A History of Sanskrit Literature/Bibliographical notes

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A History of Sanskrit Literature by Arthur Anthony Macdonell
Bibliographical notes



On the history of Sanskrit studies see especially Benfey, Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft, Munich, 1869. A very valuable work for Sanskrit Bibliography is the annual Orientalische Bibliographie, Berlin (begun in 1888). Page 1: Some inaccurate information about the religious ideas of the Brahmans may be found in Purchas, His Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages, 2nd ed., London, 1614; and Lord, A Discoverie of the Sect of the Banians [Hindus], London, 1630. Abraham Roger, Open Deure, 1631 (contains trans. of two centuries of Bhartṛihari). Page 2, Dugald Stewart, Philosophy of the Human Mind, part 2, chap. i. sect. 6 (conjectures concerning the origin of Sanskrit). C. W. Wall, D.D., An Essay on the Nature, Age, and Origin of the Sanskrit Writing and Language, Dublin, 1838. Halhed, A Code of Gentoo [Hindu] Law, or Ordinations of the Pandits, from a Persian translation, made from the original written in the Shanscrit language, 1776. Page 4: F. Schlegel, Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Inder, Heidelberg, 1808. Bopp, Conjugationssystem, Frankfort, 1816. Colebrooke, On the Vedas, in Asiatic Researches, Calcutta, 1805. P. 5: Roth, Zur Literatur und Geschichte des Veda, Stuttgart, 1846. Böhtlingk and Roth's Sanskrit-German Dictionary, 7 vols., St. Petersburg, 1852-75. Bühler's Encyclopædia of Indo-Aryan Research, Strasburg (the parts, some German, some English, began to appear in 1896). Page 6: See especially Aufrecht's Catalogus Catalogorum (Leipsic, 1891; Supplement, 1896), which gives a list of Sanskrit MSS. in the alphabetical order of works and authors. Adalbert Kuhn, Herabkunft des Feuers, 1849; 2nd ed., Gütersloh, 1886. Page 11: A valuable book on Indian chronology (based on epigraphic and numismatic sources) is Duff's The Chronology of India, London, 1899. On the date of Buddha's death, cf. Oldenberg, Buddha, Berlin, 3rd ed., 1897. Page 13: Fa Hian, trans. by Legge, Oxford, 1886; Hiouen Thsang, trans. by Beal, Si-yu-ki, London, 1884; I Tsing, trans. by Takakusu, Oxford, 1896. Führer, Monograph on Buddha Sakyamuni's Birthplace, Arch. Surv. of India, vol. xxvi., Allahabad, 1897; Alberūnī's India, trans. into English by Sachau, London, 1885. Page 14: Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. i., 1877, vol. iii., 1888, Calcutta. Epigraphia Indica, Calcutta, from 1888.

Important Oriental journals are: Indian Antiquary, Bombay; Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Leipsic; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London (with a Bengal branch at Calcutta and another at Bombay); Journal Asiatique, Paris; Vienna Oriental Journal, Vienna; Journal of the American Oriental Society, New Haven, Conn. On the origin of Indian writing (pp. 14-20), see Bühler, Indische Palæographie, Strasburg, 1896, and On the Origin of the Indian Brāhma Alphabet, Strasburg, 1898. Page 18: The oldest known Sanskrit MSS., now in the Bodleian Library, has been reproduced in facsimile by Dr. R. Hoernle, The Bower Manuscript, Calcutta, 1897. The Pāli Kharoshṭhī MS. is a Prākrit recension of the Dhammapada, found near Khotan; see Senart, Journal Asiatique, 1898, pp. 193-304. Page 27: The account here given of the Prākrit dialects is based mainly on a monograph of Dr. G. A. Grierson (who is now engaged on a linguistic survey of India), The Geographical Distribution and Mutual Affinities of the Indo-Aryan Vernaculars. On Pāli literature, see Rhys Davids, Buddhism, its History and Literature, London, 1896. On Prākrit literature, see Grierson, The Mediæval Vernacular Literature of Hindustan, trans. of 7th Oriental Congress, Vienna, 1888, and The Modern Vernacular Literature of Hindustan, Calcutta, 1889.


