Birth at Pisa.—Parentage.—His Father's Writings on Music.—Galileo destined to be a Cloth Merchant.—Goes to the Convent of Vallombrosa.—Begins to study Medicine.—Goes to the University of Pisa.—Discovery of the Synchronism of the Pendulum.—Stolen Lessons in Mathematics.—His Hydrostatic Scales.—Professorship at Pisa.—Poor Pay.—The Laws of Motion.—John de' Medici.—Leaves Pisa.—Professorship at Padua.—Writes various Treatises.—The Thermoscope.—Letter to Kepler.—The Copernican System.—"De Revolutionibus orbium Cœlestium"
Term of Professorship at Padua renewed.—Astronomy.—A New Star.—The Telescope.—Galileo not the Inventor.—Visit to Venice to exhibit it.—Telescopic Discoveries.—Jupiter's Moons.—Request of Henry IV.—"Sidereus Nuncius."—The Storm it raised.—Magini's attack on Galileo.—The Ring of Saturn.—An Anagram.—Opposition of the Aristotelian School.—Letter to Kepler
Galileo's Fame and Pupils.—Wishes to be freed from Academic Duties.—Projected Works.—Call to Court of Tuscany.—This change the source of his Misfortunes.—Letter from Sagredo.—Phases of Venus and Mercury.—The Solar Spots.—Visit to Rome.—Triumphant Reception.—Letter from Cardinal del Monte to Cosmo II.—The Inquisition.—Introduction of Theology into the Scientific Controversy.—"Dianoja Astronomica."—Intrigues at Florence
Treatise on Floating Bodies.—Controversy with Scheiner about the Solar Spots.—Favourable reception of Galileo's Work on the subject at Rome.—Discussion with the Grand Duchess Christine.—The Bible brought into the controversy.—Ill-fated Letter to Castelli.—Caccini's Sermon against Galileo.—Lorini denounces the Letter to the Holy Office.—Archbishop Bonciani's attempts to get the original Letter.—"Opinion" of the Inquisition on it.—Caccini summoned to give evidence.—Absurd accusations.—Testimony of Ximenes and Attavanti in Galileo's favour
Galileo's Fears.—Allayed by letters from Rome.—Foscarini's Work.—Blindness of Galileo's Friends.—His Apology to the Grand Duchess Christine.—Effect produced by it.—Visit to Rome.—Erroneous opinion that he was cited to appear.—Caccini begs pardon.—Galileo defends the Copernican System at Rome.—His mistake in so doing
The Inquisition and the Copernican System, and the Assumed Prohibition to Galileo.
Adverse "Opinion" of the Inquisition on Galileo's Propositions.—Admonition by Bellarmine, and assumed Absolute Prohibition to treat of the Copernican Doctrines.—Discrepancy between Notes of 25th and 26th February.—Marini's Documents.—Epinois's Work on Galileo.—Wohlwill first doubts the Absolute Prohibition.—Doubts confirmed by Gherardi's Documents.—Decree of 5th March, 1616, on the Copernican System.—Attitude of the Church.—Was the Absolute Prohibition ever issued to Galileo?—Testimony of Bellarmine in his favour.—Conclusions
Galileo still lingers at Rome.—Guiccardini tries to effect his Recall.—Erroneous idea that he was trying to get the Decree repealed.—Intrigues against him.—Audience of Pope Paul V.—His friendly assurances.—His Character.—Galileo's return to Florence.
Studious Seclusion.—Waiting for the Correction of the Work of Copernicus.—Treatise on Tides.—Sends it to Archduke Leopold of Austria.—The Letter which accompanied it.—The three Comets of 1618.—Galileo's Opinion of Comets.—Grassi's Lecture on them. Guiducci's Treatise on them, inspired by Galileo.—Grassi's "Astronomical and Philosophical Scales."—Galileo's Reply.—Paul V.—His Death.—Death of Cosmo II.—Gregory XV.—"Il Saggiatore" finished.—Riccardi's "Opinion" on it.—Death of Gregory XV.—Urban VIII.
His Character.—Taste for Letters.—Friendship for Galileo when Cardinal.—Letters to him.—Verses in his honour.—Publication of "Il Saggiatore" with Dedication to the Pope.—Character of the Work.—The Pope's approval of it.—Inconsistency with the assumed Prohibition.
Galileo goes to Rome to congratulate Urban VIII. on his Accession.—Favourable reception.—Scientific discussions with the Pope.—Urban refuses to Revoke the Decree of 5th March.—Nicolo Riccardi.—The Microscope.—Galileo not the Inventor.—Urban's favours to Galileo on leaving Rome.—Galileo's reply to Ingoli.—Sanguine hopes.—Grassi's hypocrisy.—Spinola's harangue against the Copernican System.—Lothario Sarsi's reply to "Il Saggiatore."—Galileo writes his "Dialogues"
Origin of the "Dialogues".—Their popular style.—Significance of the name Simplicius.—Hypothetical treatment of the Copernican System.—Attitude of Rome towards Science.—Thomas Campanella.—Urban VIII.'s duplicity.—Galileo takes his MS. to Rome.—Ricardi's corrections.—He gives the Imprimatur on certain conditions.—Galileo returns to Florence to complete the Work
Death of Prince Cesi.—Dissolution of the Accadémia dei Lincei.—Galileo advised to print at Florence.—Difficulties and delays.—His impatience.—Authorship of the Introduction.—The Imprimatur granted for Florence.—Absurd accusation from the style of the Type of the Introduction
Publication of the "Dialogues".—Applause of Galileo's friends and the learned world.—The hostile party.—The Jesuits as leaders of learning.—Deprived of their monopoly by Galileo.—They become bitter foes.—Having the Imprimatur for Rome and Florence, Galileo thought himself doubly safe.—The three dolphins.—Scheiner.—Did "Simplicius" personate the Pope?—Conclusive arguments against it.—Effect of the accusation.—Urban's motives in instituting the Trial.
Symptoms of the coming Storm.—The Special Commission.—Parade of forbearance.—The Grand Duke intercedes for Galileo.—Provisional Prohibition of the "Dialogues."—Niccolini’s Interview with the Pope and unfavourable reception.—Report of it to Cioli.—Magalotti’s Letters.—Real object of the Special Commission to find a pretext for the Trial.—Its discovery in the assumed Prohibition of 1616.—Report of the Commission, and charges against Galileo
Niccolini’s attempt to avert the Trial.—The Pope’s Parable.—The Mandate summoning Galileo to Rome.—His grief and consternanation.—His Letter to Cardinal Barberini.—Renewed order to come to Rome.—Niccolini’s fruitless efforts to save him.—Medical Certificate that he was unfit to travel.—Castelli’s hopeful view of the case.—Threat to bring him to Rome as a Prisoner.—The Grand Duke advises him to go.—His powerlessness to protect his servant.—Galileo’s mistake in leaving Venice.—Letter to Elia Diodati
Galileo reaches Rome in February, 1632.—Goes to the Tuscan Embassy.—No notice at first taken of his coming.—Visits of Serristori.—Galileo’s hopefulness.—His Letter to Bocchineri.—Niccolini’s audience of the Pope.—Efforts of the Grand Duke and Niccolini on Galileo's behalf.—Notice that he must appear before the Holy Office.—His dejection at the news.—Niccolini’s advice not to defend himself.
