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Index:Collected Physical Papers.djvu

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Collected Physical Papers.djvu

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Half-title Adv Title - Foreword -  i  ii  iii  iv  v  vi  vii  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  - 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404

 

CONTENTS

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Double refraction of visible light by crystals—Depolarisation—Apparatus for polarisation of the electric ray—Radiator emitting short electric waves—Parallel beam of electric radiation—Polariser and Analyser—The Spiral-Spring Receiver—Polarising crystals for the electric ray—Action of Tourmaline
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
1

(Asiatic Soc. Bengal—May 1895.)


Transparency to electric radiation of crystals opaque to light—Polariser, analyser and crystal holder—Dependence of sensitiveness of receiver on the applied E. M. F.—Polarising action of Serpentine, Satin Spar, Tourmaline and Nemalite—Selective transparency for polarised ray—Polarising action of vegetable fibres of Agave, Boehmeria nivea, Ananus sativus and Musa paradisiaca—The jute cell polariser and analyser
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
11

(The Electrician Dec. 1895.)


Effect due to unequal expansion—Effect due to compression—Polarisation produced by stratified rocks—Effects of rotation of plane of stratification through 360°
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
19

(The Electrician December 1895.)


Index of refraction for opaque substances—Unsuitability of the prism method—Advantages of the method of total reflection—Method of a single

semi-cylinder—Method of two semi-cylinders separated by parallel air-space—Method of repetition
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
21

(Proc. Roy. Soc. October 1895.)


Relation between dielectric constant and refractive index—Advantages of short electric waves in determination of the index—The Null Method—Determination of index by method of single semi-cylinder—Method of double semi-cylinder separated by parallel air-space—Refraction from glass into air—Refraction from air into glass—Index of refraction of glass for electric ray and for visible light
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
31

(Proc. Roy. Soc. November 1897.)


Factors in modification of minimum thickness of air-space for total reflection—Influence of the angle of incidence—The influence of wave length—Two right-angled prisms separated by air-space—Minimum thickness for total reflection—Effect of diminution of air-space on total reflection—Partial reflection and transmission complementary to each other—Effect of interposition of a retracting plate in air-space—Wave length of radiation and minimum thickness of totally reflecting air-space—Relation between reflected and transmitted components under diminution of thickness of air-space
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
42

(Proc. Roy. Soc. November 1897.)


Relation between critical angle and index of retraction—Determination of the index for liquids—The Refractometer—Successive total reflections during rotation of double semi-cylinders with interposed air-film—The method of repetition—Interference bands preceding total reflection—Index of refraction for distilled water—Variation of index with different strengths of solution—Effect of variation of temperature on the index—Determination of the indices for different rays and the dispersive power—Lecture demonstration
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
56

(Unpublished Paper. November 1895.)

Selective transparency for polarised electric ray—Double absorption exhibited by Nemalite, Chrysotile, Satin spar and Epidote—Relation between double absorption and double conductivity—Selective transparency exhibited by ordinary books—The book form of Polariser and Analyser
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
71

(Proc. Roy. Soc. January 1897.)


Production of mechanical waves—Oscillatory electric discharge—Failure of oscillatory discharge by disintegrating action of sparks remedied by platinum coating—Electric radiation from a single spark—Magnetic disturbance screened by soft-iron cover—Stray radiation and reflection from the body of the observer—Advantages of short electric waves—Spiral spring and single contact receivers—Enhancement of sensibility by adjustment of E. M. F.—Nickel, aluminium and magnesium receivers—Portable radiation apparatus—Selective absorption—Transparency of liquid air—Varification of the laws of reflection—Opacity due to multiple reflection and refraction—Total reflection by right-angled glass prism—Determination of index of refraction by method of total reflection—Double refraction of the electric ray by crystals belonging to Tetragonal, Orthorhombic, Hexagonal, Monoclinic and Triclinic systems—Double refraction by strained dielectric—Phenomenon of double absorption—Electric tourmalines—Anisotropic conductivity of polarising substances—'Bradshaw' as a polariser
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
77


The book form of Polariser and Analyser—No polarisation by a jute-bundle when its length is parallel to the electric ray—Rotation of plane of polarisation by twisted jute-bundle—Rotating elements, positive and negative—Electro-optic analogue of dextrose and levulose—Neutralisation by mixture of equal numbers of positive and negative elements
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
102


Production of dark cross by salicine interposed between crossed Nicols—Production of cross in the dark field of electric radiation by interposition of circular

structures—Action of paper disc—Ring systems in woody stems—Production of dark cross by wood and stalactite
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
111

(Proc. Roy. Soc. March, 1898.)


Response of Potassium receiver by increase of electric resistance followed by automatic recovery—Response of Sodium and Lithium—Response of metals of alkaline earth—Magnesium, Zinc, and Cadmium—Bismuth and Antimony—Iron and allied metals—Tin, Lead and Thallium—Molybdenum and Uranium—Metals of Platinum group—Copper, Gold and Silver—Untenability of the theory of coherence
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
116


Action of ether-waves in modification of molecular structure—Positive and negative responses exhibited by two different classes of substance—Non-discriminative mass action and discriminative molecular action—Change of sign of response under sub-minimal stimulation—Opposite responses under feeble and moderate stimulations in Arsenic and Osmium receivers—Molecular change induced by electric radiation—Allotropic modification under visible radiation—Allotropic changes attended by variation of electric conductivity—The radiation product—Two varieties of Silver—Electrical reversal—Radio-molecular oscillation—Positive and negative variation of conductivity in two different classes of fatigued substances—Restoration of original conductivity by heat and by mechanical vibration
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
127

(Proc. Roy. Soc. February, 1900.)


Conductivity variation induced by electric radiation—Modification of response by (a) previous history (b) by change of temperature and (c) by increased pressure of contact—Recording Apparatus for Conductivity and for Electromotive variation—Transition of a Molecular Receiver from Non-recovering to Self-recovering condition—Self-recovering and metrical receivers of positive and negative types—Phosphorescence and Thermo-luminescence—Maximum effect under continuous radiation—Relation between intensity of

radiation and induced conductivity variation—Fatigue and reversal in Ag and Fe3O4 receivers under continued radiation—Electromotive response of Mg receiver under electric radiation—Electromotive response of AgBr cell under light—Fatigue and reversal exhibited by AgBr cell under continued action of light
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
163


Conductivity variation under mechanical strain—Variation of resistance of surface contacts under electric radiation—Electromotive variation under photic and mechanical stimulation—The Strain Cell—Response to torsional stimulation—Self-recovery—Response independent of direction of torsion—Response to single stimulation—Increasing response under increasing amplitude of torsional vibration—Summated effect of stimuli—Opposite sign of response under subminimal stimulation—Reversal under continuous stimulation—Molecular response common to electric radiation, light and mechanical vibration—Stimulation by light balanced by mechanical stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
192

(Proc. Roy. Soc. June, 1901.)


Photographic effect essentially due to molecular action—Difficulty in detection of minute induced change—Primary and secondary reactions—Chemical and physical theories—Relapse of image due to self-recovery—Permanence of after-effect by overstrain—Curve of electromotive variation under light—Preliminary negative twitch preceding normal action—Recurrent reversals under mechanical stimulation—Photo-chemical induction—Effect of intermittent and of continuous light—Photographic effect modified by time-rate—Recurrent reversals under light—Pressure image and inductoscripts
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
208

(Proc. Roy. Soc. June, 1901.)


Conductivity variation under rapid electromotive variation due to electric radiation—The Conductivity Recorder—Characteristic curve of a single-point Iron Receiver—Effect of intensity of currents in modification of the characteristic curve—The time-lag—Characteristic curve of a mass of iron-filings—Curve of Cyclic Variation exhibiting hysteresis—Response of self-recovering receiver

to electric radiation—Characteristic cyclic curve of a self-recovering receiver—Curve showing variation of resistance with increasing E. M. F.—Characteristic cyclic curve of negative substance, potassium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
223

(Brit. Asso. Glasgow, 1901.)


Response of Fe3O4 receiver to a single stimulus—Superposition of stimuli—Effects of slow and rapid intermittence of stimulation—Opposite effects of feeble and strong stimulations—Effect of variation of temperature on response of inorganic receiver and of muscle—Effects of stimulants, depressants and poisons
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
253

(Congress of Science, Paris, 1900.)


