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Index:De Vinne, Invention of Printing (1876).djvu

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De Vinne, Invention of Printing (1876).djvu

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cover - - - - - fp - - fp  i  ii  iii  iv  v  vi  vii  viii 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 - - - - - -

CONTENTS.


I
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
II
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
III
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49
IV
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69
V
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
VI
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
109
VII
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122
VIII
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133
IX
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
146
X
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171
XI
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193
XII
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
230
XIII
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254
XIV
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264
XV
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
282
XVI
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308
XVII
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326
XVIII
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347
XIX
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360
XX
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375
XXI
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
403
XXII
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431
XXIII
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449
XXIV
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480
XXV
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
492
XXVI
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
514
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
543
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
547

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Statue of John Gutenberg Frontispiece.
Surface Exposed to Impression by Copper-plate method 21
Surface Inked and Exposed to Impression by Typographic method 21
Surface Exposed to Impression by Lithographic method 21
Face of a large Type, showing how the Letter is placed on the body 24
Side view of Canon body 25
Small Pica, Agate and Diamond body 25
View of body inclined to show the face 25
Stamped Brick from Babylon 30
Fac-simile of Impression on brick 31
Egyptian Stamp for impressing bricks 32
Assyrian Cylinder 34
Old Roman Stamps 37
Roman Stamps 38
Roman Scrinium and rolls of papyrus 43
Types of Irregular Body 52
Punch 55
Matrix 55
Illustrations of Type-bodies 56
Type-Mould, without matrix 57
One-half of the Mould 57
The other half of the Mould 57
Type-casting as practised in 1683 59
Type-casting as practised in 1564 62
Print of St. Christopher 70
Print of the Annunciation 72
Print of St. Bridget 74
Flemish Indulgence Print 76
Brussels Print 79
Berlin Print 81
Playing Card of the fifteenth century 93
Print Colorer 94
Engraver on Wood 95
Chinese Playing Cards 99
Early French Playing Cards 103
French and German Playing Cards of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 105
Fac-simile of part of a Chinese Book 117
Chinese Types made in London 117
Mark of Jacobus Arnoldus, 1345 123
Mark of Johannes Meynersen, 1435 123
Mark of Adam de Walsokne, 1349 125
Mark of Edmund Pepyr, 1483 125
Mark of an unknown person 125
Japanese Method of Making Paper 135
Paper-Mill of the sixteenth century 140
Scriptorium of the middle ages 149
Penmanship of the ninth century 150
Manuscript of the fifteenth century 152
Medieval Bookbinding 153
Medieval Illuminator 154
Sumptuously Bound Book 156
Medieval Book with covers of oak 157
Book Cover in Ivory, Byzantine style 158
Seal of the University of Paris 161
English Horn-Book 174
English Clog 175
Holbein's Dance of Death 183
Dance of Death, as shown in the Nuremberg Chronicle 185
Last page of the Bible of the Poor 197
First page of the Bible of the Poor, as made by Walther and Hurning 209
First page of the Apocalypse 213
First page of the Canticles 217
Story of the Blessed Virgin 221
Exercise on the Lord's Prayer 223
Illustration from the Book of Kings 225
Letter K of Grotesque Alphabet 227
Page from the Apostles' Creed 228
Page from the Eight Rogueries 229
Page from the Antichrist 232
Page from the Ars Memorandi 234
Page from the Ars Moriendi 237
Chiromancy of Doctor Hartlieb 240
Calendar of John of Gamundia 242
Page from the Wonders of Rome 243
Pomerium Spirituale 244
Temptations of the Devil 245
Life of St. Meinrat 246
Heidelberg Dance of Death 247
German Donatus, from a block in the National Library at Paris 258
Fragment of an early Donatus 259
Early Dutch Horarium 260
Imprint of Conrad Dinckmut 262
First page of Speculum Salutis 266
Last page of Speculum Salutis 268
Types of Speculum Salutis 277
Types in third edition of Speculum 285
Types of Fables of Lorenzo Valla 286
Types of Peculiarities of Criminal Law 287
Types of Epitaphs of Pope Pius II 288
The Enschedé Abecedarium 290
Experimental Letters drawn on wood 294
Types from Experimental Letters 295
Frisket, Tympan and Bed of an early European Printing Press 307
Paper-marks: seven illustrations 309, 310
Types of Jacob Bellaert 319
Types of John Brito 321
Map of the Netherlands 323
Scriverius' Portrait of Coster 333
Statue of Coster in Doctors' Garden 351
Medals in honor of Coster 353, 354
Statue of Coster on the monument 359
Autograph of Laurens Janszoon 361
House of Coster 370
Portrait of Laurens Janszoon Coster 371
Spurious Portrait by Van den Berg 372
Portrait attributed to Van Oudewater 372
The Laurens Janszoon of Meerman 373
Medieval Press 395
Type-mould of Claude Garamond 399
Types of the Donatus attributed to Gutenberg at Strasburg 401
Types of Donatus of 1451 405
De la Borde's Illustration of Types 406
Holbein's Satire on the Indulgences 407
Letter of Indulgence dated 1454 409
Types of Bible of 36 Lines 413
Abbreviations of Bible of 36 Lines 414
Portrait of John Fust 417
Types of Bible of 42 Lines 423
Portrait of John Gutenberg 429
Types of Letter of Indulgence of 1461 433
Types of Catholicon of 1460 435
Types of Celebration of the Mass 437
Types of Mirror of the Clergy 438
Colophon written by Peter Schœffer 450
Types of the Psalter of 1457 453
Colophon of the Psalter of 1457 455
Types of the Rationale Durandi 461
Types of the Bible of 1462 462
Trade-mark of Fust and Schœffer 462
Types of Constitutions of Clement V 463
Portrait of Peter Schœffer 469
Types of the Grammar of 1468 470
Illustration from the Book of Fables 483
Arms of the Typothetæ 489
Part of Koburger's Map of Europe 496
The Birth of Eve, Zainer's 497
Statue of Gutenberg at Strasburg 509
Type of the fifteenth century 520
Printing Office of sixteenth century 523
Hand Press of Jodocus Badius 528
Inking Balls of sixteenth century 530
Large wood-cut of fifteenth century 535
The Fall of Lucifer, Zainer's 537
A Print of 1475 539