The first hearing.—Galileo’s submissive attitude.—The events of February, 1616.—Galileo denies knowledge of a special Prohibition.—Produces Bellarmine’s certificate.—Either the Prohibition was not issued, or Galileo’s ignorance was feigned.—His conduct since 1616 agrees with its non-issue.—The Inquisitor assumes that it was issued.—"Opinions" of Oregius, Inchofer and Pasqualigus.—Galileo has Apartments in the Palace of the Holy Office assigned to him.—Falls ill.—Letter to Geri Bocchineri.— Change of tone at second hearing hitherto an enigma.—Now explained by letter from Firenzuola to Cardinal Fr. Barberini.—Galileo’s Confession.—His Weakness and Subserviency
Galileo allowed to return to the Embassy.—His hopefulness.—Third hearing.—Hands in his Defence.—Agreement of it with previous events.—Confident hopes of his friends.—Niccolini’s fears.—Decision to examine Galileo under threat of Torture.—Niccolini’s audience of the Pope.—Informed that the Trial was over, that Galileo would soon be Sentenced, and would be Imprisoned.—Final Examination.—Sent back to "locum suum."—No evidence that he suffered Torture, or was placed in a prison cell
The Sentence in full.—Analysis of it.—The Copernican System had not been pronounced heretical by "Infallible" authority.—The special Prohibition assumed as fact.—The Sentence illegal according to the Canon Law.—The Holy Office exceeded its powers in calling upon Galileo to recant.—The Sentence not unanimous.—This escaped notice for two hundred and thirty-one Years.—The Recantation.—Futile attempts to show that Galileo had really altered his opinion.—After the Sentence, Imprisonment exchanged for Banishment to Trinita de' Monti.—Petition for leave to go to Florence.—Allowed to go to Siena
Popular Story of Galileo's Fate.—His Eyes put out.—"E pur si Muove."—The Hair Shirt.—Imprisonment.—Galileo only detained twenty-two Days at the Holy Office.—Torture.—Refuted in 18th Century.—Torture based on the words "examen rigorosum."—This shown to be untenable.—Assertion that the Acts have been falsified refuted.— False Imputation on Niccolini.— Conclusive Evidence against Torture.—Galileo not truly a "Martyr of Science"
Arrival at Siena.—Request to the Grand Duke of Tuscany to ask for his release.—Postponed on the advice of Niccolini.—Endeavours at Rome to stifle the Copernican System.—Sentence and Recantation sent to all the Inquisitors of Italy.—Letter to the Inquisitor of Venice.—Mandate against the publication of any new Work of Galileo's, or new Edition.—Curious Arguments in favour of the old System.—Niccolini asks for Galileo's release.—Refusal, but permission given to go to Arcetri.—Anonymous accusations.—Death of his Daughter.—Request for permission to go to Florence.—Harsh refusal and threat.—Letter to Diodati.— Again at work.—Intervention of the Count de Noailles on Galileo's behalf.—Prediction that he will be compared to Socrates.—Letter to Peiresc.—Publication of Galileo's Works in Holland.—Continued efforts of Noailles.—Urban's fair speeches
Galileo's Labours at Arcetri.—Completion of the "Dialoghi delle nuove Scienze."—Sends it to the Elzevirs at Leyden.—Method of taking Longitudes at Sea.—Declined by Spain and offered to Holland.—Discovery of the Libration and Titubation of the Moon.—Visit from Milton.—Becomes blind.—Letter to Diodati.—On a hint from Castelli, petitions for his Liberty.—The Inquisitor to visit him and report to Rome.—Permitted to live at Florence under restrictions.—The States-General appoint a Delegate to see him on the Longitude question.—The Inquisitor sends word of it to Rome.—Galileo not to receive a Heretic.—Presents from the States-General refused from fear of Rome.—Letter to Diodati.—Galileo supposed to be near his end.—Request that Castelli might come to him.—Permitted under restrictions.—The new "Dialoghi" appear at Leyden, 1638.—They founded Mechanical Physics.—Attract much notice.—Improvement of health.—In 1639 goes to Arcetri again, probably not voluntarily
Refusal of some Favour asked by Galileo.—His pious Resignation.—Continues his scientific Researches.—His pupil Viviani.—Failure of attempt to renew Negotiations about Longitudes.—Reply to Liceti and Correspondence with him.—Last discussion of the Copernican System in reply to Rinuccini.—Sketch of its contents.—Pendulum Clocks.—Priority of the discovery belongs to Galileo.—Visit from Castelli.—Torricelli joins Viviani.—Scientific discourse on his Deathbed.—Death, 8th Jan., 1642.—Proposal to deny him Christian Burial.—Monument objected to by Urban VIII.—Ferdinand II. fears to offend him.—Buried quietly.—No Inscription till thirty-two years later.—First Public Monument erected by Viviani in 1693. Viviani directs his heirs to erect one in Santa Croce.—Erected in 1738.—Rome unable to put down Copernican System.—In 1757 Benedict XIV. permits the clause in Decree forbidding books which teach the new System to be expunged.—In 1820 permission given to treat of it as true.—Galileo's work and others not expunged from the Index till 1835