Makers of British botany

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Makers of British botany  (1913) 
Francis Wall Oliver (ed.)

MAKERS OF

BRITISH BOTANY



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
London: FETTER LANE, E.C.
C. F. CLAY, Manager

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Edinburgh: 100, PRINCES STREET
London: WILLIAM WESLEY & SON, 28, ESSEX STREET, STRAND
Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO.
Leipzig: F. A. BROCKHAUS
New York: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
Bombay and Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD.


All rights reserved



John Hutton Balfour.png



MAKERS OF

BRITISH BOTANY



A COLLECTION OF BIOGRAPHIES
BY LIVING BOTANISTS



Edited by

F. W. OLIVER



Cambridge:
at the University Press
1913



Cambridge:
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS



PREFACE


The origin and scope of the present book will be found fully indicated in the Introduction, so that it is not needful to refer to them here. One change in the original scheme of the work has been made during its passage through the press, viz. the inclusion of an additional chapter from the pen of Prof. F. O. Bower dealing with the life of the late Sir Joseph Hooker. Our veteran botanist passed away on Dec. 10, 1911, in his 95th year, and in him botany loses its outstanding personality as well as its principal link with the past. The history of botany in this country during the Victorian period, when it comes to be written, must of necessity be woven around the life of this great man.

For the excellent index to the book the reader is indebted to Dr E. de Fraine, whose care and good judgment in this matter will be fully appreciated.


F. W. O.


October, 1912



CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction 1
Robert Morison 1620—1683 and John Ray 1627—1705. By Sydney Howard Vines 8
Nehemiah Grew 1641—1712. By Agnes Arber 44
Stephen Hales 1677—1761. By Francis Darwin 65
John Hill 1716—1775. By T. G. Hill 84
Robert Brown 1773—1858. By J. B. Farmer 108
Sir William Hooker 1785—1865. By F. O. Bower 126
John Stevens Henslow 1796—1861. By George Henslow 151
John Lindley 1799—1865. By Frederick Keeble 164
William Griffith 1810—1845. By W. H. Lang 178
Arthur Henfrey 1819—1859. By F. W. Oliver 192
William Henry Harvey 1811—1866. By R. Lloyd Praeger 204
Miles Joseph Berkeley 1803—1889. By George Massee 225
Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert 1817—1901. By W. B. Bottomley 233
William Crawford Williamson 1816—1895. By Dukinfield H. Scott 243
Harry Marshall Ward 1854—1906. By Sir William Thiselton-Dyer 261
A sketch of the Professors of Botany in Edinburgh from 1670 until 1887. By Isaac Bayley Balfour 280
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker 1817—1911. By F. O. Bower 302
Index 324



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


PLATE To face p.
Frontispiece. John Hutton Balfour (1878).
I. Robert Morison 8
II. Great Gate of the Physic Garden, Oxford 18
III. John Ray 28
IV. Nehemiah Grew (1701) 44
V. Plate from Anatomy of Vegetables Begun, 1672 48
VI. Facsimile of a page from The Comparative Anatomy of Trunks, Nehemiah Grew, 1675 52
VII. From Grew's Anatomy. Sheweth the Parts of a Goosberry. Part of a Vine Branch cut transversly, and splitt half way downe ye midle 56
VIII. Stephen Hales (1759) 65
IX. Plate 18 from Hales's Vegetable Staticks 82
X. John Hill 84
XI. Robert Brown (circa 1856) 108
XII. Sir William Jackson Hooker (1834) 126
XIII. John Stevens Henslow (1851) 151
XIV. John Lindley 164
XV. William Griffith (1843) 178
XVI. From Griffith's Notulae. Median section of the ovule of Cycas. Nucellar apex of Cycas with pollen chamber and pollen grains 188
XVII. William Henry Harvey 204
XVIII. Miles Joseph Berkeley 225
XIX. Joseph Henry Gilbert 233
XX. Henry Witham of Lartington 243
XXI. William Crawford Williamson (1876) 246
XXII. Vascular system of stem of Lepidodendron selaginoides in transverse section 250
XXIII. Root of Calamites (Astromyelon Williamsonis) in transverse section 254
XXIV. Cone of Calamostachys Binneyana; sporangia and sporangiophores 256
XXV. Harry Marshall Ward (1895) 261
XXVI. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1868) 302
Text-fig. p. 77. Figure from Vegetable Staticks showing a vine with mercury gauges in place to demonstrate root pressure.


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1951, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.