On the text and metres of the Rigveda see especially Oldenberg, Die Hymnen des Ṛigveda, vol. i., Prolegomena, Berlin, 1888; on the accent, Wackernagel, Altindische Grammatik, vol. i. pp. 281-300 (full bibliography), Göttingen, 1896; on the Rigveda in general, Kaegi, The Rigveda, English translation by Arrowsmith, Boston, 1886. Editions: Saṃhitā text, ed. Max Müller, London, 1873; Pada text, 1877; Saṃhitā text (in Roman characters), ed. Aufrecht, Bonn, 1877 (2nd ed.); Saṃhitā and Pada text with Sāyaṇa's commentary, 2nd ed., 4 vols., by Max Müller, London, 1890-92. Selections in Lanman's Sanskrit Reader (full notes and vocabulary); Peterson's Hymns from the Rigveda (Bombay Sanskrit Series); A. Bergaigne and V. Henry's Manuel pour étudier le Sanskrit Védique, Paris, 1890; Windisch, Zwölf Hymnen des Rigveda, Leipzig, 1883; Hillebrandt, Vedachrestomathie, Berlin, 1885; Böhtlingk, Sanskrit-Chrestomathie, 3rd ed., Leipsic, 1897. Translations: R. H. T. Griffith, The Rigveda metrically translated into English, 2 vols., Benares, 1896-97; Max Müller, Vedic Hymns (to the Maruts, Rudra, Vāyu, Vāta: prose), in Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxxii., Oxford, 1891; Oldenberg, Vedic Hymns (to Agni in Books i.-v.: prose), ibid., vol. xlvi., 1897; A. Ludwig (German prose), 6 vols., Prag, 1876-88 (introduction, commentary, index). Lexicography: Grassmann, Wörterbuch zum Rigveda, Leipsic, 1873; the Vedic portion of Böhtlingk and Roth's Lexicon and of Böhtlingk's smaller St. Petersburg Dictionary (Leipsic, 1879-89); Monier-Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1899; Macdonell, Sanskrit-English Dictionary (for selected hymns), London, 1893. Grammar: Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 3rd ed., Leipzig, 1896; Wackernagel, op. cit., vol. i. (phonology); Delbrück, Altindische Syntax (vol. v. of Syntaktische Forschungen), Halle, 1888; Speijer, Vedische und Sanskrit Syntax in Bühler's Encyclopædia, Strasburg, 1896.


Consult especially Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, in Bühler's Encyclopædia, vol. iii. part 1 (complete bibliography), 1897; also Kaegi, op. cit.; Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, vol. v., 3rd ed., London, 1884; Barth, The Religions of India, English trans., London, 1882; Hopkins, The Religions of India, Boston, 1895; Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda, Berlin, 1894; Bergaigne, La Religion Védique, 3 vols., Paris, 1878-83; Pischel and Geldner, Vedische Studien, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1889-92; Deussen, Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. i. part 1: Philosophie des Veda, Leipsic, 1894. On method of interpretation (pp. 59-64), cf. Muir, The Interpretation of the Veda, in the Journal of the Roy. As. Soc., 1866. Page 68: On the modification of the threefold division of the universe among the Greeks, cf. Kaegi, op. cit., note 118. P. 128: On dice in India and the Vibhīdaka tree, cf. Roth in Gurupūjākaumudī, pp. 1-4, Leipsic, 1896.


Consult especially Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, Berlin, 1879. On the home of the Rigvedic Aryans (p. 145) cf. Hopkins, The Panjāb and the Rig-Veda, Journal of the Am. Or. Soc., 1898, p. 19 ff. On the Haṃsa (p. 150) cf. Lanman, The Milk-drinking Haṅsas of Sanskrit Poetry, ibid., p. 151 ff. On the Vedic tribes (pp. 153-157), cf. Excursus I. in Oldenberg's Buddha, Berlin, 1897. On the origin of the castes (p. 160) cf. Oldenberg, Journal of the Germ. Or. Soc., 1897, pp. 267-290; R. Fick, Die Sociale Gliederung im nordöstlichen Indien zu Buddha's Zeit, Kiel, 1897.


Sāmaveda: text with German trans. and glossary, ed. by Benfey, Leipsic, 1848; by Satyavrata Sāmaçramī, Calcutta, 1873 (Bibl. Ind.), trans. by Griffith, Benares, 1893. Yajurveda: 1. Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, ed. Weber, with the comm. of Mahīdhara, London, Berlin, 1852; trans. by Griffith, Benares, 1899; 2. Taittirīya Saṃhitā, ed. (in Roman characters) Weber, Berlin, 1871-72 (vols. xi.-xii. of Indische Studien); also edited with the comm. of Mādhava in the Bibl. Ind.; 3. Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ed. (with introduction) by L. v. Schroeder, Leipsic, 1881-86; 4. Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, ed. in preparation by the same scholar. Atharvaveda: text ed. Roth and Whitney, Berlin, 1856 (index verborum in the Journal of the Am. Or. Soc., vol. xii.); trans. into English verse by Griffith, 2 vols., Benares, 1897, and (with the omission of less important hymns) by Bloomfield into English prose, with copious notes, vol. xlii. of the Sacred Books of the East. Subject-matter: Bloomfield, The Atharvaveda in Bühler's Encyclopædia, Strasburg, 1899.


Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, ed. Aufrecht, Bonn, 1879 (best edition); ed. and trans. by Haug, 2 vols., Bombay, 1863; Kaushītaki or Çānkhāyana Brāhmaṇa, ed. Lindner, Jena, 1887; Aitareya Āraṇyaka, ed. R. Mitra, Calcutta, 1876 (Bibl. Ind.); Kaushītaki Āraṇyaka, unedited; Tāṇḍya Mahābrāhmaṇa or Panchaviṃça Brāhmaṇa, ed. A. Vedāntavāgīça, Calcutta, 1869-74 (Bibl. Ind.); Shaḍviṃça Brāhmaṇa, ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, 1881; ed. with trans. by Klemm, Gütersloh, 1894; Samavidhāna Brāhmaṇa, ed. Burnell, London, 1873, trans. by Konow, Halle, 1893; Vaṃça Brāhmaṇa, ed. Weber, Indische Studien, vol. iv. pp. 371 ff., and by Burnell, Mangalore, 1873. Burnell also edited the Devatādhyāya Br., 1873, the Ārsheya Br., 1876, Saṃhitā Upanishad Br., 1877; Mantra Br., ed. S. Sāmaçramī, Calc., 1890; Jaiminīya or Talavakāra Br., ed. in part by Burnell, 1878, and by Oertel, with trans. and notes, in the Journal of the Am. Or. Soc., vol. xvi. pp. 79-260; Taittirīya Br., ed. R. Mitra, 1855-70 (Bibl. Ind.), N. Godabole, Ānand. Ser., 1898; Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, ed. H. N. Apte, Ānand. Ser, Poona, 1898; Çatapatha Br., ed. Weber, Berlin, London, 1859; trans. by Eggeling in Sacred Books, 5 vols.; Gopatha Br., ed. R. Mitra and H. Vidyābhūshaṇa, 1872 (Bibl. Ind.), fully described in Bloomfield's Atharvaveda, pp. 101-124, in Bühler's Encyclopædia, 1899. The most important work on the Upanishads in general is Deussen, Die Philosophie der Upanishads, Leipsic, 1899; trans. of several Upanishads by Max Müller, Sacred Books, vols. i. and xv.; Deussen, Sechzig Upanishad's (trans. with valuable introductions), Leipsic, 1897; a very useful book is Jacob, A Concordance to the Principal Upanishads and Bhagavadgītā (Bombay Sanskrit Series), 1891. P. 226: Thirty-two Upanishads, ed. with comm. in Ānandāçrama Series, Poona, 1895; Aitareya Upanishad, ed. Roer, 1850 (Bibl. Ind.), also ed. in Ānandāçrama Series, 1889; Kaushītaki Brāhmaṇa Upanishad, ed. Cowell, Calc., 1861 (Bibl. Ind.); Chhāndogya Up., ed. with trans. by Böhtlingk, Leipsic, 1889; also in Ānand. Ser., 1890. P. 229: Kena or Talavakāra, ed. Roer, Calc., 1850; also in Ānand. Ser., 1889; Maitri Up., ed. Cowell, 1870 (Bibl. Ind.); Çvetāçvatara, ed. Roer, 1850, Ānand. Ser. 1890; Kāṭhaka Up., ed. Roer, 1850, ed. with comm. by Apte, Poona, 1889, by Jacob, 1891; Taittirīya Up., ed. Roer, 1850, Ānand. Ser., 1889; Bṛihadāraṇyaka Up., ed. and trans. by Böhtlingk, Leipzig, 1889, also ed. in Ānand. Ser., 1891; Īçā Up., ed. in Ānand. Ser., 1888; Muṇḍaka Up., ed. Roer, 1850, Apte, Ānand. Ser., 1889, Jacob, 1891; Praçna Up., Ānand. Ser., 1889, Jacob, 1891 ; Māṇḍūkya, Up., Ānand. Ser., 1890, Jacob, 1891; ed. with Eng. trans. and notes, Bombay, 1895; Mahānārāyaṇa Up., ed. by Jacob, with comm., Bombay Sansk. Ser., 1888; Nṛisiṃhatāpanīya Up., Ānand. Ser., 1895. P. 242: The parallelism of Çankara and Plato is rather overstated; for Plato, on the one hand, did not get rid of Duality, and, on the other, only said that Becoming is not true Being.


