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Index:The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire.djvu

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The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire.djvu

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CONTENTS.


PAGE
Departure from Vienna.—Frank's Letter.—A Farewell Promenade.—From Vienna to Cracow.—The Great Salt-mine of Wieliczka, and what was seen there.—Churches and Palaces Underground.—Voyage on a Subterranean Lake. 15
Leaving Cracow.—The Russian Frontier.—The Police and the Custom-house—Russian Censorship of Books and Papers.—Catching a Smuggler.—From the Frontier to Warsaw.—Sights and Incidents in the Capital of Poland.—From Warsaw to St. Petersburg. 40
In the Streets of St. Petersburg.—Isvoshchiks and Droskies.—Counting in Russian.—Passports and their Uses.—On the Nevski Prospect.—Visiting the Church of Kazan.—The Russo-Greek Religion.—Unfavorable Position of St. Petersburg.—Danger of Destruction.—Great Inundation of 1824.—Statue of Peter the Great.—Admiralty Square.—The Sailors and the Statue. 58
Dinner in a Russian Restaurant.—Cabbage Soup, Fish Pies, and other odd Dishes.—The "Samovar" and its Uses.—Russian Tea-drinkers.—"Joltai Chai."—Alexander's Column.—Fortress of Sts. Peter and Paul.—Imperial Assassinations.—Sketches of the People.—Russian Police and their Ways. 76
Number and Character of the Russian People.—Pan-Slavic Union.—St. Isaac's Church: its History and Description.—The Winter Palace and the Hermitage.—Sights in the Palace.—Catherine's Rules for her Receptions.—John Paul Jones in Russia.—The Crown Jewels and the Orloff Diamond.—Anecdotes of the Emperor Nicholas.—Relics of Peter the Great.—From Palace to Prison.—Tombs of Russia's Emperors.—A Monument and an Anecdote. 93
The Gostinna Dvor: its Extent and Character.—Peculiarity of Russian Shopping.—Curious Customs.—Old-clothes Market.—Hay-market.—Pigeons in Russian Cities.—Frozen Animals.—Church and Monastery of St. Alexander Nevski.—A Persian Train.—A Coffin of Solid Silver.—The Summer Garden.—Speaking to the Emperor.—Kriloff and his Fables.—Visit to a Russian Theatre.—"A Life for the Czar."—A Russian Comedy. 110
Newspapers in Russia: their Number, Character, and Influence.—Difficulties of Editorial Life.—The Censorship.—An Excursion to Peterhof, Oranienbaum, and Cronstadt.—Sights in the Summer Palace.—Cronstadt and the Naval Station.—The Russian Navy.—The Russian Army: its Composition and Numbers.—The Cossacks.—Anecdotes of Russian Military Life. 130
Visiting the University of St. Petersburg.—Education in Russia.—Primary and other Schools.—The System of Instruction.—Recent Progress in Educational Matters.—Universities in the Empire: their Number and Location.—Religious Liberty.—Treatment of the Jews.—The Islands of the Neva, and what was seen there.—In a "Traktir."—Bribery Among Russian Officials. 150
Studies of St. Petersburg.—Mujiks.—"The Imperial Nosegay."—A Short History of Russian Serfdom: its Origin, Growth, and Abuses.—Emancipation of the Serfs.—Present Condition of the Peasant Class.—Seeing the Emperor.—How the Czar appears in Public.—Public and Secret Police: their Extraordinary Powers.—Anecdotes of Police Severity.—Russian Courts of Law. 172
Winter in Russia.—Fashionable and other Furs.—Sleighs and Sledges.—No Sleigh-bells in Russian Cities.—Official Opening of the Neva.—Russian Ice-hills.—"Butter-week."—Kissing at Easter.—An Active Kissing-time.—Russian Stoves and Baths.—Effects of Severe Cold.—The Story of the Frozen Nose.—How Men are Frozen to Death. 193
Leaving St. Petersburg.—Novgorod the Great: its History and Traditions.—Rurik and his successors.—Barbarities of John the Terrible.—Early History of Russia.—An Imperial Bear-hunt.—Origin of the House of Romanoff.—"A Life for the Czar."—Railways in Russia from Novgorod to Moscow. 211
First Impressions of Moscow.—Undulations of the Ground.—Irregularity of the Buildings, and the Cause thereof.—Napoleon's Campaign in Russia.—Disaster and Retreat.—The Burning of Moscow.—The Kremlin: its Churches, Treasures, and Historical Associations.—Anecdotes of Russian Life.—The Church of St. Basil. 230
The Great Theatre of Moscow.—Operatic Performances.—The Kitai Gorod and Gostinna Dvor.—Romanoff House and the Romanoff Family.—Sketch of the Rulers of Russia.—Anecdotes of Peter the Great and others.—Church of the Saviour.—Mosques and Pagodas.—The Museum.—Riding-school.—Suhareff Tower.—Traktirs.—Old Believers.—The Sparrow Hills and the Simonoff Monastery. 252
