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Index:Vol 4 History of Mexico by H H Bancroft.djvu

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Vol 4 History of Mexico by H H Bancroft.djvu

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CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.


 










CHAPTER I.
EUROPE IN THE EARLY PART OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
page
The Little Man from Corsica—He Makes All the World Tremble_Gen eral View of Politics and Society—Attitude of England, Prussia, and Austria—A Glance at Spain's History—Rulers for Three Centuries—Retrogressions and Reactions—Prime Ministers—Peace and War—England and France will not let Spaniards be Free—Position of the United States—Chronic Braggadocio—There are Soldiers and Heroes in Mexico as Well. 1
CHAPTER II.
ADMINISTRATION OF VICEROY ITURRIGARAY.
1803-1808.
Causes of the Revolution of Independence—Arrival of the Viceroy His Antecedents and Comportment—The Viceregal Family—Sordidness of Iturrigaray—His Visit to the Mines—Public Improvements In troduction of Vaccination—Sequestration cf Property—Effect on the Land Owners—Humboldt's Visit—International Complications—Demands for Treasure—Difficulties with the United States—War with England—Military Preparations—European Affairs Abdication of Cárlos IV.—Iturrigaray's Indifference—Effects in Mexico of Events in Spain—Power of the Inquisition—Attitude of the Press—Sparks of Revolution. 12
CHAPTER III.
ITURRIGARAY'S DEPOSAL.
1808.
The Ayuntamiento Claims Sovereignty of the People—A National Congress Proposed—Opposition of the Audiencia—Glad Tidings from the Peninsula—Four Memorable Juntas—Rival Spanish Juntas—Angry Debates—Conspiracy to Depose the Viceroy—Yermo Takes the Lead—Iturrigaray's Apathy—A Midnight Coup d'État—The Viceroy in Durance—Garibay Appointed his Successor—Fate of Iturrigaray's Supporters—He is Sent to Spain—His Rich Sweetmeats—Indictment for Treason—Acquittal—Residencia—Heavy Fines—Change of Opinions—The Sentence Annulled—Iturrigaray's Intentions Analyzed—Bibliography. 40
CHAPTER IV
VICEROYS GARIBAY AND LIZANA.
1808-1810.
Garibay's Character—A Badge of Loyalty—Reorganization of the Army—Bonapartist Intrigues—Lampoons and Seditious—Sheets Effect of Reverses in Spain—Establishment of a Junta Consultiva—Pretensions to the Throne of Mexico—Archbishop Lizana Appointed Viceroy—Remittances to Spain—Lizana's Character—The Junta de Seguridad—Revolution at Valladolid—Spanish American Representation in the Cortés—Lizana Removed from Office—Weak Administration of the Audiencia—French Emissaries—Arrival of Viceroy Venegas—His Antecedents, Character, and Personal Appearance—Titles and Honors from Spain. 67
CHAPTER V.
OPENING OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.
1810.
Development of Querétaro—Affairs in Guanajuato—The Town of Dolores—Its Cura, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla—Secret Meetings of Revolutionists—Ignacio Allende—Plotting at San Miguel General Plan of Uprising—Hidalgo's Biography—Arrests—The Corregid—or Imprisoned—His Acquittal—His Biography—El Grito de Dolores—Hidalgo Marches to San Miguel—A Tumultuous Array—The Sacred Banner—Success of the Insurgents at San Miguel—Pillaging—Hidalgo Proclaimed Captain-general—He Enters Celaya—He Appoints a New Ayuntamiento. 96
CHAPTER VI.
THE ALHÓNDIGA OF GUANAJUATO TAKEN BY STORM.
1810.
Local History of Ganajuato—Alarm in the City—Defensive Measures of Intendente Riaño—The Alhóndiga de Granaditas—An Interesting Manuscript—Riaño—Retires to the Alhóndiga—Hidalgo Summons Riaño to Surrender—The Attack—A Murderous Contest—Riaño's Death—His Biography—Confusion in the Alhóndiga—The Barricades Won by the Insurgents—They Gain Entrance—Berzábal's Fall—His Biography—Number of the killed—Acts of Heroism—Pillage and Devastation. 130
CHAPTER VII.
HIDALGO'S MARCH TOWARD THE CAPITAL.
1810.
Military Preparation of Venegas—Action of the Church and Inquisition—Hidalgo's Reply—He Abolishes Slavery—His Administrative Measures at Guanajuato—A Refractory Ayuntamiento—Hidalgo Establishes a Mint—Marches against Valladolid—Additional Reënforcements—Hidalgo's Treasury—The Insurgents Move toward Mexico—Trujillo Despatched to Oppose their Advance—Trujillo's Character—Iturbide's Biography—Trujillo's Movements—The Battle of Las Cruces—The Royalists Force their Way Out—Their Defeat Regarded as a Triumph—Alarm in the Capital—Another Sacred Banner—Hidalgo Perplexed. 158
CHAPTER VIII.
PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION.
1810.
Calleja's Preparations—His Biography—Engagement at Querétaro—Calleja Joins Forces with Flon—Chavez Repulsed at Querétaro—Calle ja's Movements—The Dispersion of the Insurgents at Aculco—Calleja Returns to Querétaro—Character of Torres—Defensive Measures of Abarca in Jalisco—Insurgent Operations in Jalisco—Engagement at La Barca—The Royalists Defeated at Zacoalco—Guadalajara Surrenders to Torres—Mercado Gains Possession of San Blas—Revolution in Zacatecas—Flight of the Europeans—An Unfortunate Intendente—Iriarte enters Zacatecas—The Commission of Doctor Cos—A Daring Scheme—San Luis Potosi Won by an Insurgent Friar—A Treacherous Visitor—San Luis Sacked. 192
CHAPTER IX.
THE ROYALISTS RECAPTURE GUANAJUATO.
1810.
Allende Returns to Guanajuato—Preparations for Defence—The First Attack—Calleja's Plan—He Takes Allende's Batteries—Calleja, the Avenger—His Proclamation—An Execution Scene in the Alhóndiga—A General Pardon Extended—The Government Reoganized—Calleja Marches for Guadalajara—Hidalgo at Valladolid—And at the Cerro del Molcajete—Hidalgo's Reception at Guadalajara—Establishes a Government—Rayon's Biography—Letona's Mission and Death—The 'Dispertador Americano' and Printing-press—Preparations for War. 216
CHAPTER X.
SPREAD OF THE REVOLUTION AND BATTLE OF CALDERON.
1810-1811.
Hermosillo's Operations in Sinaloa—Successes at Rosario—His Defeat at San Ignacio—Spread of the Revolution in Nuevo—Santander Coahuila and Nuevo Leon Revolt—Villagran's Doings—Biography of Cruz—Plan of Calleja—Tumult in Valladolid—Cruz Enters Valladolid—He Reorganizes the Government—Engagement at Urepetiro—Allende Joins Hidalgo at Guadalajara—A Council of War—Hidalgo Takes up a Position at the Bridge of Calderon—Plan of Battle-field—Calleja's Dispositions—Flon's Impetuosity—The Revolutionists Nearly Triumphant—Their Final Defeat—Death of Flon His Character. 237
CHAPTER XI.
HIDALGO'S CAPTURE AND DEATH.
1811.
Cruz Joins Calleja at Guadalajara—Humility of the Audiencia, Church, and University—Calleja Establishes a Junta de Seguridad—Cruz Regains San Blas—Death of Mercado—Hidalgo Compelled to Surrender his Command—The Insurgent Leaders Retire tc Saltillo—They Decide to Go to the United States—Operations in San Luis Potosí—Death of Herrera—Counter-revolution in Texas—Capture and Execution of Ignacio Aldama Elizondo's Treacherous Plot—Capture of Hidalgo and Revolutionary Chiefs—Iriarte's Death—The Captives are Sent to Chihuahua—Their Trial—Abasolo's Deposition—Executions—Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction—Hidalgo's Execution His Character. 259
CHAPTER XII.
MORELOS AND RAYON.
1811.
State of the Revolution after Hidalgo's Capture—Biography of Morelos—His Character—His Meeting with Hidalgo and Commission—Morelos in Michoacan—The Royalist Páris Defeated—Morelos Marches to Chilpancingo—The Family of the Bravos—Capture of Tixtla—Defeat of the Royalist Fuentes—A Conspiracy Suppressed—Rayon Retreats from Saltillo—He Defeats Ochoa—A Terrible March—The Platform of the Insurgent Leader—Rayon Evacuates Zacatecas—Trujillo's Doings in Valladolid—Retreat of the Insurgents. 290
CHAPTER XIII.
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE JUNTA DE ZITACUARO.
1811.
Calleja's New System of Military Organization—Suppression of the In surrection in Nuevo Santander—Pacification of San Luis Potosí—Defeat of Insurgents in Guanajuato—Porlier's Operations in Nueva Galicia—Torre's Activity and Severity—His Defeat at Zitácuaro, and Death—Rayon Fortifies Zitácuaro—Empáran Returns to Spain—Conspiracy to Seize the Viceroy—Proclamation of Calleja—Events in Michoacan—Condition of Guanajuato—Spread of the Revolution. 317
CHAPTER XIV.