On the sūtras in general consult Hillebrandt, Ritual-Litteratur, in Bühler's Encyclopædia, 1897; Āçvalāyana Çrauta Sūtra, ed. R. Vidyāratna, Calc., 1864-74 (Bibl. Ind.); Çānkhāyana Çrauta, ed. Hillebrandt, 1885-99 (Bibl. Ind.); Lātyāyana Çrauta, ed. A. Vāgīça, Calc., 1870-72 (Bibl. Ind.); Maçaka and Drāhyāyaṇa Çrauta, unedited; Kātyāyana Çrauta, ed. Weber, London, Berlin, 1855; Āpastamba Çrauta, in part ed. by Hillebrandt, Calc., 1882-97 (Bibl. Ind.); Vaitāna Sūtra, ed. Garbe, London, 1878; trans. by Garbe, Strasburg, 1878. Āçvalāyana Gṛihya Sūtra, ed. with trans. by Stenzler, Leipsic, 1864-65; ed. with comm. and notes, Bombay, 1895; trans. in Sacred Books, vol. xxix.; Çānkhāyana Gṛihya, ed. and trans. into German by Oldenberg, Indische Studien, vol. xv.; Eng. trans. in Sacred Books, vol. xxix.; Gobhila Gṛihya, ed. with comm. by Ch. Tarkālaṃkāra, Calc., 1880 (Bibl. Ind.); ed. by Knauer, Dorpat, 1884; trans. by Knauer, Dorpat, 1887; trans. in Sacred Books, vol. xxx.; Pāraskara Gṛihya, ed. and trans. by Stenzler, Leipsic, 1876; trans. in Sacred Books, vol. xxix.; Āpastamba Gṛihya, ed. Winternitz, Vienna, 1887; trans. in Sacred Books, vol. xxx.; Hiraṇyakeçi Gṛihya, ed. Kirste, Vienna, 1889; trans. Sacred Books, vol. xxx.; Mantrapāṭha, ed. Winternitz, Oxford, 1897; Mānava Gṛihya, ed. Knauer, Leipsic, 1897; Kauçika Sūtra, ed. Bloomfield, New Haven, 1890; Pitṛimedha Sūtras of Baudhāyana, Hiraṇyakeçin, Gautama, ed. Caland, Leipsic, 1896. Āpastamba Dharma Sūtra, ed. Bühler, Bombay Sansk. Ser., two parts, 1892 and 1894; Baudhāyana Dh. S., ed. Hultzsch, Leipsic, 1884; Gautama Dharma Çāstra, ed. Stenzler, London, 1876; Vāsishṭha Dharma Çāstra, ed. Führer, Bombay, 1883; Hiraṇyakeçi Dharma Sūtra, unedited; Vaikhānasa Dharma Sūtra, described by Bloch, Vienna, 1896; Āpastamba, Gautama, Vasishṭha, Baudhāyana, trans. by Bühler, Sacred Books, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1897. Rigveda Prātiçākhya, ed. with German trans. by Max Müller, Leipsic, 1856-69; ed. with Uvaṭa's comm., Benares, 1894; Riktantravyākaraṇa (Sāma Pr.), ed., trans. Burnell, Mangalore, 1879; Taittirīya Prāt., ed. Whitney, Journ. of the Am. Or. Soc., vol. ix., 1871; Vājasaneyi Prāt., ed. with comm. of Uvaṭa, Benares Sansk. Series, 1888; Atharvaveda Prāt., ed. Whitney, Journal Am. Or. Soc., vols. vii. and x. The Çulva Sūtra of Baudhāyana, ed. and trans. by Thibaut, in the Pandit, vol. ix.; cf. his article on the Çulvasūtras in the Jour. of As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xliv., Calc. 1875. Six Vedāngas, Sanskrit text, Bombay, 1892; Yāska's Nirukta, ed. R. Roth, Göttingen, 1852; ed. with comm. by S. Sāmaçramī (Bibl. Ind.); Sarvānukramaṇī, ed. Macdonell, Oxford, 1886 (together with Anuvākānukramaṇī and Shaḍguruçishya's comm.); Ārshānukramaṇī, Chhandonukramaṇī, Bṛihaddevatā, ed. R. Mitra, 1892 (Bibl. Ind.); Pingala's Chhandaḥ Sūtra, ed. in Bibl. Ind., 1874; in Weber's Indische Studien, vol. viii. (which is important as treating of Sanskrit metres in general); Nidāna Sūtra, partly edited, ibid.; Sarvānukrama Sūtras of White Yajurveda, ed. by Weber in his ed. of that Veda; ed. with comm., Benares Sansk. Ser., 1893-94; Charaṇavyūha, ed. Weber, Ind. Stud., vol. iii. On Mādhava see Klemm in Gurupūjākaumudī, Leipsic, 1896.


On the Mahābhārata in general, consult especially Holtzmann, Das Mahābhārata, 4 vols., Kiel, 1892-95; Bühler, Indian Studies, No. II., Trans. of Imp. Vienna Academy, 1892; cf. also Jacobi in Göttinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, vol. viii. 659 ff.; Winternitz, Journal of the Roy. As. Soc., 1897, p. 713 ff.; Indian Antiquary, vol. xxvii. Editions: 5 vols., Bombay, 1888, Calc., 1894; trans. into Eng. prose at the expense of Pratāpa Chandra Rāy, Calc., 1896; literal trans. into Eng. by M. N. Dutt, 5 vols., Calc., 1896. Episode of Sāvitrī, ed. Kellner, with introd. and notes, Leipsic, 1888; Nala, text in Bühler's Third Book of Sanskrit, Bombay, 1877; text, notes, vocabulary, Kellner, 1885; text, trans., vocab., Monier-Williams, Oxford, 1876. On the Purāṇas in general, consult introd. of H. H. Wilson's trans. of the Vishṇu P., 5 vols., ed. Fitzedward Hall, 1864-70; Holtzmann, op. cit., vol. iv. pp. 29-58; Garuḍa P., ed. Bombay, 1888; ed. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1891; Agni, ed. R. Mitra, Bibl. Ind., 1870-79, J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1882; Vāyu, ed. R. Mitra, Bibl. Ind., 1888; Bombay, 1895; Matsya, Bombay, 1895; Kūrma, Bibl. Ind., 1890; Mārkaṇḍeya, ed. Bibl. Ind., 1855-62; trans. by Pargiter, Bibl. Ind., 1888-99, by C. C. Mukharji, Calc., 1894; Padma, ed. V. N. Mandlik, 4 vols., Ānand. Ser., 1894; Vishṇu, ed. with comm., Bombay, 1887; five parts, Calc., 1888; prose trans. by M. N. Dutt., Calc., 1894; Wilson, op. cit.; Bhāgavata, ed. with three comm., 3 vols., Bombay, 1887; 2 vols., Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1894; ed. and trans. by Burnouf, 4 vols., Paris, 1840-47, 1884; Brahma, ed. Ānand. Ser., 1895; Varāha, Bibl. Ind., 1887-93. On the Rāmāyaṇa in general, consult Jacobi, Das Rāmāyaṇa Bonn, 1893; also Journal of the Germ. Or Soc., vol. xlviii. p. 407 ff., vol. li. p. 605 ff.; Ludwig, Ueber das Rāmāyaṇa, Prag, 1894; Baumgartner, Das Rāmāyaṇa, Freiburg i B., 1894; Bombay recension, ed. Gorresio, Turin, 1843-67; with three comm., 3 vols., Bombay, 1895; Bengal recension, Calc., 1859-60; trans. by Griffith into Eng. verse, Benares, 1895; into Eng. prose, M. N. Dutt, Calc., 1894.


