process and peculiar composition, exhibiting perfect fac-similes, in colour as well as in form, of the brasses themselves. Among other articles exhibited were beautiful specimens of carved ornaments, in wood, executed by the newly-invented process of Mr. Pratt, of New Bond-street.

Mr. E. J. Carlos exhibited rubbings of the brass of Thomas Cod, vicar of St. Margaret's church, Rochester, in a perfect state. The entire restoration has been effected with great difficulty, on account of the thinness of the metal. It has been surmised that both sides of this brass represent the same individual, but Mr. Carlos has reason to believe that the reverse side is of earlier date than the other.

Mr. Edward Pretty, of Northampton, exhibited a coloured drawing of a painting on the wall of Lenham church, in Kent, representing a nimbed angel weighing souls; one is in the lower scale praying to the Virgin Mary, who is throwing a rosary upon the beam to give weight to the scale; her right hand is raised, as bestowing a blessing, or interceding for the good soul. The other scale, which is upraised, has two devils or evil spirits, using every exertion to pull down the scale, and another imp is seated on the upper part of the beam with a soul in his hand, and blowing a horn. There has been an inscription underneath the figures. Mr. Pretty also forwarded drawings of an ancient house, and of the lich-gate at Lenham, with sketches of the Druidical monument at Coldrum, near Trotterscliffe, and of Goddard's Castle.

Lord Albert Conyngham exhibited some ancient gold ornaments found in Ireland, and a variety of amethystine beads, fibulæ, and other objects, chiefly from barrows on Breach Downs opened by his lordship.

Mr. Frederic Dixon, of Worthing, exhibited a pair of bronze torques, with other remains found near Worthing.

Tuesday, Sept. 10.

Between nine and ten o'clock the members assembled on the Breach Downs to be present at the opening of some barrows, under the superintendance of the noble President. The workmen employed had previously excavated the barrows to within a foot of the place of the presumed deposit. Eight barrows were examined. The general external character of the Breach Downs barrows, together with the objects found in many others of this extensive group, have been well described in the last volume of the Archæologia. They are generally of slight elevation above the natural chalky soil, the graves, over which the mounds are heaped, being from two to four feet deep. Most of them contain skeletons, more or less entire, with the remains of weapons in iron, bosses of shields, urns, beads, fibular, armlets, bones of small animals, and occasionally glass vessels. The graves containing weapons are assigned to males; those with beads, or other ornaments, to females. The correctness of this appropriation seems determined by the fact that these different objects are seldom found in the same grave. The deposit in one of the barrows opened this morning, presented the unusual association of beads and an iron knife. All contained the remains of skeletons much decayed; in some, traces of wood were noticed, and vestiges of knives.

After the examination of these barrows, the whole party visited the mansion of the noble President, at Bourne, and having inspected his lordship's interesting collection of antiquities, and partaken of a substantial repast, attended the excavation of two barrows in his lordship's paddock, forming part of the group of which some had been recently opened, and described by Mr. Wright in the present volume, p. 253—256.

PRIMEVAL SECTION.

The chair was taken at eight o'clock by the Dean of Hereford. The various objects discovered in the barrows at Breach Downs and Bourne were exhibited on the table, together with an urn and glass cup found in one of the latter, the former of which had been repaired, and the latter restored as far as the fragments remaining would permit, by Messrs Bateman and Clarke. The restoration of the vessels by these gentlemen was effected in so skilful a manner, as to call forth the marked approbation of the meeting,

Mr. C. R. Smith made some remarks on the perfect correspondence of the barrows excavated in the morning with others on the same sites previously examined. The successful results of the day's explorations fully confirmed the opinions of those who had referred the date of these barrows to the fifth and sixth centuries. Their extension over a large tract of ground, systematic arrangement, number, and the care with which the objects interred with the bodies had been arranged in the graves, denote the appropriation of the locality as a cemetery through a considerable range of time. The urn and glass vessel placed before the meeting, afforded excellent specimens of Saxon manufacture. To the experienced eye, they presented as distinctive an impress of the character and style of the times to which they belonged, as the more classic shapes of Greek or Roman fabric. Mr. Smith added, that the chalky mould having been extracted from the urn, the remains of a brass rim, apparently belonging to a small bag or leathern purse, had been found near the bottom.

