Index:Face to Face With the Mexicans.djvu
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A NEW HOME AND NEW FRIENDS.
Tradition and founding of Saltillo—Origin and derivation of the name—Opinions vary—Coahuila—Origin of the name—Saltillo, the seat of important industries—Making a new home—Beautiful scenery—Calle Real, the historic seat—Architecture—Home in an old Mexican mansion—Doors, roof, windows, floors, keys—Adobe roofs—Water spouts—Relics of Mexican grandeur—Absence of modern conveniences—Fears of ghosts and hobgoblins—A nocturnal adventure—Interesting discoveries—Visit from a Mexican youth—Scenes from my window
IN MOTHER NOAH'S SHOES.
Primitive housekeeping—The indispensable mozo—Extraordinary culinary arrangements—The metate or mill—Pancho's wit and intelligence—Daily revelations. Wrestling with a foreign tongue—Primitive practices—Going to market—Mexican articles of food—Street scenes—A familiar face in a strange land—The burros—Retail venders—A cooking-stove—The disgust of the natives—The stove's oration.
NO ES COSTUMBRE.
The lack of a broom—A friend in need—The escobero, broom-vender—House-cleaning—Astonishing the natives—Pancho's amiability gives out—He leaves me for his "sick grandmother"'—Pancho's successors—Courteous insubordination—Greek meets Greek—Pancho's successors depart—Peculiar names and characteristics of servants—"Little John"—Wifely devotion—Marital tyranny—An undressed fowl—Knotty points
THE LOAN OF A MOZO AND A TRIP TO PALOMAS.
Successive departures of successive mozos—Cosme, our borrowed mozo—We set out for Palomas—Cosme in the van—His John Gilpin ride Palomas—A typical Mexican home—A surgical operation—Inquisitive hospitality—Inherent courtesy—A Mexican dinner—Embroidery and fancy work—The "Pass of the Doves"—Our ride home—Poor Cosme!—He takes a mournful departure—His pious adios
FROM BORDER TO CAPITAL ALONG THE MEXICAN CENTRAL.
The Mexican "All aboard!"—El Paso and Paso del Norte—Chihuahua—Santa Rosalia, its manners and customs—Dr. Tarver and family—Strange notices in a meson—Stations and scenery along the road—Zacatecas—Mines and mining—Aguas Calientes—Historic associations—National Palace—Public bathing of the common people—Bridge at Encarnacion—Queretaro—Maximilian's monument—Other towns along the road—Memorial crosses and stone-heaps—Nochistongo Pass—Arrival at Mexico City—Hotel San Carlos—The all-important camarista
TENOCHTITLAN—THE AZTEC CAPITAL.
The founding of the city—Invasion by the Spaniards—The three great causeways—The Spaniards' defeat—"Noche triste"—Atzcapotzalco—Mexico City—The Zocalo—Street—"Street of the Sad Indian"—Street cars—Pulque shops—Inundations and earthquakes—The Rome of America—Churches—Monuments—Industrial art and public schools—Public gardens—Markets—Charitable institutions—Pawn-shops—Theaters—Dry-goods stores—House-renting—Mexican flora—Art gallery and museum—The Viga Canal—Chapultepec—Climate—The Alameda—Funerals—Valley of Mexico—Popocatapetl—Iztaccihuatl
THE MEXICANS IN THEIR HOMES.
Characteristics—Sincerity and faithfulness in friendship—Hospitality—How to meet them—Manners and customs—Middle class—Forms of greeting—Etiquette—Gesticulations—Family ties—Their charity and benevolence—Religion—Hospitality—Household rrangements—The Palacio mansion—Music—Poetry—Manners ofspeech—Courtesy—Pollas and pollitas—Gallos and gallinos—Domestic tastes of the women—Their beauty, their education and accomplishments—The children—Their beauty and precocity—Little Alfonso—Boys and girls—Home discipline—Courtesy to elders.—The dear babies...198
FASTS AND FESTIVALS AND SOCIAL FORMS.