On the age of Kāvya poetry consult especially Bühler, Die indischen Inschriften und das Alter der indischen Kunstpoesie, in Trans. of the Imp. Vienna Academy, Vienna, 1890; Fleet, Corpus Inscr. Ind., vol. iii., Calcutta, 1888. On the Vikrama era see Kielhorn, Göttinger Nachrichten, 1891, pp. 179-182, and on the Mālava era, Ind. Ant., xix. p. 316; on the chronology of Kālidāsa, Huth, Die Zeit des Kālidāsa, Berlin, 1890. Buddhacharita, ed. Cowell, Oxford, 1893; trans. by Cowell, Sacred Books, vol. xlix. Raghuvaṃça, ed. Stenzler, with Latin trans., London, 1832; ed. with Mallinātha's comm., by S. P. Pandit, Bombay Sansk. Ser.; text with Eng. trans. by Jvālāprasād, Bombay, 1895; ed. K. P. Parab, with Mallinātha, Nirṇaya Sāgara Pr., Bombay, 1892; i.-vii., with Eng. trans., notes, comm. of Mallinātha, and extracts from comm. of Bhaṭṭa Hemādri, Charitravardhana, Vallabha, by G. R. Nangargika, Poona, 1896. Kumārasambhava, ed. with Latin trans. by Stenzler, London, 1838; cantos i.-vi., ed. with Eng. trans. and comm. of Mallinātha, by S. G. Despānde, Poona, 1887; second part, with full comm., ed. by J. Vīdyāsāgara, 4th ed., Calc., 1887; ed. with comm. of Mallinātha (i.-vii.) and of Sītārām (viii.-xvii.), 3rd ed., Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1893; ed. with three commentaries, Bombay, 1898; trans. by Griffith, London, 1879. Bhaṭṭikāvya, ed. Calc., 1628; cantos i.-v., with comm. of Jayamangala, English trans., notes, glossary, by M. R. Kale, Bombay, 1897; with comm. of Mallinātha and notes by K. P. Trivedi, Bombay Sansk. Ser., 2 vols., 1898; German trans. of xviii.-xxii., by Schütz, Bielefeld, 1837. Kirātārjunīya, ed. by J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1875; with Mallinātha's comm., Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1885; cantos i.-ii., trans. by Schütz, Bielefeld, 1843. Çiçupālavadha, ed. with Mallinātha's comm., by Vidyāsāgara, 1884; also at Benares, 1883; German trans. by Schütz, cantos i.-ix., Bielefeld, 1843. Naishadhīya-charita, ed. with comm. of Nārāyaṇa, by Pandit Sivadatta, Bombay, 1894. Nalodaya, ed. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1873; German trans. by Shack, in Stimmen vom Ganges; 2nd ed., 1877; Rāghavapāṇḍavīya, ed. with comm. in the Kāvyamālā, No. 62. Dhanaṃjaya's Rāghavapāṇḍavīya, quoted in Gaṇaratnamahodadhi, A.D. 1140, is an imitation of Kavirāja's work : cf. Zachariæ in Bühler's Encyclopædia, pp. 27-28. For a modern Sanskrit drama constructed on a similar principle see Scherman's Orientalische Bibliographie, vol. ix., 1896, p. 258, No. 4605. Haravijaya, ed. in Kāvyamālā, 1890; see Bühler, Detailed Report, p. 43, Bombay, 1877. Navasāhasānkacharita, ed. Bombay Sansk. Series, 1895; see Bühler and Zachariæ in Trans. of Vienna Acad., 1888. Setubandha (in the Mahārāshṭrī dialect), ed. with trans. by S. Goldschmidt, 1884; ed. in Kāvyamālā, No. 47, Bombay, 1895. Vāsavadattā, ed. with introd. by Fitzedward Hall, Bibl. Ind., 1859; ed. with comm. by J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1874. Kādambarī, ed. P. Peterson, Bomb. Sansk. Ser., 1889; ed. with comm. in Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1896; with comm. and notes by M. R. Kale, Poona, 1896; trans., with occasional omissions, by C. M. Ridding, Royal As. Soc., London, 1896. Harshacharita, ed. by J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1883; ed. with comm., Jammu, 1879; Bombay, 1892; trans. by Cowell and Thomas, Roy. As. Soc. London, 1897. Daçakumāracharita, Part i., ed. Bühler, Bomb. Sansk. Ser., 2nd ed., 1888; Part ii., P. Peterson, ibid., 1891; ed. P. Banerji, Calc., 1888.