Dr. Pettigrew gave an interesting description of the bones found in the various barrows, and remarked that the articles accompanying them in the graves were such as would be likely to be deposited by the friends of the respective deceased. Thus with the skeleton of a child were noticed beads, necklaces, and toys, the evident offerings of parental affection; with that of the hunter or warrior lay the knife and spear. The state of the teeth in all the barrows, with the exception of those of the child, indicated that the people had lived chiefly on grain and roots. Dr. Pettigrew, in alluding to a skeleton found in the mound above one of the graves, stated that from a close observation of the bones, it was his opinion that the interment was quite of recent date, the skeleton could not in fact have been deposited fifty years.

Professor Buckland compared the barrows on Breach Downs and in Bourne paddock with tumuli in various parts of England. Having read extracts from Mr. Wright's report of the examination of some of the barrows in Bourne paddock. Dr. Buckland proceeded to describe the appearances presented during the exploration on the present occasion, particularly with respect to the state of the bones, which he considered as no proof of age, having noticed the bones of Roman skeletons in several instances quite as perfect as those in the skeleton from the mound spoken of by Dr. Pettigrew[1].

The Rev. Stephen Isaacson read an account of the discovery of Roman urns, and other remains, at Dymchurch, in the spring of 1844. The paper was illustrated by forty-five sketches, and by an exhibition of specimens of the various objects discovered.

Mr. C. R. Smith remarked that Mr. Isaacson's discoveries were extremely interesting, and topographically important, as they disproved the notion that in the time of the Romans Dymchurch and the surrounding low grounds had been covered by the sea.

Mr. John Sydenham read a paper on the "Kimmeridge Coal Money," illustrated by an exhibition of a large collection of specimens of every variety. These remarkable remains of antiquity are extensively found in a secluded valley district of Purbeck. They are made of bituminous shale, and from their fragile texture could never have been used as money. The writer's conclusions were that they were but the waste pieces thrown out of the lathe in the construction of armillæ, and other ornaments, by the Romanized Britons.

Mr. C. R. Smith read a communication from the Rev. Beale Post on the place of Cæsar's landing in Britain. The author believes that Dr. Halley's discoveries, deduced from astronomical calculation, must after all be the basis of our reasoning on this point, but that a want of proper consideration of localities, and of the changes effected by partial recession of the sea, induced Halley erroneously to fix on Dover and Deal as the places of arrival and debarkation, for which Mr. Post proposes to substitute Folkstone and Lymne.

The Rev. R. H. Barham expressed an opinion that the alteration in the Kentish coast, in the time of Earl Godwin, precluded any inference being drawn from the appearances of the present line of coast.

The President made some observations on Roman remains, which he had noticed at the excavations for building the bridge at Kingston-upon-Thames.

Mr. M. H. Bloxam exhibited a variety of Roman and Romano-British antiquities from Warwickshire.

The meeting then, at a late hour, separated.

Wednesday, Sept. 11.
MEDIEVAL SECTION.

At eleven o'clock in the forenoon the sittings of the members were resumed in the Town Hall. The business was confined to the medieval section, of which the Ven. Charles Parr Burney, Archdeacon of St. Alban's, was the president, who took the chair, supported by the vice-presidents, the Rev. Dr. Spry and Sir Richard Westmacott.

The President opened the business of the section by a lucid exposition of the signification of the term 'medieval' period. He looked with peculiar interest to the operation of this section, as it was well calculated to unfold matters of the most stirring interest in connection with the general enquiry. By such an investigation the glory and even the prejudices of Englishmen would be awakened in defence of those noble ecclesiastical edifices which adorn our land. Architecture, in its most interesting phases, would be exhibited to them. The triumphs of that art, as evinced in the erection of such buildings as the cathedral of Canterbury, would be manifested. Its external beauties would be shewn, and its internal grandeur made known. That morning, with feelings of no ordinary gratification, he had visited the noble pile, and while viewing its gigantic proportions—massive in their harmony and magnificent in appearance—he could not satisfactorily conclude, indeed he repudiated the idea, that the age in which such buildings were erected could with any propriety be called the "dark age" of our country. He would now draw the attention of the meeting to the business before them.

A large and beautifully executed model, in colours, of Old Sarum, by W. H. Hatcher, Esq., of Salisbury, was exhibited, accompanied by a descriptive note, read by J. R. Planché, Esq., Secretary.