Harmony of the subjects—Change from Paganism to Christianity—Power of the Roman Catholic Church—Rupture of Church and State—All Saints' Day—All Souls' Day—Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe—Weird sights and sounds—Celebration of a dia de santa—Celebrations at Morelia and Queretaro—Christmas—Posadas—Piñates—Festivities—La China Poblana—Pastorela in the rural districts—Feasts of the Epiphany, Candlemas, etc.—Carnival—Lent—Palm Sunday—Holy Week—Good Friday—Sabado de Gloria (Saturday of Glory)—Floral festival—Feast of St. John the Baptist—Funeral notices—Wearing of mourning—National feasts—Courtship and marriages—Cards: wedding, birth, and baptismal—Social ceremonies—Dress—The gorgeous hacendado—Gallantries—The danza— Outdoor amusements—Chapultepec military academy.
FROM MEXICO TO MORELIA ALONG THE MEXICAN NATIONAL.
A delightful journey—Charming views—Toluca—Institute Literario—Public school—Hacienda de la Huerta—Distinguished hospitalities—Touching street scenes—From Toluca to Morelia—Tepeji del Rio—Reminders of Ocampo's tragic death—Hotel de Michoacan—Characteristic hotel regulations—Rambles among the convents—A startling apparition—A unique bachelor establishment—Climate—Minerals—Fruits—Scenery—Peculiar lacquer ware—College of San Nicolas—Prisons and penitentiaries—Architecture—Visit to the Legislature—Morelian hospitality—Tribute from Mary Halleck Foote—Adios to Morelia.
ACTORS AND EVENTS IN MEXICAN HISTORY.
Mexico's struggles for independence—Hidalgo, the Washington of Mexico—Midnight scene and grito of Dolores—Stirring events and closing scenes in the life of the patriot—His execution—Morelos, the successor of Hidalgo—Joined by Matamoras—Siege of Cuantla—Defeat and execution—His house in Morelia—The Emperor Augustin de Iturbide—The mysterious portrait—Iturbide's brilliant record—Honorsshown him—Abdication and exile—Return and capture—Execution—The grandson of the Emperor adopted by Maxmilian and Carlotta—The mother regains possession of her son—Madame Iturbide—Vicente Guerrero—Guerrilla warfare—Capture and execution—The Bravos, father and son—Magnanimous conduct of Nicolas Bravo—Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico—General Santa Anna—His wonderful career—Exile, return and death—Promulgation of the Federal Chart—Benito Juarez, the Indian President—Tomb of Juarez—His glorious career—Don Melchor Ocampo—His tragic end—Distinguished patriots—Bancroft's criticisms on the American war—Helen Hunt Jackson—Intermarriages of Americans and Mexicans—Causes of the Mexican war—Congress—Madam Diaz and Mrs. Cleveland—General Diaz—Sketch of his life and adventures....315
A GLANCE AT MEXICAN LITERATURE.
Primitive literature—The twelve Franciscan friars, the pioneers of Mexican literature—Toribio Benavente—Bernardino de Sahagún—Las Casas and other early writers—Literary Association—General Palacio as a writer—Literary entertainment at his mansion—Altamirano—Guillermo Prieto—Juan de Dios Peza, the "Mexican Longfellow"—Francisco Sosa—Members of the literati—Mexican journalism—The Liceo Morelos—Mexican Press Association—Women writers—"Maraposa Indiana"—A pleasing token.
MORE ABOUT THE COMMON PEOPLE.
