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Index:English Caricaturists and Graphic Humourists of the nineteenth century.djvu

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English Caricaturists and Graphic Humourists of the nineteenth century.djvu

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Dr. Johnson's definition of the word Caricatura.—Francis Grose's definition.—Modern signification of the word.—Change in the Spirit of English Caricature during the last Fifty Years.—Its Causes.—Gillray.—Rowlandson.—Bunbury.—Influence of Gillray and Rowlandson on their immediate Successors.—Gradual Disappearance of the Coarseness of the Old Caricaturists.—Change wrought by John Doyle.—We have now no Caricaturist.—Effect of Wood Engraving on Caricature.—Hogarth, although a Satirist, not a Caricaturist.—Gustave Doré misdescribed a Caricaturist.—Absurdity of comparing him with Cruikshank.—"Etching Moralized."pp. 1-11.
Connection of Gillray and Rowlandson with Nineteenth Century Caricaturists.—Napoleon Bonaparte.—The Causes of English Exasperation against him explained.—Sketch of his Policy towards England.—The "Berlin Decree."—English Caricatures brought to the notice of Bonaparte.—"A Political Fair."—The "Gallick Storehouse for English Shipping."—"Spanish Flies, or Boney taking an Immoderate Dose."—"Boney and his New Wife, or a Quarrel about Nothing."—Birth of the young King of Rome.—"British Cookery, or Out of the Frying-pan into the Fire."—"General Frost Shaving Boney."—"Polish Diet with French Dessert."—"The Corsican Blood-hound beset by the Bears of Russia."—"Nap nearly Nab'd, or a Retreating Jump just in time."—"Boney Returning from Russia covered with Glory."—"Nap's Glorious Return."—Rowlandson's Anti-Bonaparte Caricatures.—French Contemporary Satires.—Gillray's Anti-Bonaparte Caricatures.—His Libels on Josephine.—Madame Tallien.—Robert Dighton.—Consequences of a Pinch of Snuff.—Master Betty—Impeachment of Lord Melville.—Introduction of Gas.—Mary Anne Clarke.—Imbecility and Death of James Gillray.pp. 12-33.

Re-opening of Drury Lane.—Dr. Busby's "Monologue."—"A Buz in a Box, or the Poet in a Pet."—"Doctors Differ, or Dame Nature against the College."

—Joanna Southcott.—Flight of the Princess Charlotte.—"Plebeian Spirit, or Coachee and the Heiress Presumptive."—"Miss endeavouring to Excite a Glow with her Dutch Plaything."—American War of 1812–1815.—Hostile Temper of the Americans.—Disastrous Results of their Invasion of Canada.—English Retaliatory Measures.—Burning of Washington.—Expedition against Alexandria.—"The Fall of Washington, or Maddy in Full Flight."—British Defeated at Baltimore and New Orleans.—"Romeo Coates."—Marriage of the Princess Charlotte.—"Leap Year, or John Bull's Establishment."—Troubles of 1817.—Narrow Escape of the Prince Regent.—"More Plots!!! More Plots!!!"—Edmund Kean and Lucius Junius Booth.—"The Rival Richards."—Congress of the Allied Sovereigns at Aix-la-Chapelle."—A Russian Dandy at Home: a Scene at Aix-la-Chapelle."—"A Peep at the Pump Room, or the Zomerzetshire Folks in a Maze."—Death of Queen Charlotte.—"The Hambourg Waltz."—Invention of the Kaleidoscope.—"Caleidoscopes, or Paying for Peeping."—The Velocipede or "Hobby."—"The Spirit Moving the Quakers upon Worldly Vanities."—"John Bull in Clover," and "John Bull Done Over."—Birth of the Princess Victoria.—"A Scene in the New Farce, called The Rivals, or a Visit to the Heir Presumptive."pp. 34-61.
Caroline of Brunswick.—Levity of her Character.—Result of the Commission to Inquire into her Conduct in 1806.—Her Letter to the Regent.—Result of the Commission of 1813.—Caroline rebels.—Wrath of Lord Ellenborough.—"A Key to the Investigation, or Iago distanced by odds."—Refusal of the Regent to meet her in 1814.—Her Protest.—Applies for Permission to Travel Abroad.—Rumours prejudicial to her Moral Conduct.—"Paving the way for a Royal Divorce."—The Milan Commission.—Ministers averse to the Prosecution of the Queen.—Their False Step.—Arrival of Caroline in London.—Opening of the "Green Bag."—Arrival of the Witnesses.—Strange Appearance of Caroline at the Trial.—Satire upon Her and her Supporters.—"City Scavengers Cleansing the London Streets of Impurities."—Practical Failure of the Prosecution.—"The Queen Caroline running down the Royal George."—"The Steward's Court of the Manor of Torre Devon."—Popularity of the King.—"Grand Entrance to Bamboozlem."—Public Events of 1822–1825.—Greek War of Independence.—Battle of Navarino.—"Russian Bear's Grease, or a Peep into Futurity."—"The Descent of the Great Bear, or the Mussulmans in a Quandary."—"The Nest in Danger."—"The Porte presenting a Bill of Indemnification."—"Burking old Mrs. Constitution, aged 141.—Caricature Declines after 1830, and why.—William Heath and other Caricaturists of the Period.—Theodore Lane.pp. 62-88.