Meghadūta, ed. with vocab. by Stenzler, Breslau, 1874; with comm. of Mallinātha, Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1894; ed. by K. B. Pathak, Poona, 1894. Eng. verse trans. by Wilson, 3rd ed., London, 1867; by T. Clark, London, 1882; into German by Max Müller, Königsberg, 1847, by Schütz, Bielefield, 1859, Fritze, Chemnitz, 1879. Ritusaṃhāra, ed. with Latin and German trans. by P. v. Bohlen, Leipsic, 1840; with notes and Eng. trans. by Sītārām Āyyar, Bombay, 1897. Ghaṭakarpara, ed. Brockhaus, 1841, trans. into German by Höfer (in Indische Gedichte, vol. ii.). Chaurapanchāçikā, ed. and trans. into German by Solf, Kiel, 1886; trans. by Edwin Arnold, London, 1896. Bhartṛihari's Centuries, ed. with comm., Bombay, 1884, trans. into Eng. verse by Tawney, Calc., 1877; Çṛingāra-çataka, ed. Calc. 1888. Çṛingāratilaka, ed. Gildemeister, Bonn, 1841. Amaruçataka, ed. R. Simon, Kiel, 1893. Saptaçataka of Hāla, ed. with prose German trans. by Weber, Leipsic, 1881 (in Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. viii., No. 4). Mayūra's Sūryaçataka, or Hundred Stanzas in praise of the Sun, ed. in Kāvyamālā, 1889. Gītagovinda, ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1882; Bombay, Nir. Sāg. Pr., 1899; trans. into German by Rückert, vol. i. of Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Leipsic.


On the Sanskrit drama in general, consult especially H. H. Wilson, Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus, 2 vols., 3rd ed., London, 1871; Sylvain Lévi, Le Théâtre Indien, Paris, 1890. Çakuntalā, Bengal recension, ed. by Pischel, Kiel, 1877; Devanāgarī, recension, Monier-Williams, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1876; M. R. Kale, Bombay, 1898; trans. by Monier-Williams, 6th ed., London, 1894; into German by Rückert, Leipsic, 1876; Fritze, 1876; Lobedanz, 7th ed., Leipsic, 1884; there are also a South Indian and a Kashmir recension (cf. Bühler, Report, p. lxxxv). Vikramorvaçī, ed. S. P. Pandit, Bombay, 1879; Vaidya, 1895; South Indian recension, ed. Pischel, 1875; trans. Wilson, op. cit.; Cowell, Hertford, 1851; Fritze, Leipsic, 1880. Mālavikāgnimitra, ed. Bollensen, Leipsic, 1879; S. P. Pandit, Bombay, 1869, S. S. Āyyar, Poona, 1896; trans. by Tawney, 2nd ed., Calc., 1891; into German by Weber, Berlin, 1856; Fritze, Leipsic, 1881. Mṛicchakaṭikā, ed. Stenzler, Bonn, 1847; J. Vidyāsāgara, 2nd ed., Calc., 1891; trans. by Wilson, op. cit.; into German by Böhtlingk, St. Petersburg, 1877; by Fritze, Chemnitz, 1879. Ratnāvalī, ed. Cappeller, in Böhtlingk's Sanskrit-Chrestomathie, 1897; with comm. Nir. Sāg. Pr., Bombay, 1895; trans. by Wilson, op. cit.; into German by Fritze, Chemnitz, 1878. Nāgānanda, ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1873; ed. Poona, 1893; trans. by Palmer Boyd, with preface by Cowell, London, 1872. Bāṇa's Pārvatīpariṇaya, ed. with trans. by T. R. R. Aiyar, Kumbakonam, 1898; Germ. by Glaser, Trieste, 1886. Mālatīmādhava, ed. R. G. Bhandarkar, Bombay, 1876; trans. by Wilson, op. cit.; by Fritze, Leipsic, 1884. Mahāvīracharita, ed. Trithen, London, 1848; K. P. Parab, Bombay, 1892; trans. by J. Pickford, London, 1871. Uttararāmacharita, ed. with comm. and trans., Nagpur, 1895; ed. with comm. by Aiyar and Parab, Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, 1899; trans. by Wilson, op. cit. Mudrārākshasa, ed. Telang, Bombay, 1893; trans. by Wilson, op. cit.; into German by Fritze, Leipsic, 1887. Veṇīsaṃhāra, ed. K. P. Parab, Nirṇaya Sāgara Press, Bombay, 1898; N. B. Godabale, Poona, 1895; Grill, Leipsic, 1871; trans. into English by S. M. Tagore, Calc., 1880. Viddhaçālabhanjika, ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc, 1883. Karpūramanjarī, ed. in vol. vii. of The Pandit, Benares. Bālarāmāyaṇa, ed. Govinda Deva Çastri, Benares, 1869; J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1884. Prachaṇḍapāṇḍava, ed. Cappeller, Strasburg, 1885. (On Rājaçekhara, cf. Kielhorn, Epigr. Ind., part iv. 1889; Fleet in Ind. Antiq., vol. xvi. pp. 175-178; Jacobi in Vienna Or. Journal, vol. ii. pp. 212-216). Chaṇḍakauçika, ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, Calcutta, 1884; trans. by Fritze (Kauçika's Zorn). Prabodhachandrodaya, ed. Nir. Sāg. Pr., Bombay, 1898; trans. into German by Goldstücker, with preface by Rosenkranz, Königsberg, 1842; also trans. by Hirzel, Zürich, 1846; Taylor, Bombay, 1886.