The Rev. Dr. Spry read a paper which had been entrusted to his care by a private friend, on a fresco-painting on the wall of Lenham church. It was accompanied by a drawing in pencil. A coloured drawing of the same subject had also been forwarded by Mr. E. Pretty of Northampton. Mr. G. Godwin, jun., enquired whether the painting in question was really a fresco? Was it not probably a distemper colouring? There was a great difference between the two.

The Rev. Dr. Spry said he was not of his own knowledge aware of its decided character. It might be a distemper colouring. He knew that in Canterbury cathedral there was a large painting of a similar kind in appearance, and he believed more trouble had been taken to destroy that painting than ever was employed to restore any work of ancient art. It was in fact nearly indelible; for as fast as it was apparently washed out, so fast it appeared again, and now it was fresh, and would, in his opinion, last while the stone itself endured.

Mr. Planché exhibited to the meeting, at the request of W. H. Blaauw, Esq., of Beechland, Uckfield, a curious relic of brass, discovered in 1835, together with some human bones, near the entrance gateway of the castle of Lewes, about a foot under the surface. In a letter to Mr. Planché, it was suggested by Mr. Blaauw that the object exhibited had been the pommel of a sword, and that the heater-shaped shields engraved upon it bore the arms of Richard, king of the Romans, who was taken prisoner at the battle of Lewes, May 14th, 1284. Mr. Planché admitted the interest of the relic, which he considered to be of the thirteenth century, but stated it to be his opinion that it was not the pommel of a sword, but a portion of a steel-yard weight of that period[2].

The Rev. C. H. Hartshorne read a paper on embroidery for ecclesiastical purposes. It was illustrated by several coloured drawings; and a beautiful specimen was exhibited of embroidery on yellow silk with gold thread, executed in the reign of Edward III. The figures represented the Crucifixion, and the martyrdoms of St. Stephen and of several other saints.

Mr. George Wollaston read a paper on the frescoes upon the walls of east Wickham church, and exhibited drawings in illustration. Mr. Wollaston stated that these frescoes were about to be destroyed in consequence of the obstinacy of a party who had paid the fees for the erection of a mural tablet over them, which no inducement would tempt them to forego.

Dr. Buckland said that he thought it necessary that some decisive and immediate steps should be taken to stay this spoliation of our sacred edifices. He instanced several cases of destruction, and pressed upon the consideration of the meeting the necessity of acting with prompt energy to stay the desecration and destruction now going forward. It was proposed then by Dr. Buckland, and seconded by Mr. Wollaston, that a letter should immediately be addressed to the proper authorities, urging them to suspend the erection of the mural monument in East Wickham church. The resolution was carried unanimously. After which Mr. Croker moved, and Mr. Noble seconded, that the proper authorities in all such cases be interceded with, and that the rural deans be written to, in order that the efforts of the Committee in so holy a work might be assisted by their powerful co-operation.

Mr. Planché read a paper by Mr. M. A. Lower, of Lewes, on "the Badge of the Buckle of the ancient House of Pelham."

Mr. Stapleton read a paper on "the Succession of William of Arques," after which the meeting separated to visit the museum of Dr. Faussett.

Heppington, Wednesday afternoon.

By two o'clock a large number of the members and many ladies assembled at the mansion of the Rev. Godfrey Faussett, D.D., where Sir John Fagg had very obligingly forwarded for inspection a large collection of Saxon antiquities, which were arranged in Dr. Faussett's museum. Dr. Buckland, Mr. Wright, Mr. C. Roach Smith, Mr. Bland of Hartlip, and Dr. Faussett himself, superintended the arrangements made for admitting the company to the museum by small parties, in order that all might obtain a view of this extensive collection, and hear such a description as limited time and circumstances would permit.

