1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 11/Table of contributors

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. B. R. Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S.
Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classification of Flowering Plants; &c.
Fruit.
A. B. W. K. Sir Alexander Blackie William Kennedy, LL.D., F.R.S.
Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University College, London. Consulting Engineer to Board of Ordnance.
Friction.
A. Ca. Arthur Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Cayley, Arthur.
Gauss.
A. E. H. L. Augustus Edward Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. Fellow of Queen's College; formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Secretary to the London Mathematical Society.
Function: Functions of Real Variables.
A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
Gastrotricha.
A. Ge. Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Geikie, Sir A.
Geology.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
Franck, Sebastian; Gallars.
A. G. B.* Hon. Archibald Graeme Bell, M.Inst.C.E.
Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. Member of Executive and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E.
Georgetown, British Guiana.
A. G. D. Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.,Hist.S.
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada.
Frontenac et Palluau.
A. H. Sm. Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A.
Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.
Gem: II. (in part)
A. M.* Rev. Allen Menzies, D.D.
Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St Andrews. Author of History of Religion; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy.
Free Church of Scotland (in part).
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article, Clerke, Agnes M.
Galileo.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred.
Frigate-Bird; Gadwall; Gannet; Gare Fowl.
A. N. B. Alfred Neave Brayshaw, LL.B.
Author of Bible Notes on the Hebrew Prophets.
Friends, Society of.
A. N. W. Alfred North Whitehead, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of A Treatise on Universal Algebra; &c.
Geometry: VI. (in part) and VII.
A. R. C. Alexander Ross Clarke, C.B., F.R.S.
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Royal Medallist, Royal Society, 1887. In charge of the trigonometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854-1881.
Geodesy (in part).
A. S. M. Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Murray, Alexander Stuart.
Gem: II. (in part).
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.
Frederick II., Roman Emperor; French Revolution: Republican Calendar; Germany: History (in part) and Bibliography.
A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article, Ward, A. W..
Garrick, David (in part).
B. A. W. R. Hon. Bertrand Arthur William Russell, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Foundations of Geometry; Principles of Mathematics; &c.
Geometry: VI. (in part).
B. S. P. Bertha Surtees Philpotts, M.A. (Dublin).
Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.
Germany: Archaeology.
C. B.* Charles Bémont, Litt.D. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article, Bémont, C.
Fustel De Coulanges; Gascony.
C. D. W. Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright.
See the biographical article, Wright, Hon. Carroll Davidson.
Friendly Societies: United States.
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Geometry: History.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Franco-German War (in part); French Revolutionary Wars: Military Operations; Germany: Army; Gibraltar: History.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Gelasius II.
C. K. S. Clement King Shorter.
Editor of The Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature; Immortal Memories; The Brontës, Life and Letters; &c.
Gaskell, Elizabeth.
C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900 and 1902-1903.
Garashanin.
C. M. K. Sir Charles Malcolm Kennedy, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908).
Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893, Lecturer on International Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-1871, at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary, Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor of Kennedy's Ethnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International Law.
Free Ports.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D.-ès.-L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duché mérovingien d'Alsace et la legende de Sainte-Odile.
Franks; Fredegond; Germanic Laws, Early.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Gerard of Cremona.
C. R. C. Claude Reignier Conder, LL.D.
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of Palestine. Author of The City of Jerusalem; The Bible and the East; The Hittites and their Language; &c.
Galilee (in part); Galilee, Sea of (in part).
C. T.* Rev. Charles Taylor, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908).
Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge University, 1887-1888. Author of Geometrical Conics; &c.
Geometrical Continuity.
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
Gate.
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Galilee, Sea of (in part).
D. C. Dugald Clerk, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.S.
Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas Engine.
Gas Engine.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
Fugue.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
French Revolutionary Wars: Naval Operations.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
Fulk, King of Jerusalem.
E. B. El. Edwin Bailey Elliott, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics, and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. President of London Mathematical Society, 1896-1898. Author of Algebra of Quantics; &c.