Panchatantra, ed. Kosegarten, Bonn, 1848; by Kielhorn and Bühler in Bomb. Sansk. Ser.; these two editions represent two considerably divergent recensions; trans. with very valuable introd. by Benfey, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1859; English trans., Trichinopoli, 1887; German by Fritze, Leipsic, 1884. The abstract of the Panchatantra in Kshemendra's Bṛihatkathāmanjarī, introd., text, trans., notes, by Mankowski, Leipsic, 1892. Hitopadeça, ed. F. Johnson, London, 1884; P. Peterson in Bomb. Sansk. Ser. Kāmandakīya Nītisāra, ed. with trans. and notes, Madras, 1895; text ed. by R. Mitra, Bibl. Ind. Calc., 1884. Çivadāsa's Vetālapanchiviṃçatikā, ed. H. Uhle (in Abhandlungen der deutschen morgenl. Gesell. vol. viii., No. 1), Leipsic, 1881. Sir R. F. Burton, Vikram and the Vampire, new ed., London, 1893. Siṃhāsana-dvātriṃçikā, ed. (Dwatringshat puttalika), J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1881. Çukasaptati, ed. R. Schmidt, Leipsic, 1893 (Abh. f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes), Munich, 1898; trans., Kiel, 1894; Stuttgart, 1898. Kathāsaritsāgara, ed. trans. by Brockhaus, Leipsic (Books i.-v.) 1839, (vi.-xviii.) 1862-66; ed. Bomb., 1889; trans. by Tawney in Bibl. Ind., 1880-87. Bṛihatkathāmanjarī, chaps. i.-viii., ed. and trans. by Sylvain Lévi in Journal Asiatique, 1886. Jātaka-mālā, ed. Kern, Boston, 1891; trans. by Speijer in Sacred Books of the Buddhists, vol. i., London, 1895. Kathākoça, trans. by C. H. Tawney from Sanskrit MSS., Royal As. Soc., London, 1895. Pāli Jātakas, ed. by Fausböll, London, (completed) 1897; three vols. of trans. under supervision of Cowell have appeared, I. by Chalmers, Cambridge, 1895; II. by Rouse, 1895; III. by Francis and Neil, 1897. Warren, Buddhism in Translations, Harvard, 1896. Bhartṛihari's Nīti and Vairāgya Çatakas, ed. and trans., Bombay, 1898 (on Bhartṛihari and Kumārila see Pathak in Journ. of Bombay Branch of Roy. As. Soc., xviii. pp. 213-238). Mohamudgara, trans. by U. K. Banerjï, Bhawānipur, Bengal, 1892. Chāṇakya Çatakas, ed. Klatt, 1873. On the Nītimanjarī cf. Kielhorn, Göttinger Nachrichten, 1891, pp. 182-186; A. B. Keith, Journ. Roy. As. Soc. 1900. Çārngadharapaddhati, ed. Peterson, Bombay, 1888. Subhāshitāvalī, ed. Peterson and Durgaprasāda, Bombay, 1886. Böhtlingk's Indische Sprüche, 2nd edition, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1870-73; index by Blau, Leipsic, 1893. Dhammapada, trans. by Max Müller in Sacred Books of the East, vol. x., 2nd revised edition, Oxford, 1898.

On Indian philosophy in general see Garbe's useful little book, Philosophy of Ancient India, Chicago, 1897; F. Max Müller, Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, London, 1899. Garbe, Sānkhya Philosophie, Leipsic, 1894; Sānkhya und Yoga in Bühler's Encyclopædia, Strasburg, 1896 (complete bibliography); Sānkhyakārikā, text with comm. of Gauḍapāda, ed. and trans. by Colebrooke and Wilson, Oxford, 1837, reprinted Bombay, 1887; ed. in Benares Sansk. Ser., 1883; trans. Ballantyne (Bibl. Ind.); Sānkhyapravachana-bhāshya, ed. by Garbe, Harvard, 1895, trans. into German, Leipsic, 1889; Aniruddha's comm. on Sānkhya Sūtras, trans. by Garbe, Bibl. Ind., Calc., 1888-92; Sānkhya-tattva-kaumudī, ed. with Eng. trans., Bombay, 1896, trans. by Garbe, Munich, 1892; Çankara's Rājayogabhāshya, trans. Madras, 1896; Svātmārāma's Haṭhayogapradīpa, trans. by Walther, Munich, 1893; Haṭhayoga Gheranda Sanhita, trans. Bombay, 1895. On fragments of Panchaçikha cf. Garbe in Festgruss an Roth, p. 74 ff., Stuttgart, 1893; Jacobi on Sānkhya-Yoga as foundation of Buddhism, Journ. of Germ. Or. Soc., 1898, pp. 1-15; Oldenberg, Buddha, 3rd ed. Mīmāṃsā-darçana, ed. with comm. of Çabara Svāmin (Bibl. Ind.), Calc., 1887; Tantravārttika, ed. Benares, 1890; Çlokavārttika, fasc. i., ii., ed. with comm., Benares, 1898; Jaiminīya-nyāya-mālāvistara, ed. in Ānand. Ser. 1892. Arthasaṃgraha, as introd. to Mīmāṃsā, ed. and trans. by Thibaut, Benares, 1882. Most important book on Vedānta: Deussen, System des Vedānta, Leipsic, 1883; Deussen, Die Sūtra's des Vedānta, text with trans. of Sūtras and complete comm. of Çankara, Leipsic, 1887. Brahma Sūtras, with Çankara's comm., ed. in Ānand. Ser., 1890-91; Vedānta Sūtras, trans. by Thibaut in Sacred Books, vol. xxxiv., Oxford, 1890, and xxxviii., 1896. Panchadaçī, ed. with Eng. trans., Bombay, 1895. On date of Çankara cf. Fleet in Ind. Ant., xvi. 41-42. Vedānta-siddhānta-muktāvalī, ed. with Eng. trans. by Venis, Benares, 1890. Vedāntasāra, ed. Jacob, with comm. and notes, Bombay, 1894, trans. 3rd ed., London, 1892. Bhagavadgītā with Çankara's comm., Ānand. Ser., 1897, trans. in Sacred Books, vol. viii., 2nd ed., Oxford, 1898; by Davies, 3rd ed., 1894. Nyāya Sūtras in Vizianagram Sansk. Ser., vol. ix., Benares, 1896. Nyāyakandalī of Çrīdhara, ibid., vol. iv., 1895. Nyāyakusumānjali (Bibl. Ind.), Calc., 1895. Vaiçeshika-darçana, ed. with comm., Calc., 1887. Saptapadārthī, ed. with comm., Benares, 1893; text with Latin trans. by Winter, Leipsic, 1893. Tarkasaṃgraha, ed. J. Vidyāsāgara, Calc., 1897; ed. with comm., Bombay Sansk. Ser., 1897; text and trans. by Ballantyne, Allahabad, 1850. Sarvadarçana-saṃgraha, ed. by T. Tarkavāchaspati, Calc., 1872; trans. by Cowell and Gough, 2nd ed., London, 1894.