This collection was made by the Rev. Bryan Faussett, the contemporary and associate of Douglas, who engraved and published many of the objects in his well-known "Nenia Britannica."' In that able and sound work, however, justice has not been done in the engravings to many of the most interesting specimens, while a vast quantity of invaluable materials for illustrating the manners, customs, and arts of the early Saxons, are altogether unpublished. Nearly the whole of the collection inherited by Dr. Faussett, was accumulated from the barrows of the county of Kent. It consists chiefly of weapons in iron of various kinds, of ornaments of the person, many of them of the richest and most costly kind, articles of the toilette, vessels in glass and in copper and brass, coins, &c. The greater portion of these seems to claim unquestioned appropriation to the Saxon epoch. There is also a valuable department of Roman and Romano-British antiquities, and a small but no less valuable collection of Celtic implements and weapons. Almost every article is labelled, and is fully described or drawn, with an account of its discovery, in five MS. volumes by Bryan Faussett. Each party after leaving the museum was conducted to a room set apart for refreshments.

Wednesday Evening, Sept. 11, 1844.

ARCHITECTURAL SECTION.

The meeting of the Architectural Section took place at eight o'clock, Professor Willis in the chair.

The Secretary read a letter from John Adey Repton, Esq., on the subject of the chronological progression of Gothic capitals. Mr. Repton says it is a common observation, that all semicircular arches are Saxon or early Norman, and that the sharp-pointed arch (exceeding the equilateral triangle) is the earliest Gothic. On the contrary, the round-headed arch may occasionally be found as late as the thirteenth, the fourteenth, and even the fifteenth centuries; and the sharp-pointed arch may be seen at a very late period, as in Bell Harry's steeple at Canterbury. We must therefore depend more upon the general forms of the capitals of columns, or the contour of mouldings, to ascertain the dates of buildings. This communication was illustrated by drawings of specimens of capitals, arch-mouldings, string-courses, hood-mouldings, and sections of munnions, chronologically arranged from the Norman period to the year 1500.

The Secretary laid upon the table a drawing of a Norman tomb at Coningsborough, and read a description of it, by Daniel H. Haigh, Esq., of Leeds.

Professor Willis read a translation of Gervase's account of the destruction by fire, in 1174, and the rebuilding of the ancient cathedral of Canterbury in 1175—84, and compared the description of the new work, as described by Gervase, with the present condition of the cathedral, tested by measurement, and illustrated by a plan and section, shewing how exactly they agree. He pointed out the distinct character of the work of Lanfranc, by its ruder masonry, smaller stones, wider joints, and ornaments cut with the hatchet instead of the chisel, and traced the work of each year after the fire, proving by this means the date of the introduction of the Early English style; the work of 1175 being late Norman, while that of each succeeding year shews a progressive change, until in 1184 we have nearly pure Early English work.

A paper was read by Mr. Godwin on certain marks of the masons, which he had observed on the stone-work of various churches abroad and at home, many of which he had also recognised in Canterbury cathedral.

The Rev. C. Hartshorne described the keep at Dover castle, and the block-houses erected on the coast of Kent by Henry VIII., and exhibited plans of the same.

Mr. Abraham Booth read a paper on the preservation of public monuments, as an object worthy the attention of the Association.

During the meeting it was announced that Mr. Beresford Hope had purchased the ruins of St. Augustine's monastery, for the purpose of preserving them from destruction.

The meeting prolonged its sitting to a late hour, when it adjourned to the conversazione at Barnes's Rooms, which was numerously attended. The tables, as before, were covered with a variety of interesting objects, in addition to those exhibited on the Monday evening, including coloured drawings of paintings recently discovered in churches in Northamptonshire, by E. T. Artis; coloured drawings and sketches of various ancient remains in Kent, by Edward Pretty; and the beautiful piece of embroidery work exhibited at the meeting of the Medieval Section was suspended on the wall. Some lately published topographical works were laid on the table, among which were, "The History and Antiquities of Dartford," by Mr. J. Dunkin, and "The History of Gravesend," by Mr. Cruden. There were also exhibited the proofs of the plates of a forthcoming work on the Anglo-Saxon Coinage, by Mr. D. H. Haigh, of Leeds.

Lord Albert Conyngham exhibited a beautiful ornamental sword of the period of the renaissance, and a head of John the Baptist, finely sculptured in marble, by Bennini. The first impressions had also arrived, and were exhibited, of a handsome medal struck to commemorate the first meeting of the Association, by Mr. W. J. Taylor, of London.