Geometry, IV.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler; O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of "The Lausiac History of Palladius" in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Franciscans; Friar.
E. E. Lady Eastlake.
See the biographical article, Eastlake, Sir C. L.
Gibson, John.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund.
Fryxell; Garland, John.
E. J. D. Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac.
Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
Galuppi.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Gastric Ulcer.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society; &c.
Garção; Garrett.
E. W. B. Sir Edward William Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, 1891-1904. Author of Building Societies; Provident Societies and Industrial Welfare; Institutions of Thrift; &c.
Friendly Societies.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Geissen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Funeral Rites.
F. C. M. Francis Charles Montague, M.A.
Astor Professor of European History, University College, London. Formerly Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. Author of Limits of Individual Liberty; chapters in Cambridge Modern History; &c.
French Revolution.
F. F.* Sir James Fortescue-Flannery, Bart., M.P., M.Inst.C.E.
Ex-President of the Institute of Marine Engineers. M.P. for the Maldon Division of Essex, 1910. M.P. for the Shipley Division of Yorkshire, 1895-1906.
Fuel: Liquid.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
Germany: Ethnography and Early History.
F. H. B. Francis Henry Butler, M.A.
Worcester College, Oxford. Associate of Royal School of Mines.
Frankincense; Galls.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Gaul.
F. N. M. Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B.
Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign.
Franco-German War (in part).
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
French Congo; German East Africa; German South-West Africa.
F. R. H. Friedrich Robert Helmert, Ph.D., D.Ing.
Professor of Geodesy, University of Berlin.
Geodesy (in part).
F. S. Francis Storr.
Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Officer d'Académie (Paris).
Games, Classical.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.
Garnet; Gem: I.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909.
Gelderland (Duchy).
G. L. Georg Lunge.
See the biographical article, Lunge, G.
Fuel: Gaseous; Gas: Manufacture, II.
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article, Saintsbury, G.
French Literature; Gautier.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffiths Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Ghazālī.
H. B. Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909).
Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron.
Fuel: Solid.
H. B. W. Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S.
Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of London; &c.
Gaudry.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Gambetta; Garnett, Richard; George IV. (in part).
H. C. L. Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge.
See the biographical article, Lodge, Henry Cabot.
Gallatin.
H. F. Ba. Henry Frederick Baker, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Cayley Lecturer in Mathematics in the University. Author of Abel's Theorem and the Allied Theory; &c.
Function: Functions of Complex Variables.
H. L. C. Hugh Longbourne Callendar, F.R.S., LL.D.
Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of Physics in MacGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London.
Fusion.
H. M.* Hugh Mitchell.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
Gibraltar (in part).
H. M. W. H. Marshall Ward, M.A. D.Sc., F.R.S. (d. 1905).
Formerly Professor of Botany Cambridge. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and Some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sach's Lectures on the Physiology of Plants; Diseases in Plants; &c.
Fungi (in part).
H. N. Henry Nicol.
French Language (in part).
H. R. M. Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc. LL.D.
Director of British Rainfall Organization. Editor of British Rainfall. Formerly President of the Royal Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. Author of The Realm of Nature; The International Geography; &c.
Geography.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Geoffrey, Archbishop of York; Geoffrey of Monmouth; Gerard; Gervase of Canterbury; Gervase of Tilbury.
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna.
Garibaldi.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Frank, Jakob; Frankel, Zecharias; Frankl, Ludwig A.; Friedmann, Meir; Gaon; Geiger (in part); Gersonides.
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and Electric Currents.
Galvanometer.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
Fuller's Earth.
J. B. B. John Bagnall Bury, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article, Bury, John Bagnall
Gibbon, Edward.
J. B. McM. John Bach McMaster, LL.D.
Professor of American History in the University of Pennsylvania. Author of A History of the People of the United States; &c.
Garfield, James Abram.
J. Ga. James Gairdner, LL.D., C.B.
See the biographical article, Gairdner, J.