ADDITIONAL NOTES AND CORRECTIONS.


Page 24. In the second line of foot-note, change two-thirds to four-ninths.

27. The exact date of the complete invention of copper-plate printing is unfixed. Vasari says that Finiguerra's discovery was made in 1450, but that the Italian practice of making plate prints began about 1460. It is obvious that the alleged discovery in 1450 of the feet that the blacking placed in incised lines could be transferred to paper by pressure was not the complete invention of copper-plate printing. Much more had to be done. The earliest dated Italian print by this method is of the year 1465. The earliest authentic German print is dated 1446. There are others attributed to the years 1422, 1430, 1440, but they are not accepted as genuine by Passavant. See Peintre-Graveur, vol. i, pp. 192-197.

Senefelder's first suggestion of lithography was entertained in 1796, but his vague notions about printing from stone did not assume a practical shape before 1798. He did not receive, and perhaps was not entitled to, his patent before 1800.

34. The exact size of the Assyrian cylinder illustrated on this page is seven inches high and three inches wide at each end.

64. On page 447, the date of the erection of this stone by Wittig is put down at 1508, which is the date given by Bernard and by many others. But Wetter, from whose book this statement was taken, knowing that Wittig was dead in 1507, altered the date to 1507. Helbig does not accept either date. He thinks that it should be 1504. Notes et dissertations, pp. 10, 11.

65. In foot-note, change exculptis to exsculptis.

77. I have followed De la Borde's translation of this indulgence, which makes the time seventeen thousand years, but Holtrop's translation is fourteen thousand years. The popes supposed to be associated with Gregory in the promulgation of this indulgence were the Anti-pope Benedict xiii at Avignon, and Pope John xxiii. Holtrop does not regard this as a print of 1418; he places it between 1455 and 1470.

82. It is possible that engraving on wood was done in England in the first half of the fifteenth century. Ottley, in his Inquiry concerning the Invention of Printing, page 198, describes an English print of the crucifixion, with legend in English, which he says may be as old as the St. Christopher. This is the legend: "Seynt Gregor. with oyer [other] popes & bysshoppes yn seer, Haue graunted of pardon xxvi. mill yeer. To yeym yat befor yis fygur on yeir knees Devoutly say .v. pater noster .&.v. Auees." Weigel has given other fac-similes of early English engraving.

95. Chatto says that Gringonneur was paid 56 sols about 1393. Passavant says 50 sols. Lacroix says 1392, and estimates the value of 56 sols in modern money at 180 francs.

98. In third line of second paragraph, change fifteenth to fourteenth.

104. In third line of foot-note, change printers to painters.

111, In foot-note, last line of small type, change chap. i to chap. ii.

130. Change John i, 3, to John iii, 1.

150. Lacroix gives the date of 1292 for the employment of the seventeen book-binders at the University of Paris.

177. In sixth line of note, change 1435 to 1430, and the word double to thrice.

180. In eleventh line, change 1385 to 1381.

218. The date of the termination of the Great Schism is usually put at 1447, but it was not fully ended until Pope Felix v abdicated the papal chair in 1449, and ordered the church to submit to Nicholas v.

250. Passavant (vol. i, p. 50) says that there is in the library at Heidelberg a copy of a xylographic edition of the Lord's Prayer, a block-book of ten leaves, which may be attributed to the fifteenth century.

299. In last line but two of note, change 380 to 280.

319. Holtrop says that Bellaert's name is first mentioned in 1485, as it appears in the fac-simile.

378. A document has been recently discovered at Strasburg which proves that Frielo Gensfleisch, the elder brother of John Gutenberg, was in Strasburg in 1429. This document is the signature of Frielo to a receipt for 26 florins due him on an annuity. See Book Worm for January, 1868.