Mr. C. R. Smith laid on the table numerous specimens of fibulæ, or brooches, in lead, found in the rivers at Canterbury, at Abbeville in France, and in the Thames at London. These brooches are stamped out of thin pieces of lead, and bear a variety of figures and devices, all of a religious tendency; they were obviously worn by devotees and pilgrims in the middle ages, as a kind of certificate of their having visited a particular shrine, or joined in some sacred ceremony. One of these fibulæ bears a mitred head, with the inscription CAPVT THOMƐ. This, Mr. Smith observed, had unquestionably been brought from Canterbury to London (where it was found) by some visitor to the shrine of Thomas à Becket, and he quoted a passage in Giraldus Cambrensis, in confirmation of this opinion. These brooches are from the collections of Mr. W. H. Rolfe, Mr. Welton, and Mr. Smith.

Thursday, September 12.

The entire day was devoted to excursions to Richborough and Barfreston, and to visits to the antiquities of the city. Professor Willis visited the cathedral and recurred to the work of Gervase, continuing his exposition of that writer to numerous members of the Association by whom he was accompanied. The party to Richborough comprised the Dean of Hereford. Dr. Buckland, Dr. Spry, the Rev. S. Isaacson, Messrs. Ainsworth, Bateman, Clarke, Hall, &c.—Richborough, the Rutupium of the Romans, has acquired new interest from the researches recently made by Mr. W. H. Rolfe, with a view to discover the extent and nature of an immense subterranean building in the area of the station. Mr. Rolfe has ascertained the extent of the masonry, but has been unable as yet to discover any entrance to the chambers which he and others believe it encloses. After inspecting Richborough, a few of the members called at Sandwich, and examined the collection of antiquities at Mr. Rolfe's, one of the most extensive and interesting in the county, and arranged, as all collections should be, with reference to the localities in which the specimens have been discovered. The party then accepted an invitation to lunch at John Godfrey's, Esq., of Brook House, Ash, and then proceeded to Barfreston and inspected the church, so celebrated for its architectural peculiarities. Another party, under the guidance of Lord Albert Conyngham, visited the Castle, Pharos, and Churches, at Dover.

Friday, Sept. 13.
HISTORICAL SECTION, at eleven a.m.

Lord Albert Conyngham, who presided, introduced the business of the meeting by some observations on the importance of historical science, and on the attention shewn to it in the arrangement of this section.

Mr. Crofton Croker read a letter from Miss Caroline Halsted, relating to a commission issued by Richard III. in 1485 for collecting alms for the new roofing of the chapel of St. Peter, St. James, and St. Anthony, at our Lady of Reculver in Kent. Mr. J. G. Nichols stated that there formerly existed at Reculver a chapel independent of, and at a distance from the church, which was probably the one here alluded to.

Mr. Croker laid before the meeting a series of extracts from a book of accounts of expenses relating to the repairing and storing of the king's ships in the river Thames in the reign of Henry VIII., communicated by Mr. John Barrow. The original MS. is preserved at the Admiralty.

Mr. Croker then read a paper by himself on the character of Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork, in which he compared that nobleman's autobiography with other contemporary authorities, and shewed that he was by no means the honest and good man described by himself and his friends. Mr. Croker's evidences were partly taken from the parish registers of St. Paul's in Canterbury.

Mr. Halliwell made a few observations on some early MSS. preserved in the library of Canterbury cathedral. He mentioned, among others, a curious collection of satires in English verse, written about the year 1590, and therefore to be ranked among the earliest compositions of this class known, and an early chartulary of the monastery of St. Augustine.

Mr. Wright read a short communication from Mr. Halliwell, relating to the coronation of Henry VI. of England at Paris.

Mr. Wright afterwards read a paper on the condition and historical importance of the municipal archives of the city of Canterbury, illustrated by a considerable number of extracts from the documents themselves.

Mr. Wright laid before the meeting a series of extracts from the bursars' accounts of Merton college, Oxford, from 1277 to 1310, presented by Mr. J. H. Parker, and read a communication from Mr. Parker on the subject. These accounts shew that the chapel of Merton college, a beautiful example of the Decorated style of architecture, was built in 1277, the high Altar being dedicated in that year; and therefore carry the first introduction of that style in England to an earlier date than had previously been ascertained, although it had been conjectured.

PRIMEVAL SECTION, at three o'clock p.m.
The Dean of Hereford in the chair.
exhibitions.

1. Romano-British urns and earthen vessels, excavated about twelve years since at Bridge-hill, near Canterbury, during the alteration then made in the line of road from Canterbury to Dover. These and many other urns with skeletons and fragments of weapons, were deposited about midway from the foot of the hill to the top.—By William Henry Rolfe, Esq.

2. Roman glass vessels and pottery, discovered a few years since in excavating for the foundations of Victoria-terrace, St. Dunstan's, Canterbury.—By Ralph Royle, Esq.

3. Roman urn, found four and a half feet from the surface of the earth, about a quarter of a mile from the riding gate of the city of Canterbury, on the old Dover road. Several skeletons, lying abreast of each other, with other remains, were found at the same place.—By Mr. John Alford Smith.

4. A large collection of Roman vases, discovered in the precincts of the cathedral.—By George Austen, Esq.

5. Gold Byzantine and Merovingian coins, mounted and looped for decorating the person, discovered with other ornaments in gold near the church of St. Martin's, Canterbury.—By W. H. Rolfe, Esq.

Mr. C. Roach Smith remarked, that these coins had evidently been arranged as a necklace, a custom common to the later Romans and Saxons. Roman coins and gems seem to have been much sought for by the Saxons, who used them not only as elegant ornaments but also, as Mr. Wright (in a paper lately read before the Society of Antiquaries) has shewn, as amulets or charms. One of these gold coins is in itself particularly interesting, as it appears to have been struck by Eupardus, a bishop of Autun, who lived in the early part of the sixth century, but of whom history is almost silent, neither does it appear that any other coin bearing his name has been found. Mr. Smith added that the discovery of these ornaments may be taken into consideration as evidence of the early appropriation of the locality as a place of sepulture.

6. Specimen of a rare Roman goblet or bowl in variegated opake glass, with bronze statuettes and other articles of Roman art found in Loudon.— By William Chaffers, jun., Esq.

7. Drawings of some Roman statues recently found in Northamptonshire. A wax model of a Roman kiln for pottery, with specimens of various kinds of pottery found therein, and in other Roman kilns discovered in Northamptonshire.—By Edmund Tyrrell Artis, Esq.

8. Drawings of Celtic, Romano-British, and Saxon remains, found at Sittingbourne, Kent, together with a map of the locality, shewing the relative position of the sites of their discovery.—By the Rev. Wm. Vallance.

9. Roman vases of very remarkable and elegant shapes, said to have been excavated in a barrow in Wiltshire.—By Joseph Clarke, Esq.

10. Roman urn, and a basin, apparently of later date, found in the garden of W. G. Gibson, Esq., of Saffron Walden.—By Joseph Clarke, Esq.

11. Plan of foundations of extensive Roman buildings, near Weymouth.—By Professor Buckland.

12. Full-sized copy of an inscription on a stone at the east end of the churchyard of Thursby, near Lincoln.—By John Gough Nichols, Esq.

Mr. C. Roach Smith read a communication from Mr. Edmund Tyrrell Artis, on a recent discovery of Roman statues, and a kiln for pottery, in the vicinity of Castor, Northamptonshire. The statues were discovered on the site of the brickyard, at Sibson, near Wansford. They are of fine workmanship, and sculptured from the stone of a neighbouring quarry. The kiln described by Mr. Artis, had been constructed upon the remains of an older one. It appears to have been used for making the bluish black, or slate-coloured kind of pottery, so frequently met with wherever Roman remains are found in England. This colour, Mr. Artis has ascertained, was imparted to the pottery by suffocating the fire of the kiln at the time when its contents had reached the proper state of heat to insure a uniform colour. The entire process of making these urns is minutely described by Mr. Artis.

The Rev. C. Hartshorne observed that he had seen the statues mentioned by Mr. Artis, which he considered to represent Hercules, Apollo, and Minerva, executed in a good style of art. The Duke of Bedford has taken pains to preserve them.

Mr. Smith then read a paper by James Puttock, Esq., on the Roman Itineraries in relation to Canterbury; an account of Celtic, Romano-British, and Saxon remains found at Sittingbourne, Kent, by the Rev. William Vallance; and notices of Roman and British encampments near Dunstable, by Mr. W. D. Saull.

Mr. Pettigrew read a paper on a bilingual inscription, from a vase in the treasury of St. Mark at Venice, which had been forwarded to him by Sir Gardner Wilkinson. The inscription was in the arrow-headed character and in Egyptian hieroglyphics, which in a cartouche contained the name of Artaxerxes.