SIEGE OF CUAUTLA.
1811-1812.
Doctor Cos Joins Rayon The Revolutionary Press—Perplexity of Venegas—Bishop Campillo's Failure as a Mediator—Second Campaign of Morelos—Calleja Takes Zitácuaro—Destruction of the City—Reverses of Porlier—Arrival of Spanish Troops—Triumphal Entry of Calleja into Mexico—Jealousy of Venegas—Calleja Marches against Cuautla—Description of the City—Llano at Izúcar—Calleja Repulsed—Cuautla Invested—Sufferings of the Besieged—Morelos Evacuates the City—Calleja Returns to the Capital. 343
CHAPTER XV.
WAR MEASURES AND MOVEMENTS.
1812.
Financial Distress and Arbitrary Measures—Insurgents Sack Huamantla and Capture Trains—The Suprema Junta's Movements and Acts—Doctor Cos' Plans of Peace and War—Viceregal Course—Independent Press—Bad Guerrillas—Rosains and his Troubles—Campaigns in Puebla, Michoacan, and Bajío de Guanajuato—Operations of Garcia Conde, Negrete, and Iturbide against Albino García—Capture and End of This Leader—Torres' Execution—Ill Success of Liceaga and Cos in Guanajuato—Raids in San Luis Potosí. 376
CHAPTER XVI.
PROGRESS OF THE WAR.
1812.
Capture of Tehuacan—Massacre of Prisoners—Curates of Maltrata and Zongolica Join the Revolution—Orizaba Captured and Retaken—Revolutionary Plans at Vera Cruz and Perote—Communication Reopened by Royalists—Insurgent Operations—Capture of Pachuca with Immense Booty—Cruel Shooting of Prisoners—Towns Recaptured by Royalists—Arrest of Leonardo Bravo and Companions—Their Execution—Noble Deed of Nicolas Bravo—Venegas Offers Pardon to Penitent Rebels, and a Reward for Morelos' Capture—Venegas and Calleja at Enmity—Rayon's Unsuccessful Attack on Toluca—Defeat at Tenango—Dispersion of the Supreme Junta. 397
CHAPTER XVII.
RAYON PRESIDENT; MORELOS IN THE SOUTH.
1812.
President Rayon at Tlalpujahua—His Relations with the Villagranes—Royalist Successes on the North of Mexico—Affairs in Michoacan—Father Salto and his Execution—Venegas' Sanguinary Decree—In surgent Priests Deprived of their Immunity—Episcopal Indifference—Excitement in Mexico—Second Anniversary of Independence Celebrated—Ramon Rayon's Profitable Movements—Attack against Ixiniquilpan a Failure—Rayon's Arrangements with Royalist Traders—Proposed Negotiations for Peace—Assault of Yanhuitlan—Siege of Huahuapan—Trujano's Brilliant Defence—Morelos Comes to the Rescue and Wins a Victory—Gates of Oajaca Opened to Him. 420
CHAPTER XVIII.
AMERICAN AFFAIRS IN SPAIN.
1811-1812.
Government of Spain—The Cortés and National Sovereignty—Character of the Members—The Diputacion Americana and its Policy—Its Demands and Character of Concessions—Deputy Perez from Puebla—Deputy Cisneros Asks for Mexican Autonomy and Eventual Inde pendence—Arizpe—Mier—Forced Loan—Representation of the Consulado of Mexico—British Offers of Mediation—National Constitution as Adopted—Its Publication in Mexico—The Press—Election of Ayuntamientos—Animosity of the Natives toward the Spaniards—Constitution Practically Suspended. 441
CHAPTER XIX.
SUCCESS OF MORELOS.
1812-1813.
Morelos' Third Campaign—Chilapa Retaken—Reoccupation of the Coun try to Acapulco—Matamoros at Work in Izúcar—Nicolás Bravo's Victories—Viceregal Tribulations—Publication of Decrees of the Spanish Cortès—Death of Trujano—Morelos' Visit to Ozumba—He Attacks a Royalist Convoy—Takes Orizaba—Defeat on the Heights of Aculcingo—Captures Oajaca—Enormous Booty—Establishment of Government—Victor and Miguel Bravo's Campaign to Jamiltepec—Morelos' Plans—Venegas Superseded—Review of his Rule. 468
CHAPTER XX.
VICEROY CALLEJA AND HIS PLANS.
1813.
Calleja's Character and Appearance—How the Appointment was Received—Condition of Affairs—Fresh Taxes and Loans—Reforms Insurgent Heroine—Constitution of 1812 Enforced—Inquisition Disappears—Increase of Crime—Protests and Counter-appeals—Extent of Insurrection—Calleja's Campaign Plan—Royalist Positions—Verdusco's Fiasco—Rayon's Tour of Inspection—Quarrel between the Leaders—Iturbide's Victory at Salvatierra. 495
CHAPTER XXI.
OPERATIONS AGAINST RAYON, VILLAGRAN, AND OSORNO.
1813.
Siege of Cerro del Gallo—The Poisoned Well—Insurgent Forces and their Tactics—Movements in Guanajuato—Sway of the Villagranes—Their Sudden Fall—Huasteca Campaign—Osorno and his Territory—Terreño's Military Promenade—Osorno Irrepressible—Administration of Cruz in New Galicia—Frontier Operations—Chapala Lake and its Rovers—Division of Provincias Interims—Lara's Exploits in Texas—A Flicker in the Orient. 518
CHAPTER XXII.
CONGRESS OF CHILPANCINGO.
1813.
Morelos' March to Acapulco—He Besieges and Captures It—Royalist Reaction—Piaxtla—Guerrillas and their Doings—Bravo's Operations—His Repulse at Alvarado—Siege of Coscomatepec—Orizaba Surprised—Second Royalist Defeat at San Agustin del Palmar—Its Consequences—Discord in the Suprema Junta—Congress of Chilpancingo—Rayon's Action—Morelos the Generalissimo and Siervo de la Nacion—Declaration of National Independence—Constitution—Jesuits. 545
CHAPTER XXIII.
FALL OF MORELOS.
1813-1814.
Morelos Marches against Valladolid—Calleja's Counter-movement—Repulse at the Gate of Zapote—Brilliant Charge by Iturbide—Defeat and Death of Matamoros—The Congress Asserts Itself—Armijo Overruns Tecpan Province—Galeana Falls—Maleadministration in Oajaca—Álvarez's Triumphant Entry—The Enchanted Mountain—Speculations with Convoys—Quarrel and Misconduct of Rayon and Rosains—Expedition against Zacatlan and Flight of Rayon—Manhunting in the Central Provinces. 569
CHAPTER XXIV.
CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES.
1814.
Changed Aspect of the Revolution—Depression on Both Sides—Proposed Restriction of Passports and Export of Treasure—Causes of the Exodus of the Spaniards—Fresh Taxes—Restoration of Fernando VII.—Constitution of 1812 is Annulled and Autocracy Reës—tablished—Feeling in New Spain—Insurgent Constitution—Its Pro visions and Analysis—How it was Received—Election of Officers under the New Constitution—Liceaga President—Commemorative Medal—Constitution Ordered Read by the Curas—Relations with the United States. 592
CHAPTER XXV.
DEATH OF MORELOS.
1815.
The Revolutionists on Cóporo Hill—Positions of the Insurgent Forces—Determination of Calleja—Siege of Cóporo—Repulse of Iturbide—Attempted Surprise of Jilotepec—Ramon Rayon is Shorn of his Triumph—Claverino's Movement Southward—Iturbide Chases the Congress—Insubordination of Doctor Cos—He is Arrested and Condemned to Death, but is Discharged—Death of Doctor Cos—His Character—The Revolutionary Government Migrates—It is Over taken at Tezmalaca—Capture of Morelos—His Trial—Degradation and Penance—The Last Auto-de-fé—Execution of the Great Leader—Reflections on his Character—Two Mexican Writers on This Period. 608
CHAPTER XXVI.
LAST CAMPAIGNS UNDER CALLEJA.
1815-1816.
Effect of Morelos' Fall—Respective Strength of Insurgents and Royalists—Intrigues and Overthrow of Rosains—He Joins the Enemy—Teran Rises in Fame and Influence—Arrival of the Congress at Tehuacan—It is Forcibly Dissolved—The Goazacoalco Expedition—First Naval Victory for the Mexican Flag—The Mounted Raiders of Apam Plains—Osorno's Last Campaign—The Convoy Service in Vera Cruz—Miyares' Measures for its Protection—Operations under Victoria and his Associates—Bravo and Guerrero on the South Coast. 626
CHAPTER XXVII.
VICEROY APODACA AND HIS VIGOROUS MEASURES.
1816-1817.