M'Crindle, Ancient India as Described by Classical Authors, 5 vols., especially vol. v., Invasion of India by Alexander, London, 1896. Weber, Die Griechen in Indien, in Transactions (Sitzungsberichte) of the Roy. Prussian Acad., Berlin, 1890. Sylvain Lévi, Quid de Græcis veterum Indorum monumenta tradiderint, Paris, 1890; also La Grèce et l' Inde (in Revue des Etudes Grecques), Paris, 1891. Goblet d'Alviella, Ce que l'Inde doit à la Grèce, Paris, 1897; also Les Grecs dans l' Inde, and Des Influences Classiques dans la Culture Scientifique et Littéraire de l'Inde, in vols, xxxiii., xxxiv. (1897) of Bulletin de l' Académie Royale de Belgique. L. de la Vallée Poussin, La Grèce et l'Inde, in Musée Belge, vol. ii. pp. 126-152. Vincent A. Smith, Græco-Roman Influence on the Civilisation of Ancient India in Journal of As. Soc. of Bengal, 1889-92. O. Franke, Beziehungen der Inder zum Westen, Journ. of Germ. Or. Soc., 1893, pp. 595-609. M. A. Stein in Indian Antiquary, vol. xvii. p. 89. On foreign elements in Indian art see Cunningham, Archæological Survey of India, vol. v. pp. 185 ff.; Grünwedel, Buddhistische Kunst, Berlin, 1893; E. Curtius, Griechische Kunst in Indien, pp. 235-243 in vol. ii. of Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1894; W. Simpson, The Classical Influence in the Architecture of the Indus Region and Afghanistan, in the Journal of the Royal Institution of British Architects, vol. i. (1894), pp. 93-115. P. 413: On the Çakas and Kushanas, see Rapson, Indian Coins, pp. 7 and 16, in Bühler's Encyclopædia, Strasburg, 1898. On the relation of Indian to Greek fables, cf. Weber in Indische Studien, vol. iii. p. 327 ff. Through the medium of Indian fables and fairy tales, which were so popular in the Middle Ages, the magic mirror and ointment, the seven-league boots, the invisible cap, and the purse of Fortunatus (cf. Burnell, Sāmavidhana Brāhmaṇa, preface, p. xxxv), found their way into Western literature. For possible Greek influence on Indian drama, cf. Windisch, in Trans. of the Fifth Oriental Congress, part ii., Berlin, 1882. On chess in Sanskrit literature, cf. Macdonell, Origin and Early History of Chess, in Journ. Roy. As. Soc., 1898. On Indian influence on Greek philosophy, cf. Garbe in Sānkhya und Yoga, p. 4. L. von Schroeder, Buddhismus und Christenthum, Reval, 2nd ed., 1898. P. 422-23: It seems quite possible to account for the ideas of the Neo-Platonists from purely Hellenic sources, without assuming Indian influence. On the relation of Çakuntalā to Schiller (Alpenjäger) and Goethe (Faust), cf. Sauer, in Korrespondenzblatt für die Gelehrten und Realschulen Württembergs, vol. xl. pp. 297-304; W. von Biedermann, Goetheforschungen, Frankfurt a/M., 1879, pp. 54 ff. (Çakuntalā and Faust). On Sanskrit literature and modern poets (Heine, Matthew Arnold), cf. Max Müller, Coincidences, in the Fortnightly Review, New Series, vol. lxiv. (July 1898), pp. 157-162.