Professor Buckland gave a description of the remains of a Roman temple, and of a very extensive town and Roman burial-ground, recently discovered near Weymouth, and illustrated his remarks by drawings, and specimens of some antiquities from the locality.

Mr. Pettigrew read a note by Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A., on a gold Saxon buckle found in Hampshire.

THE MUMMY.

The members met in the theatre at eight o'clock, where Mr. Pettigrew first read an essay on the different kinds of embalmments among the Egyptians, and then proceeded to unroll the mummy, which had been obtained from Thebes by Colonel Needham, and secured for the Association by Mr. Pettigrew. It measured five feet two inches, and was invested with a considerable quantity of linen bandage, stained of the usual colour by the gum of the acacia, as supposed by Mr. P.; over the whole a large sheet of a pinkish colour was thrown, dyed with the carthamus tinctorius. Bituminous matter having penetrated through the sides, the bandages could not be unrolled from the body; they were therefore cut away, and among them numerous compresses were found, filling up all spaces. Time would not permit of the complete display of the mummy, but the head was fully developed, and the face was found to have been gilt, large portions of gold-leaf, upon the removal of the bandages, presenting themselves in most vivid brightness. The brain had been extracted through the nostrils, and bitumen injected into the cavity of the skull. The head had been shaven some little time before the death of the individual, who was therefore conjectured to have been a priest, though his occupation or position in life was not expressed in the hieroglyphics upon the case. The arms were folded across the chest, and at the bottom of the neck the remains of a lotus. Many other things will probably be found when the examination shall be proceeded with, which will be done at Mr. Pettigrew's leisure, and a regular account of the examination drawn up. The hieroglyphics, according to Mr. P., aided by the knowledge of Mr. Samuel Birch of the British Museum, read thus:—

1. Royal offering to Anup attached to the embalmment, that he may give wax, clothes, manifestation, all on altar? to go out in the West happy—that he may give air the movement of breath for sake of HAR (or Horns) truth speaking, son of UNNEFER child of Lady of the House SAHERENEB.

2. Royal Gift offered to Osiris resident in the West—great God—Lord of the East that he may give a good painted case (sarcophagus) in Nouteker (Divine Hades or Subterranean Region.)

3. Oh support Maut—mistress living Nutpe—great one rejoicing in Tetu (or Tattu or Tut) with thy mother, the Heaven over thee, by her name of Extender of the Heaven—that she may make thee to be with the God annihilating thy enemies in thy name of a God, directing or suffusing with other things all giving great in her name of water—great her name of thy mother .... over thee—in her name .... thee to be with the God annihilating thy enemies in thy name of a God; that she may suffuse, making .... HAR, son of UNNEFER truth speaking, born of Lady of the House making SAHENNEB.

There were also upon the cases the addresses to Amset, Kebhsnof, Simauf, and Hapee, the four Genii of the Amenti, who were figured on the case.

A part of the inscription above given, Mr. Pettigrew observes, seems carelessly and hurriedly written, and the end is a mere repetition of one of the previous clauses of the sentence. The formula. No. 3, is the same as that which occurs on the coffin of Mycerinus, from the third pyramid, on the side of a tomb of the epoch of Psammetik III. or Apries at Gizeh, and on a gilded mummy case in the possession of Mr. Joseph Sams. The mummy is probably not to be referred to an earlier period than the fifth or sixth century before the Christian era.


The reading of the following papers was postponed in the different sections for want of time.

1. On the Origin of the Celts, by Sir W. Betham.

2. On the Astronomical Chronology of Egypt, by Isaac Cullimore, Esq.

3. A Review of Roman Remains extant in the county of Kent, with Observations on recent Discoveries of Roman and Saxon Remains in various parts of the county, by C. Roach Smith, Esq.

4. On the Connection between the late Roman Architecture, and that previous to the twelfth century, by M. H. Bloxam, Esq.

5. On the Prospects and Anticipated Influence of the British Archæological Association, by W. Jerdan, Esq.

6, 7. On Automata, or Moving Images, and on the Magical Operation of Numbers, by the Rev. Henry Christmas.

Saturday, Sept. 14.