Gardiner, Stephen.
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College; Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
Galatia.
J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of German, University of London. Author of History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c.
Freiligrath; German Literature.
J. Hn. Justus Hashagen, Ph.D.
Privat-dozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of Das Rheinland und die französische Herrschaft.
Frederick Augustus I. and II.; Frederick William I.
J. H. Gr. John Hilton Grace, M.A., F.R.S.
Lecturer in Mathematics at Peterhouse and Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow of Peterhouse.
Geometry, V.
J. H. H. John Henry Hessels, M.A.
Author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation.
Fust.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
Geoffrey De Montbray.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Gardane.
J. Mt. James Moffatt, M.A., D.D.
Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. Author of Historical New Testament; &c.
Galatians, Epistle to the.
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian (London).
Furniture.
J. Si. James Sime, M.A. (1843-1895).
Author of A History of Germany; &c.
Frederick the Great (in part).
J. S. Bl. John Sutherland Black, M.A., LL.D.
Assistant Editor 9th edition Encyclopaedia Britannica. Joint-editor of the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Free Church of Scotland (in part).
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Fulgurite; Gabbro.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Georgia (Russia) (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Gastropoda.
J. V. B. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St. Andrews).
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
Frommel.
J. Ws. John Weathers, F.R.H.S.
Lecturer on Horticulture to the Middlesex County Council. Author of Practical Guide to Garden Plants; French Market Gardening; &c.
Fruit and Flower Farming (in part).
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Frederick III. of Prussia; Germany: History (in part).
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c. Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology.
Free Reed Vibrator; Geige.
L. D. Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article, Duchesne, L. M. O.
Gelasius I.
L. H.* Louis Halphen, D.-ès.-L.
Principal of the course of the Faculty of Letters in the University of Bordeaux. Author of Le Comté d'Anjou au XIe siècle; Recueil des actes angevines; &c.
Fulk Nerra; Geoffrey, Count of Anjou; Geoffrey Plantaganet.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Galena.
L. V. Linda Mary Villari.
See the biographical article, Villari, Pasquale.
Frederick III., King of Sicily.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D.
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle.
Ghica.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Gerousia.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
Genealogy: Modern.
O. H. Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent Figures; &c.
Geometry, I., II., and III.
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École pratique des hautes études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIIIe siècle.
Fraticelli.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc.Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History of the English Constitution.
Germany: Geography.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
G.
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology.
Germany: Geology.
P. M. Paul Meyer.
See the biographical article, Meyer, M. P. H.
French Language (in part).
R. Ad. Robert Adamson, LL.D.
See the biographical article. Adamson, Robert.
Gassendi (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Gadara; Galilee (in part); Galilee, Sea of (in part); Gerasa; Gerizim; Gezer; Gibeon.
R. Ca. Robert Carruthers, LL.D. (1799-1878).
Editor of the Inverness Courier, 1828-1878. Part-editor of Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature; Lecturer at the Philosophical Institution, Edinburgh. Author of History of Huntingdon; Life of Pope.
Garrick, David (in part).
R. H. Q. Rev. Robert Hebert Quick, M.A., (1831-1891).
Formerly Lecturer on Education, University of Cambridge. Author of Essays on Educational Reformers.
Froebel.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Galago; Galeopithecus; Ganodonta; Gelada; Gibbon.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909, Author of Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Frederick II. and III. of Denmark and Norway; Gedymin.
R. Pr. Robert Priebsch, Ph.D.
Professor of German Philology, University of London. Author of Deutsche Handschriften in England; &c.
German Language.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Garnier, J.
R. We. Richard Webster, A.M. (Princeton).
Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of Maximianus; &c.
Franklin, Benjamin.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904-1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine, &c.
Genealogy: Biblical; Genesis.
St. C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article, Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
Gallicanism.
S. R. G. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article, Gardiner, S. R.
George I., II. (in part), III.; George IV..
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.).