397. It is not probable that this tool of four pieces was the press. Ottley, who thinks that Gutenberg's secret was not that of printing (Inquiry concerning Invention, p. 41), says, "there can be no doubt that presses of different kinds were known long before the invention of typography" (p. 37), and that "five of the witnesses, none of whom were partners, knew all about the press" (p. 40). It may also be added that the repetition by different witnesses of the order to separate the four pieces and put them in a disjointed form in the press or on or under the press, is evidence that the four pieces did not constitute the press nor any part of it. Nor can it be supposed that Gutenberg had sent to his home a bulky press to have, as has "been asserted, its "joinings renewed." This work should have been done by Sahspach, the joiner who built it Although I believe that Gutenberg afterward invented the printing press, I think that the press here mentioned was nothing more than the screw press of the carpenter—the wooden vise or press of a workman who needed it when using a file. A printing press would not be needed until the types were made, which it appears were not even then ready. The fact that Gutenberg, Dritzehen, Dünne, and Sahspach worked apart is proof that the proposed printing office was not furnished—that the men were making tools, and the tools were probably moulds and matrices. I have accepted Van der Linde's translation of zurlossen as melting, for it is warranted by many evidences that the tool of four pieces and the formen were of metal. Ottley's translation, making zurlossen mean a loosening or unjointing, or breaking-up, with a view to renewal or reconstruction, could also be accepted.

405. Bernard questions the accuracy of the date of the Donatus of 1451, but it is the belief of Fischer and of many others that it was printed in 1451.

412. In the last line of text, insert the word not before always.

413. Compare the spacing in the Bibles of Gutenberg with that of the Psalter of 1451, as shown in pages 453 and 455. In Gutenberg's Bibles, there are some evidences of attempts to keep the lines even; in the Psalter, the nicety of full lines or of even spacing was disregarded.

451. Madden admits that Schœffer was a copyist at Paris, but doubts the inference that he was a student of the University. His doubt seems to be based on the faulty Latin of the colophon.

455. I am not entirely satisfied with the fac-simile of types on this page. It is a copy of the fee-simile made by Falkenstein, the only one accessible to me of the edition of 1457. It is, no doubt, a correct representation of form and of general appearance, but the outlines of the letters are suspiciously sharp. They do not accord in this feature with the types shown on page 453. In Falkenstein's fac-simile, the ornamental work about the letter P is a dull bluish purple, so made by printing deep blue over lines previously printed in dull red. I have not attempted to imitate this dull purple color (of which I find no notice save in the book of Papillon), for I believe that this use of purple was exceptional. It was probably caused by an imperfect cleansing of the red block, the after application of the blue and the mixing on the block of both colors, forming a dull purple.

465. Madden doubts the genuineness of the record of the proposed mission of Jenson to Mentz.

467. I have accepted the statement of Bernard that leads were first used in 1465 in the Offices of Cicero, but a re-examination of the fac-simile in Sotheby's Typography (No. 90) of the Treatise on Reason and Conscience convinces me that the types of this work were leaded. As Gutenberg abandoned printing in 1465, it is probable that the Treatise is really older than the Offices. If so, Gutenberg was the first to use leads.

498. Many bibliographers regard Martens as the predecessor of John of Westphalia, and as a graduate of one of the typographical schools at Cologne. Holtrop thinks that Martens was the pupil of John of Westphalia, his corrector and associate, but not his partner or predecessor.

506. La Caille and Santander say that Gering died in 1510; Van der Meersch says 1520.

529. The weakness of the early press is abundantly proved by the smallness of the forms and the absence of large and black wood-cuts in all books printed before 1800. The inability of the hand-press (even when made of iron, as it was in 1824) is set forth by Johnson in his Typographia, vol. ii, p. 548. It is there stated that an engraver who had been at work for three years on a wood-cut 11½ by 15 inches, was dismayed by the discovery, after a fair trial, that his block was too large to be properly printed on any variety of English press then in common use. The Clymer press, just introduced, was then tested. By lengthening the bar, and getting two men to pull, a few fair impressions were obtained, but the block soon broke under pressure. This wood-cut was only about half the size of the two-page cuts which are now regularly and easily printed for the popular illustrated papers on machines at the rate of 1,000 an hour.

530. The most admirable feature of the best early printing is its simplicity. The types were uncouth, but they were made with single purpose, to be easily read, not to show the skill of the punch-cutter. This object would have been fully accomplished if the compositor had refrained from abbreviations and had spaced his words with intelligence. The pressman did his part of the work fairly, and honestly impressed the types on the paper with unexceptionable firmness and solidity. The readable method of doing presswork is, unfortunately, out of fashion. A perverted taste requires the modern printer to use thin types, dry glossy paper, as little ink and as weak an impression as is consistent with passable legibility. This general fondness for delicacy is not at all favorable to the production of readable books.