"The Silent Aztec Child of the Sun"—Poetical contribution by Joaquin Miller—Contrast between the Mexican and American Indian—Ingenuity of the former—Contentment of the laboring class—Clothing—Fine needlework—Advancement in education—Types—Courtesy among the poor—Their love of music—The lepero—The China Poblana—Making a portrait under difficulties—Social life and courtship—Marriage ceremonies—Bridal costumes—Street conversation—Mexican mole—Servant—Their devotion to their employers—Wages—Novel methods of keeping accounts Hospitality among the poor—Sewing-machines—Babies—Beauty of the juveniles—The evangelista (letter writer)—Annoying peddlers—An ingenious trick—Various avocations—Characteristic conversation—The lavanderas—The aguador, or water-carrier—Ancient superstitious beliefs—Modern superstitions—The tamalera—The curandera, or doctor—"I became a doctor by my natural intelligence"—Pharmacy extraordinary
PUEBLA, CHOLULA, SAN MIGUEL SESMA AND ORIZABA ALONG THE MEXICAN RAILWAY.
Starting for Puebla—San Juan Teotihuacan, the Mexican Pompeii—Arrival at the Casa de las Diligencias—The imperturbable camarista—Puebla—Public buildings—Maternity hospital—Manufactories—"City of the Angels"—Cathedral—Market scenes—Picturesque costumes—Importance and resources of the State of Puebla—Pyramid of Cholula—Pyramids of Xochicalco and Papantla—Beautiful scenery—Incidental kindnesses—Visit to Madam Iturbide's hacienda—Morning song of the peons—A model plantation—Ancient aqueduct—On the road—Places of interest—Storm at Orizaba.
THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE.
The tradition—Universal and firm belief in it—How the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego—Her command to build a chapel—Miraculous signs and visions—Building of the Church
AMONG THE CHILDREN.
The story of Gaitagileno—Lullabies, rhymes and nursery tales—Conundrums and games—"El pato"
SCENES FROM MY WINDOW.
Picturesque pedestrians—The gorgeous serape—Novel method of taking home the wash—Venders of various articles—Entertaining panorama—Teatro Principal—Military review—An amusing diversion—A runaway—A perplexed butter-boy—Gritos—The tamalera—Touching incident—Song of the "costumbres"—Newsboys' cries
WHAT THEY EAT AND HOW THEY COOK IT.
Skill of the ancient Aztecs in the culinary art—Primitive kitchens—A unique water filter—Ceremonious table observances—Delicious beverages—Recipes for toothsome dishes
THE AMERICAN COLONY.
"Mother of the American Colony"—Our little band in the sister republic—The American Benevolent Society—Hospital—Protestant churches—Bishop Riley—His labors and sacrifices—Celebration of Christmas among the Americans—Agreeable impressions left by our official representatives—General Henry R. Jackson—Simon Lara, founder of the American Hospital—Laying of the corner-stone—Eloquent speech by Gen. Jackson—Token of esteem to the General from the colony—His departure from Mexico and his farewell speech.
A FEW OF THE POPULAR SONGS AND DANCES OF THE PEOPLE.
The National Anthem—The Danza known as Las Tres Gracias (Three Graces): 1. Aglas; 2. Talia; 3. Eufrasina—La Golondrina, the Mexican "Home, Sweet Home"—Los Naranjos ó Adela—I Ay Que Niquel!—La Paloma.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.
Mutual dependence of the two republics—Causes of misunderstandings—Yankee haste versus Mexican slowness—Steps towards a better understanding—Mexico's wonderful resources—Tact of foreigners in business dealings—John Bull conforming to the "costumbres"—Success in retail trade—Extremes of wealth and poverty—Irrigation—Haciendas—Employees' accounts—Peons—Their intense conservatism—Work retarded by holidays—Mr. Guernsey on foreign labor—Taxes on produce—American miners—Variety of delicious fruits—The maguey plant—Manufacture of pulque, etc.—Tanneries—Shoes—Cattle-breeding—Butter: Its novel manufacture—Minor industries—Transformation of plebeian names—Domestication of American families in Mexico—Education—Naturalization laws—Climate—Police regulations—"Rurales"—Their bravery in rescuing the crew of the "Ranger"—Rewarded by President Cleveland—Judge Crosby on American enterprise and investments in Mexico—Ladies traveling in the Republic—Causes of Mexico's troubles—Her steady progression—Border troubles—The dawn of a new era.