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar at Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897, Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
Frascati; Fregellae; Fucino, Lago Di; Fulginiae; Fusaro, Lago; Gabii; Gaeta; Gallipoli (Italy); Gela; Genoa.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Geneva Convention.
T. C. H. Thomas Callan Hodson.
Registrar, East London College, University of London. Late Indian Civil Service. Author of The Metheis; &c.
Genna.
T. E. H. Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D.
Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of International Law and Diplomacy in the University of Oxford, 1874--1910. Fellow of the British Academy. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; Alberici Gentilis de jure belli; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties in a Maritime War; &c.
Gentili.
T. G. S. Thomas Gaskell Shearman (d. 1900).
Author of The Single Tax; Natural Taxation; Distribution of Wealth; &c.
George, Henry.
T. H. H.* Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's Award; India; Tibet; &c.
Ganges.
T. M. L. Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, D.D,
Principal and Professor of Church History, United Free Church College, Glasgow. Author of Life of Luther; &c.
Gerson (in part).
V. B. L. Vivian Byam Lewes, F.I.C., F.C.S.
Professor of Chemistry, Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Chief Superintending Gas Examiner to City of London.
Gas: Manufacture, I.
V. H. B. Vernon Herbert Blackman, M.A., D.Sc.
Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.
Fungi (in part).
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1881; &c.
Frauenfeld; Frejus; Fribourg; Gap; Garda, Lake of; Gemmi Pass; Geneva; Geneva, Lake of.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Frederick II. of Prussia (in part); Gentleman; Gentz, Friedrich; Germany: History (in part).
W. Ba. William Bacher, Ph.D.
Professor of Biblical Science at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest.
Gamaliel.
W. Be. Sir Walter Besant.
See the biographical article, Besant, Sir W.
Froissart.
W. C. Sir William Crookes, F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Crookes, Sir William.
Gem, Artificial.
W. Cu. The Ven. William Cunningham, M.A., D.D.
Archdeacon of Ely. Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Growth of English Industry and Commerce; &c.
Free Trade.
W. E. D. William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E.
Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University Demonstrator in the Engineering Department of Cambridge University. Author of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and Valve Gear Mechanism; &c.
Friction (in part).
W. Fr. William Fream, LL.D. (d. 1906).
Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and Agricultural Correspondent of The Times.
Fruit and Flower Farming (in part).
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
Game Laws; Gaming and Wagering.
W. Hu. Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D.
President of the Royal Historical Society 1905-1909. Author of History of English Church, 597-1066; The Church of England in the Middle Ages; Political History of England, 1760-1801; &c.
Freeman, Edward A.; Froude; Gardiner, Samuel Rawson.
W. J. H.* William James Hughan.
Past S.G.D. of the Grand Lodge of England. Author of Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry.
Freemasonry.
W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Author of Documentary History of Reconstruction; &c.
Freedmen's Bureau.
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor of Colonial History, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Canadian Series).
Galt, Sir Alexander T.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article, Rossetti, Dante G.
Fuseli; Gaddi; Gainsborough; Ghirlandajo, Domenico; Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo.
W. R. B.* William Raimond Baird, LL.D.
Author of Manual of American College Fraternities; &c. Editor of The Beta Theta Pi.
Fraternities, College.
W. S. P. Walter Sutherland Parker.
Deputy Chairman, Fur Section, London Chamber of Commerce.
Fur.


PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Franz Josef Land.
Free Church Federation.
French Guinea.
French West Africa.
Friedland.
Frisian Islands.
Frisians.
Fronde, The.

Fuero.
Furnace.
Galapagos Islands.
Galicia.
Galway.
Gambia.
Gawain.
Gelatin.

Genius.
Gentian.
Gentianaceae.
George, Saint.
George Junior Republic.
Georgia (U.S.A.).
Geraniaceae.
Geranium.

German Baptist Brethren.
German Catholics.
Gettysburg.
Geyser.
Ghazni.
Ghent.
Ghor.
Giant.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume