Index:The Analyst; or, a Discourse Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician.djvu

THE CONTENTS. SECT. I. Mathematicians presumed to be the great Masters of Reason. Hence an undue deference to their decisions where they have no right to decide. This one Cause of Infidelity. II. Their Principles and Methods to be examined with the same freedom, which they assume with regard to the Principles and Mysteries of Religion. In what Sense and how far Geometry is to be allowed an Improvement of the Mind. III. Fluxions the great Object and Employment of the profound Geometricians in the present Age. What these Fluxions are. IV. Moments or nascent Increments of flowing Quantities difficult to conceive. Fluxions of different Orders. Second and third Fluxions obscure Mysteries. V. Differences, i. e. Increments or Decrements infinitely small, used by foreign Mathematicians instead of Fluxions or Velocities of nascent and evanescent Increments. VI. Differences of various Orders, i. e. Quantities infinitely less than Quntities infinitely little; and infinitesimal Parts, of infinitesimals of infinitesimals, &. without end or limit. VII. Mysteries in faith unjustly objected against by those who admit them in Science. VIII. Modern Analysts supposed by themselves to extend their views even beyond infinity: Deluded by their own Species or Symbols. IX. Method for finding the Fluxion of a Rectangle of two indeterminate Quantities, shewed to be illegitimate and false. X. Implicit Deference of Mathematicalmen for the great Author of Fluxions. Their earnestiness rather to go on fast and far, than to set out warily and see their way distinctly. XI. Momentums difficult to comprehend. No middle Quantity to be admitted between a finite Quantity and nothing, without admitting Infinitesimals. XII. The Fluxion of any Power of a flowing Quantity. Lemma premised in order to examine the method for finding such Fluxion. XIII. The rule for the Fluxions of Powers attained by unfair reasoning. XIV. The aforesaid reasoning farther unfolded and shew'd to be illogical. XV. No true Conclusion to be justly drawn by direct consequence from inconsistent Suppositions. The same Rules of right reason to be observed, whether Men argue in Symbols or in Words. XVI. An Hypothesis being destroyed, no consequence of such Hypothesis to be retained. XVII. Hard to distinguish between evanescent Increments and infinitesimal Differences. Fluxions placed in various Lights. The great Author, it seems, not satisfied with his own Notions. XVIII. Quantities infinitely small supposed and rejected by Leibnitz and his Followers. No Quantity, according to them, greater or smaller for the Addition or Subduction of its Infinitesimal. XIX. Conclusions to be porved by the Principles, and not Principles by the Conclusions. XX. The Geometrical Analyst considered as a Logician; and his Discoveries, not in themselves, but as derived from such Principles and such Inferences. XXI. A Tangent drawn to the Parabola according to the calculus differentialis. Truth shewn to be the result of error, and how. XXII. By virtue of a twofold mistake Analysts arrive at Truth, but not at Science: ignorant how they come at their own Conclusions. XXIII. The Conclusion never evident or accurate, in virtue of obscure or inaccurate Premises. Finite Quantities might be rejected as well as Infinitesimals. XXIV. The foregoing Doctrine farther illustrated. XXV. Sundry Observations thereupon. XXVI. Ordinate found frmo the Area by means of evanescent Increments. XXVII. In the foregoing Case the supposed evanescent Increment is really a finite Quantity, destroyed by an equal Quantity with an opposite Sign. XXVIII. The foregoing Case put generally. Algebraical Expressions compared with Geometrical Quantities. XXIX. Correspondent Quanities Algebraical and Geomtrical equated. The Analysis shewed not to obtain in Infintesimals, but it must also obtain in finite Quantities. XXX. The getting rid of Quantities by the received Principles, whether of Fluxions or of Differences, neither good Geometry nor good Logic. Fluxions or Velocities, why introduced. XXXI. Velocities not to be abstracted from Time and Space: Nor their Proportions to be investigated or considered exclusively of Time and Space. XXXII. Difficult and obscure Points constitute the Principles of the modern Analysi, and are the Foundation on which it is built. XXXIII. The rational Faculties whether improved by such obscure Analytics. XXXIV. By what inconceivable Steps finite Lines are found proportional to Fluxions. Mathematical Infidels strain at a Gnat and swallow a Camel. XXXV. Fluxions or Infinitesimals not to be avoided on the received Principles. Nice Abstractions and Geometrical Metaphysics. XXXVI. Velocities of nascent or evanescent Quantities, whether in reality understood and signified by finite Lines and Species. XXXVII. Signs or Exponents obvious; but Fluxions themselves not so. XXXVIII. Fluxions, whether the Velocities with which infinitesimal Differences are generated? XXXIX. Fluxions of Fluxions or second Fluxions, whether to be conceived as Velocities of Velocities, or rather as Velocities of the second nascent Increments? XL. Fluxions considered, sometimes in one Sense, sometimes in another: One while in themselves, another in their Exponents: Hence Confusion and Obscurity. XLI. Isochronal Increments, whether finite or nascent, proportional to their respective Velocities. XLII. Time supposed to be divided into Moments: Increments generated in those Moments: And Velocities proportional to those Increments. XLIII. Fluxions, second, third, fourth, &c. what they are; how obtained, and how represented. What Idea of Velocity in a Moment of Time and Point of Space. XLIV. Fluxions of all Orders inconceivable. XLV. Signs or Exponents confounded with the Fluxions. XLV. Series of Expressions or of Notes easily contrived. Whether a Series, of mere Velocities, or of mere nascent Increments, cerresponding thereunto, be as easily conceived? XLVII. Celerities dismissed, and instead thereof Ordinates and Areas introduced. Analogies and Expressions useful in the modern Quadratures, may yet be useless for enabling us to conceive Fluxions. No right to apply the Rules without knowledge of the Principles. XLVIII. Metaphysics of modern Analysts most incomprehensible. XLIX. Analysis employ'd about notional shadowy Entities. Their Logics as exceptionable as their Metaphysics. L. Occasion of this Address. Conclusion. Queries. 