Caricatures of Robert Cruikshank.—Forgotten, and why.—Artistic Training.—"The Mother's Girl Plucking a Crow, or German Flesh and English Spirit."—"The Horse Marine and his Trumpeter in a Squall."—Queer Fashions of the

early part of the Century.—Thackeray's Difficulty.—Caricatures on the "Dandies" of 1818.—Robert and his Fellow-Caricaturists ridicule the sham "Corinthians"—and "Corinthian Kates" of their day.—Hollow Pretensions of the "Dandies."—"The Dandy Dressing at Home" and "The Dandy Dressed."—"A Dandyess."—Robert's Satires on the "Dandies" of 1819.—"The Mysterious Fair One, or the Royal Introduction to the Circassian Beauty."—Other Caricatures of his of 1819.—His Satires on the Trial of Queen Caroline.—His Caricatures of 1821.—Duel between the Dukes of Bedford and Buckingham.—Other Satires by him in 1822.—Interference of Louis XVIII. in Spanish Affairs.—Robert's Satires on Louis and his Son.—"The Golden Ball."—Other Caricatures by Robert in 1823.—The Tenth Hussars.—Maria Foote and "Pea-green Hayne."—Other satires by Robert in 1824.—Colonel Fitz-Bastard and Mr. Judge.—Cox v. Kean.—Sir Walter Scott.—"The Living Skeleton."—Popple and Stockdale.—Other Subjects of 1825.—"Cruikshankiana."pp. 89-108.
Book Illustrations of Isaac Robert Cruikshank.—The "Life in London."—Injustice done to Robert with reference to this Book.—The "Life" Dramatized.—Excitement it Occasioned.—The Portly Stranger in the Duke's Box.—Queer Visitors at Rehearsal.—Horror of the Serious People.—The Mistake which they made.—"The Finish."—Pierce Egan's Position with reference to the "Life."—Origin of "Bell's Life in London."—Charles Molloy Westmacott.—"The English Spy."—"The Oppidans' Museum."—The "King at Home."—Rowlandson's contribution to "The English Spy."—Westmacott and the Literature of Foote and Hayne.—Robert's Carelessness.—"Points of Misery."—"Doings in London."—"Cruikshank's Comic Album."—"Monsieur Nong-tong-paw."—Three Books Illustrated by Robert.—Death.pp. 109-124.

Caricatures of George Cruikshank.—"No Plan, no Ambition."—The Assertion Disproved.—Why George's Caricatures possess so remarkable an Interest.—"The Scourge."—Lord Sidmouth's Bill to amend the Toleration Act.—Opposition to the Measure by the Nonconformists.—George's Satire upon them.—Satire upon the Medical Profession.—"The Satirist, or Monthly Meteor."—"Fashion."—"The Loyalists' Magazine."—An Early Satire.—"Meditations amongst the Tombs."—Other Satires of 1813.—"Little Boney gone to Pot."—Alexander of Russia and the Duchess of Oldenburg.—The Princess Caroline.—Joanna Southcott.—The Obnoxious Corn Laws of 1815.—Satires thereon.—Escape of Napoleon.—Outlawed by the Powers.—Excitement caused by this Event.—George's Satires thereon.—Napoleon endeavours to Establish Friendly Relations.—Silent Hostility of Europe.—He Sets out for the Army.—George's Satire thereon.—Surrender of Bonaparte.—The Bellerophon off the English Coast.—Other Satires of 1815.—The Regent's Repugnance to Retrenchment and Reform.—Marriage of the Princess Charlotte.—Satire on the Purchase of the

