The City of the Saints

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THE CITY OF THE SAINTS,

AND

ACROSS THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS TO CALIFORNIA.

BY

RICHARD F. BURTON,

AUTHOR OF

"THE LAKE REGIONS or CENTRAL AFRICA," ETC.

With Illustrations.

NEW YORK:

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1862. MKMl THEOL. STACK

Clear your mind of cant." JOHNSON. 

" MONTESINOS America is in more danger from religious fanaticism. The government there not thinking it necessary to provide religious instruction for the people in any of the new states, the prev- alence of superstition, and that, perhaps, in some wild and terrible shape, may be looked for as one likely consequence of this great and portentous omission. An Old Man of the Mountain might find dupes and followers as readily as the All-friend Jemima ; and the next Aaron Burr who seeks to carve a kingdom for himself out of the overgrown territories of the Union, may discern that fanaticism is the most effective weapon with which ambition can arm itself; that the way for both is prepared by that immorality which the want of religion naturally and necessarily induces, and that camp -meetings may be very well directed to forward the designs of military prophets. Were there another Moham- med to arise, there ia no part of the world where he would find more scope or fairer opportunity than in that part of the Anglo-American Union into which the older states continually discharge the rest- less part of their population, leaving laws and Gospel to overtake it if they can, for in the march of This remarkable prophecy appeared from the pen of Robert Southey, the Poet- Laureate, in March, 1829 (" Sir Thomas More; or, Colloquies on the Progress and Prospects of Society," vol. i., Part II., u The Reformation Dissenters Methodists, Dedication.


TO

RICHARD MONCKTON MILNES.

I HAVE PREFIXED YOUR NAME, DEAR MILNES, TO "THE CITY OF THE SAINTS:

THE NAME OF A LINGUIST, TRAVELER, POET, AND, ABOVE ALL, A MAN

OF INTELLIGENT INSIGHT INTO THE THOUGHTS AND

FEELINGS OF HIS BROTHER MEN. Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/11 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/12 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/13 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/14 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/15 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/17 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/19 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/20 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/21 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/22 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/23 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/24 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/25 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/26 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/27 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/28 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/29 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/30 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/31 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/32 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/33 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/34 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/35 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/36 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/37 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/38 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/39 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/40 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/41 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/42 banished to the limbo of things that were, will be used as mounted " beef-eaters," only for show, demand a saddle with as little weight as is consistent with strength, and one equally easy to the horse and the rider. In no branch of improvement, except in hat-making for the army, has so little been done as in saddles. The English military or hunting implement still endures without other merit than facility to the beast, and, in the man's case, faculty of falling uninjured with his horse. Unless the rider be copper-lined and iron-limbed, it is little better in long marches than a rail for riding. As far as convenience is concerned, an Arab pad is preferable to Peat's best. But the Californian saddle can not supply the deficiency, as will, I think, appear in the course of description.