A Visit to the Troitska Monastery, and what was seen there.—Curious Legends.—Monks at Dinner.—European Fairs.—The Great Fair at Nijni Novgorod.—Sights and Scenes.—Minin's Tomb and Tower.—Down the Volga by Steamboat.—Steam Navigation on the great River.—Kazan, and what was seen there.—The Route to Siberia. 271
Avatcha Bay, in Kamtchatka.—Attack upon Petropavlovsk by the Allied Fleet.—Dogs and Dog-driving.—Rapid Travelling with a Dog-team.—Population and Resources of Kamtchatka.—Reindeer and their Uses.—The Amoor River.—Native Tribes and Curious Customs.—Tigers in Siberia.—Navigation of the Amoor.—Overland Travelling in Siberia.—Riding in a Tarantasse.—A Rough Road.—An Amusing Mistake.—From Stratensk to Nertchinsk.—Gold-mining in Siberia. 289
The Exiles of Siberia.—The Decembrists and their Experience.—Social Position of Exiles.—Different Classes of Exiles and their Sentences.—Criminals and Politicals.—Degrees of Punishment.—Perpetual Colonists.—How Exiles Travel.—Lodging-houses and Prisons.—Convoys.—Thrilling Story of an Escape from Siberia.—Secret Roads.—How Peasants treat the Exiles.—Prisoners in Chains. 313
Character of the Siberian Population.—Absence of Serfdom, and its Effect.—A Russian Fête.—Amusements of the Peasantry.—Courtship and Marriage.—Curious Customs.—Whipping a Wife.—Overland through Siberia again.—Chetah and the Bouriats.—In a Bouriat Village.—Verckne Udinsk.—Siberian Robbers.—Tea-trains and Tea-trade.—Kiachta.—Lodged by the Police.—Trade between Russia and China. 334
General Aspects of Mai-mai-chin.—Dinner with a Chinese Governor.—A Theatrical Performance.—Lake Baikal: its Remarkable Features.—A Wonderful Ride.—Irkutsk: its Population, Size, and Peculiarities.—Social Gayeties.—Preparations for a long Sleigh-ride.—List of Garments.—Varieties of Sleighs.—Farewell to Irkutsk.—Sleighing Incidents.—Food on the Road.—Siberian Mails.—Advantages of Winter Travelling.—Sleighing on bare Ground.—A Snowless Region.—Krasnoyarsk. 354
Position and Character of Krasnoyarsk.—A Lesson in Russian Pronunciation.—Market Scene.—Siberian Trees.—The "Oukhaba."—A New Sensation.—Road-fever and its Cause.—An Exciting Adventure with Wolves.—How Wolves are Hunted.—From Krasnoyarsk to Tomsk.—Steam Navigation in Siberia.— Barnaool.—Mines of the Altai.—Tigers and Tiger Stories.—The "Bouran."—Across the Baraba Steppe.—Tumen and Ekaterineburg.—From Europe to Asia—Perm, Kazan, and Nijni Novgorod.—End of the Sleigh-ride. 377
Down the Volga again.—Russian Reception Ceremony.—Simbirsk, Samara, and Saratov.—German Settlers on the Volga.—Don Cossacks.—Astrachan.—Curious Population.—Voyage on the Caspian Sea.—The Caspian Petroleum Region.—Tank-steamers.—Interesting Facts and Figures of the New Petrolia.—Present Product of the Baku Oil-fields.—Excursion to Balakhani, and Visit to the Oil-wells.—Temples of the Fire-worshippers.—Antiquity of the Caspian Petroleum Region.—Marco Polo and other Authorities. 403
Glance at Central Asia.—Russian Conquest in Turkestan.—War and Diplomacy among the Kirghese Tribes.—Russian Taxes and their Ccollection.—Turcoman and Kirghese Raids.—Prisoners sold into Slavery.—Fortified Villages and Towers of Refuge.—Commerce in Turkestan.—Jealousy of Foreigners.—Travels of Vambéry and Others.—Vambéry's Narrow Escape.—Turcoman Character.—Payments for Human Heads.—Marriage Customs among the Turcomans.—Extent and Population of Central Asia. 428
Frank and Fred in the Turcoman Country.—The Trans-Caspian Railway.—Skobeleff's Campaign, and the Capture of Geok Tepé.—English Jealousy of Russian Advances.—Rivers of Central Asia.—The Oxus and Jaxartes.—Agriculture by Irrigation.—Khiva, Samarcand, and Bokhara.—A Ride on the Trans-Caspian Railway.—Statistics of the Line.—Kizil Arvat, Askabad, and Sarakhs.—Route to Herat and India.—Turcoman Devastation.—The Afghan Boundary Question.—How Merv was Captured.—O'Donovan and MacGahan: their Remarkable Journeys.—Railway Route from England to India.—Return to Baku. 451
Baku to Tiflis.—The Capital of the Caucasus.—Mountain Travelling.—Crossing the Range.—Petroleum Locomotives.—Batoum and its Importance.—Trebizond and Erzeroom.—Sebastopol and the Crimea.—Short History of the Crimean War.—Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.—Battles in the Crimea and Siege of Sebastopol.—Visiting the Malakoff and Redan Forts.—View of the Battle-fields.—Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava.—Present Condition of Sebastopol.—Odessa.—Arrival at Constantinople.—Frank's Dream.—The End. 480