Causes Which Sustained the Revolution—Review of Calleja's Rule—Character of the New Viceroy Apodaca—Measures to Gain Adhesion—Combined Movement against Tehuacan—Its Siege and Surrender—Deplorable Weakness of Teran—Vera Cruz is Swept by the Royalists—Their Successes in Mizteca—The Council of Jaujilla—Strife in Michoacan—Tarnished Reputation of Ramon Rayon—The Five Years' Siege of Mescala is Ended—Treachery of Vargas—Movements in the North—The Declining Insurrection Centres in Guanajuato—Apodaca's Success. 645
CHAPTER XXVIII.
MINA'S EXPEDITION.
1817.
A Famous Navarrese Guerrilla—Preparing for the Enterprise—The Landing at Soto la Marina—Alarm of the Royalists—The Victory at Peotillos—Penetrating the Interior—Traits of Mina Overthrow of Ordoñez and Castañon—Liberation of Prisoners—Jealousy of Torres—Character of Mexican Guerrillas—Fall of Soto la Marina—Siege of Fort Sombrero—Ravages of Thirst and Sword—The Bulwark of Independence—Mina's Field Operations—Repulse at Guanajuato—Capture and Execution of Mina—Reflections on his Undertaking—Siege and Fall of Los Remedies—Bibliography. 659
CHAPTER XXIX.
PLAN OF IGUALA.
1817-1821.
Capture of Insurgent Chiefs—Fort of Jaujilla—Dispersion of the Junta—Pardon Accepted by Numerous Leaders—A Flickering Light—Affairs in Spain—The Spanish Constitution Proclaimed in Mexico—Election of Deputies—Thoughts of Independence—Iturbide Reappears—Diversity of Political Opinions—Plots to Overthrow the Constitution—Iturbide in Command—Well-disguised Designs—Overtures to Guerrero—Independence Proclaimed—The Plan of Iguala—Measures of the Viceroy. 688
CHAPTER XXX.
TRIUMPH OF THE REVOLUTION.
1821.
Discouraging Prospects—Independence Proclaimed at Guanajuato—Valladolid Capitulates—The Provincias Internas Revolutionized—Iturbide at Querétaro—Apodaca's Doposal—His Conduct Discussed—His Successor—Bravo Joins the Revolutionists—Operations in Puebla and Vera Cruz—Santa Anna Repulsed at Vera Cruz—Victoria's Reappearance—Iturbide Enters Puebla—Arrival of O'Donojú—His Antecedents—Treaty pf Córdoba—Novella Hesitates to Recognize O'Donojú—Iturbide Enters the Capital—End of the Revolution. 712
CHAPTER XXXI.
THE SOVEREIGN PROVISIONAL JUNTA.
1821-1822.
Installation of the Junta—Appointment of a Regency—Its Cabinet—O'Donojú's Death—Iturbide's Rewards—Army Promotions—Surrender of Perote,—Acapulco, and Vera Cruz—Murder of Colonel Concha—Flight of Europeans—The Press—Political Factions—Measures for Convoking Congress—Iturbide's Interference—Conspiracy—Its Failure—Condition of the Country—The Revenue—The Mining Industry—A Forced Loan and Arbitrary—Measures Reoganization of the Army—Union of Central America with the Empire—Measures for its Representation—Reflections on the Administration of the Junta. 734
CHAPTER XXXII.
THE FIRST CONGRESS AND FIRST EMPEROR.
1822.
The Installation—Taking the Oath under Pressure—The First Misunderstanding—Political Parties—Measures for Relief of the Treasury—Disagreements on the Army Question—A Counter-revolution—Gen eral Dávila's Action—Iturbide and Congress at Open War—Progress of Republicanism—Iturbide Proclaimed Emperor by a Popular Emeute—A Stormy Congressional Session—Agustin I. Recognized—Joy in the Provinces—The Imperial Family and Household—Difficulties of the Treasury—The Council of State—The Coronation. 757
CHAPTER XXXIII.
DETHRONEMENT AND DEATH OF ITURBIDE.
1822-1824.
Inauguration of the Order of Guadalupe—Padre Mier—Short-lived Harmony—Arrest of Deputies—Iturbide Attempts to Reorganize Congress—His Preposterous Claims—He Dissolves the Assembly—A Junta Instituyente Established—Appropriation of Spaniards' Money—Affairs at Vera Cruz—Santa Anna in Disgrace—Iturbide Visits Jalapa—Santa Anna Revolts—Republicanism Proclaimed—Progress of the Insurrection—Reverses—Influence of the Masonic Order—Change of Tactics—Plan of Casa Mata—Iturbide's Conciliatory Action—Congress Reinstalled—The Emperor Abdicates—His Departure from Mexico—His Return and Death. 779