Characteristics of response of a muscle—Mechanical Lever Recorder—Electric Response of living substances—Electric response of plants—Universal applicability of the test of electrical response—Inorganic response—Effect of superposition of stimuli—Fatigue of response in tin—Effect of stimulus of light on metals—An artificial retina—Binocular alternation of vision—Effects of stimulants and depressants on response of metals—Response of inorganic matter "killed" by poisons
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
259

(Friday Evening Discourse, Roy. Inst. 1901.)


Electromotive Wave concomitant with molecular disturbance—Method of Block—Recording apparatus—Experiments demonstrating balancing effect—Comparison of electric excitability of two points—The Electric Comparator—Response by method of relative depression or exaltation—Detection of traces of physico-chemical change—Interference effects—The cell form of apparatus—Response dependent on molecular condition—Effects of annealing and of previous vibration—Transformation of abnormal to normal response after continuous stimulation—Response under increased intensity of stimulus—Effect of sub-minimal stimulus—Maximum effect—Chemical excitants and depressants—Opposite effects of strong and feeble dose—Effect of "poisons" in abolition of response
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
277

(Proc. Roy. Soc. May 1902.)

The Response Recorder—Photographic Recorder—Graduation of intensity of stimulation—Stimulus of torsional vibration—The physiological character of response—Uniform responses—Fatigue—Increasing amplitude of response under increasing intensity of stimulus—Effect of superposition of stimuli—Abolition of response of plant scalded to death—Depression and abolition of response under anæsthetics and poisons
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
306

(Journal Linnean Society, 1902.)


Response by variation of electric resistance—The Quadrant Method—Response of leaf to light from a single spark—Effect of increasing intensity of light—Effects of stimulants and depressants—Parallelisms in different modes of response
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
317

(Life Movements in Plants, 1923.)


Electromotive response to the stimulus of light—Similar responses to mechanical and photic stimulation—The vegetable photo-electric cell—Normal negative response of the leaf to light—Positive response to light exhibited by too young and too old specimens—Effect of increasing duration of exposure—The D- and A-effects—Positive response of actively assimilating plants—Effect of continued action of light—Unmasking of A- and D-effects
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
323

(Life Movements in Plants, 1923.)


The Automatic Recorder of assimilation in plants—The Bubbler—Plant as a sensitive detector of variation of light—Hourly variation of assimilation—Effect of infinitesimal trace of chemical substances on assimilation—Efficiency of photosynthetic organ in storage of solar energy
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
331

(Physiology of Photosynthesis, 1925.)


Diurnal periodicity in movements of plants—Effects of variation of temperature and of light—The Selenium cell—The Radiograph—The Wheatstone

Bridge—Automatic keys—The Galvanograph—Radiograph of variation of intensity of light for 12 hours in winter—Record of diurnal variation of light and temperature in summer—Light noon and thermal noon
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
338

(Life Movements in Plants, 1923.)


Record by the Crescograph—Determination of the absolute rate of growth—Effect of chemical reagents—The Balanced Crescograph—Wireless stimulation and growth—Effects of feeble and of strong stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
347

(Proc. Roy. Soc. October 1917.)


Magnification of fifty million times by the Magnetic Crescograph—Demonstration of effects of variation of temperature and of chemical reagents on growth by the Magnetic Crescograph—The Magnetic Radiometer—Discrimination of radiation components in the solar spectrum in the morning and at midday—Comparison of energy of different rays in the solar spectrum
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
357

(Physiology of Photosynthesis 1925.)


Accurate record of extremely short intervals of time—Principle of resonance—Determination of the latent period—Measurement of velocity of transmission of excitation in Mimosa pudica—Effect of variation of temperature on the velocity—Nervous impulse in animal and plant—Contractility, Conductivity and Rhythmicity—The Resonant Cardiograph—Characteristic cardiograms of tortoise, frog and fish—Effects of depressant and stimulant on cardiac pulsation—Stimulation and depression of autonomous pulsations of Desmodium gyrans
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
364

(Phil. Trans. 1912; Irritability of Plants 1913.)


XXIX

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374