The native Indian saddle is probably the degenerate offspring of the European pack-saddle: two short forks, composing the pommel and cantle, are nailed or lashed to a pair of narrow sideboards, and the rude tree is kept in shape by a green skin or hide allowed to shrink on. It remarkably resembles the Abyssinian, the Somal, and the Circassian saddle, which, like the " dug-out" canoe, is probably the primitive form instinctively invented by mankind. It is the sire of the civilized saddle, which in these lands varies with every region. The Texan is known by its circular seat; a string passed round the tree forms a ring: provided with flaps after the European style, it is considered easy and comfortable. The Californian is rather oval than circular; borrowed and improved from the Mexican, it has spread from the Pacific to the Atlantic slope of the Rocky Mountains, and the hardy and experienced mountaineer prefers it to all others: it much resembles the Hungarian, and in some points recalls to mind the old French cavalry demipique. It is composed of a single tree of light strong wood, admitting. a freer circulation of air to the horse's spine an immense advantage and, being without iron, it can readily be taken to pieces, cleaned or mended, and refitted. The tree is strengthened by a covering of raw-hide carefully sewed on; it rests upon a " sweat-leather," a padded sheet covering the back, and it is finished off behind with an " anchero" of the same material protecting the loins. The pommel is high, like the crutch of a woman's saddle, rendering impossible, under pain of barking the knuckles, that rule of good riding which directs the cavalier to keep his hands low. It prevents the inexperienced horseman being thrown forward, and enables him to " hold on" when likely to be dismounted ; in the case of a good rider^its only use is to attach the lariat, riata, or lasso. The great merit of this "unicorn" saddle is its girthing : with the English system, the strain of a wild bull or of a mustang "bucker" would soon dislodge the riding gear. The "sincho" is an elastic horsehair cingle, five to six inches wide, connected with "lariat straps," strong thongs passing round the pommel and cantle; it is girthed well back Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/44 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/45 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/46 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/47 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/48 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/49 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/50 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/51 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/52 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/53 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/54 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/55 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/56 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/57 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/58 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/59 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/60 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/61 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/62 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/63 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/64 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/65 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/66 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/67 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/68 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/69 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/70 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/71 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/72 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/73 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/74 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/75 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/76 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/77 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/78 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/79 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/80 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/81 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/82 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/83 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/84 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/85 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/86 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/87 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/88 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/89 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/90 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/91 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/92 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/93 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/94 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/95 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/96 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/97 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/98 where all admixture of African blood is deemed impure, the aboriginal American entails no disgrace some of the noblest of the land are descended from "Indian princesses." The half-breed girls resemble their mothers in point of industry, and they barter their embroidered robes and moccasins, and mats and baskets, made of bark and bulrush, in exchange for blankets, calicoes, glass beads an indispensable article of dress mirrors, needles, rings, vermilion, and other luxuries. The children, with their large black eyes, wide mouths, and glittering teeth, flattened heads, and remarkable agility of motion, suggest the idea of little serpents.

The day had been fatiguing, and our eyes ached with the wind and dust. We lost no time in spreading on the floor the buffalo robes borrowed from the house, and in defying the smaller ten- ants of the ranch. Our host, M. Reynal, was a study, but we deferred the lesson till the next morning.

To Fort Laramie. llth August.

M. Reynal had been an Indian trader in his youth. Of this race there were in his day two varieties : the regular trader and the coureur des bois, or unlicensed peddler, who was subject to certain pains and penalties. The former had some regard for his future ; he had a permanent interest in the Indians, and looked to the horses, arms, and accoutrements of his proteges, so that hunting might not flag. The bois brule peddler, having like an English advertising firm no hope of dealing twice with the same person, got all he could for what he could. These men soon sapped the foundation of the Indian's discipline. One of them, for instance, would take protection with the chief, pay presents, and by increasing the wealth, enhance the importance of his protector. Another would place himself under the charge of some ambitious aspirant to power, who was thus raised to a position of direct rivalry. A split would ensue; the weaker would, secede with his family and friends, and declare independence ; a murder or two would be the result, and a blood-feud would be bequeathed from generation to generation. The licensed traders have ever strenuously opposed the introduction of alcohol, a keg of which will purchase from the Indian every thing that is his, his arms, lodge, horses, children, and wives. In olden times, however, the Maine Liquor Law was not, as now, in force through the territories. The coureur des bois, therefore, entered the country through various avenues, from the United States and from Mexico, without other stock in trade but some kegs of whisky, which he retailed at the modest price of $36 per gallon. He usually mixed one part of fire with five of pure water, and then sold a pint-canful for

a buffalo robe. " Indian liquor" became a proverbial term. According to some travelers, a barrel of " pure Cincinnati," even after running the gauntlet of railroad and lake travel, has afforded a Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/100 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/101 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/102 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/103 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/104 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/105 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/106 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/107 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/108 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/109 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/110 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/113 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/114 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/115 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/116 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/117 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/118 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/119 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/120 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/121 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/122 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/123 Page:The City of the Saints.djvu/124 Page:The 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APPENDICES.

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This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.