At the general meeting held at eleven o'clock, A.M., after the reports of the Sections had been read, the thanks of the meeting were voted to,—

1. "The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury," moved by Thomas Stapleton, Esq., F.S.A., seconded by Sir James Annesley, F.R.S., F.S.A.

2. "The Mayor and Corporation of Canterbury," moved by H. C. Robinson, Esq., F.S.A,, seconded by Charles König, Esq., K.H., F.R.S.

3. "The President," moved by the Dean of Hereford, F.R.S., F.S.A., seconded by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S. , F.S.A.

4. "The Treasurer," moved by the Very Rev. Archdeacon Burney, F.R.S., F.S.A., seconded by the Rev. Dr. Spry, F.S.A.

5. "The General Secretaries," moved by the Rev. J. B. Deane, F.S.A., seconded by T. C. Croker, Esq., F.S.A.

6. "The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, and Committees," moved by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., seconded by the Rev. J. J. Ellis, M.A., F.S.A.

7. "The Local Committee," moved by T. Wright, Esq., F.S.A., seconded by J. G. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A.

8. "The Rev. Dr. Faussett, for his great courtesy and kindness in receiving the members of the Association to inspect his most interesting collection of antiquities," moved by C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., seconded by J. O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.

9. "Alexander James Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P., for the noble example he has set in purchasing the remains of St. Augustine's Monastery for the purpose of preserving them from further desecration and repairing the original work," moved by the Rev. S. Isaacson, M.A., seconded by the Rev. Charles Hassells, M.A.

10. "The Authors of Papers and Exhibitors of Antiquities," moved by Dr. W. V. Pettigrew, seconded by Thomas Amyot, Esq., F.R.S., Treas. S.A.

The Treasurer announced the desire which had been expressed by many members of the Association, to contribute to a fund for the exploration of antiquities, for aiding the publication of important and expensive works on antiquarian subjects, and for the other general purposes of the Association; the following gentlemen have already forwarded their contributions for the same.

£. s. d. £. s. d.
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
21 0 0
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 5 0
  1. John Norris, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
20 0 0
  1. Matthew Bell, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 5 0
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10 10 0
  1. Sir John Swinburne, Bart.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 5 0
  1. Archdeacon Burney
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10 10 0
  1. Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 0 0
  1. Rev. Dr. Spry
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10 10 0
  1. Sir James Annesley
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5 0 0
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10 10 0
annual subscriptions.
  1. Francis Benthall, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 2 0
  1. Henry Phillips, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Rev. Wm. Thornton
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 2 0
  1. Charles F. Barnwell, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Joseph Arden, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 2 0
  1. Dr. John Lee
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Sir James Boileau, Bart.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 2 0
  1. Charles Newton, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Dr. Jephson
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2 2 0
  1. J. B. Bergne, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Edward Bridger, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Augustus O'Brien, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. William Chaffers, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Miss Anna Gurney
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Rev. A. W. Burnside
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. John Huxtable, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. T. W. King, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. S. S. Rogers, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Thomas Stapleton, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. James Dearden, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Count Mortara
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. John Bidwell, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Bolton Corney, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Rev. Henry Defoe Baker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. W. J. Booth, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. John Smith, Esq., L.L.D.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Ambrose Poynter, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. — Mac Lellan, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Rev. Neville White
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Charles J. Whatman, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. James Whatman, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. D. Price, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0
  1. Rev. J. Lee Warner
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 1 0
  1. Alfred White, Esq.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 0

After the general meeting on Saturday, a select party, including Archdeacon Burney, Dr. Spry, Mr. C. R. Smith, and Mr. Wright, paid a visit to the interesting church of Chartham, and were kindly and hospitably entertained by the Rev. H. R. Moody, vicar of Chartham.

  1. Mr. Hall, of Blandford, who was present at this discussion, observes that he has in numerous instances disinterred similar skeletons from the tops of barrows, under circumstances which decided their high antiquity.
  2. We have since been referred by Mr. Planché to the 64th plate of the 25th vol. of the Archæologia, in which will be found the engravings of two ancient steel-yard weights of precisely the same form and material (but possessing the upper portions by which they were hooked to the beam), and engraved with nearly the same arms, which were exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries of London, February 2nd, 1832, by Mr. Samuel Woodward, of Norwich. They are also of the thirteenth century, and the armorial bearings presumed to be those of the same Richard, king of the Romans.