"Elgin Marbles."—Other Satires of 1816.—John Bull's Bankruptcy Proceedings.—Remanded for Extravagance.—His "Schedule."—Seditious Troubles of 1817.—A Satire on the Princess Caroline.—Death of the Princess Charlotte.—Other Satires of 1817—of 1818.—The "Bank Restriction Note."—Satires of 1819.—Queen Caroline and other Caricatures of 1820 and 1821.—Death and Funeral of the Queen.—The Populace force the Procession to go through the City.—The Military fire on the People.—Alderman Sir William Curtis in Highland Costume.—Indignation of the King.—Satires on both.—Statue of Achilles.—Other Caricatures of 1822.—Satires of 1823 and 1824.—Joint Stock Company Mania of 1825.—Undated Satires—Amazing value of George Cruikshank's Caricatures.pp.125-166.
George Cruikshank as a Book Illustrator.—Defects and Excellencies.—Women, Horses, Trees.—"Greenwich Hospital."—Sikes and the Dog.—Jonathan Wild.—Simon Renard and Winwike.—"Born a Genius and Born a Dwarf."—Its History.—Randulph and Hilda at Ranelagh.—Sale of the Shadow.—Sailors Carousing.—Paying off a Jew.—Simpkin Dancing.—The Last Cab Driver.—Dominie Sampson.—Dumbiedikes.—Fall of the Leaf.—Taurus.—Libra.—Revolution at Madame Tussaud's.—Theatrical Fun Dinner.—"Gone!"—Duke of Marlborough's Boot.—The Two Elves.—Witches' Frolic.—Ghosts.—Jack o' Lantern.—Devils.—The Gin Shop.—Redgauntlet.—Fagin in the Condemned Cell.—Murder of Sir Rowland Trenchard.—Xit Wedded to the Scavenger's Daughter.—Mauger Sharpening his Axe.—Massacre at Tullabogue, etc.—His Geniuspp. 167-188.
The Sleep of Thirty Years.—Causes of George Cruikshank's Decadence Insufficiently Understood.—Professor Bates' Theory.—Charles Dickens's Nervousness (?).—Why Cruikshank was Unfitted to Illustrate his Novels.—The Rejected Illustration to Oliver Twist.—Quarrel with Bentley.—Guy Fawkes Illustrations.—"Ainsworth's Magazine." Progress of the Cruikshank versus Bentley Campaign.—Cruikshank's Declaration of War.—His Tactics.—"Our Library Table."—Quarrel with Harrison Ainsworth.—Cruikshank's Claim to be Originator of Two of his Stories Considered.—A word for Harrison Ainsworth.—Popularity and Success of his Novels.—Charles Lever's "Arthur O'Leary."<! -- should be an end-quote here -->—Cruikshank's final Leap in the Dark.—Its Fatal Consequences.—Crusade against Drink.—"Worship of Bacchus."—His Work Falls away.—Thirty Years of Artistic Sterility.—Fairy Stories turned into Temperance Tracts.—Forgotten!pp. 189-207.

Birth of Robert Seymour.—Starts as a Painter in Oils.—Death of George IV.—His Contemptible Character.—Sale of his Wardrobe.—Order for General Mourning.—"The Adelaide Mill."—Revolution of 1830.—Dismissal of the

German Band.—St. John Long the Quack.—Administering an Oath.—The "Humorous Sketches."—"Book of Christmas."—"New Readings of Old Authors."—"Figaro in London."—À Beckett's Editorial Amenities.—Feud between him and Seymour.—Seymour Caricatures À Beckett.—"Figaro" passes into the hands of Mayhew.—Re-engagement of Seymour.—Origin of the "Pickwick Papers."—The Rejected Etching.—Suicide of Seymour.—His Claim to be the "Inventor" of "Pickwick" considered.pp. 208-234.
The Agitation for Reform in 1830-32.—The Marquis of Blandford's Scheme of Reform.—Strange State of the English Representative System of those Days.—O'Connell's Scheme.—Lord John Russell's "Resolutions" Rejected.—Dearth of Political Caricaturists at this Time.—HB.—Secret of the Success of his "Political Sketches."—His Style a Complete Innovation.—"I'll be your Second."—Unpopularity of the Duke of Cumberland.—"My Dog and my Gun."—Lord John Russell Introduces a Reform Bill.—Second Reading Carried by a Majority of One.—General Election.—Lord John Russell's Second Reform Bill Passes the House of Commons.—Deputation to the Lords.—"Bringing up our Bill."—The Lords Throw it Out.—Lord John Russell again brings in a Bill.—Ministers again in a Minority in the Lords.—Earl Grey tenders certain Alternatives.—Excitement caused by the Opposition of the Lords.—Perplexity of the King.—How he Overcame the Opposition of the Peers.—William IV. as Johnny Gilpin.—The King as Mazeppa and Sinbad the Sailor.—Outrage on the Duke of Wellington.—"Taking an Airing in Hyde Park."—"Auld Lang Syne."—"A Hint to Duellists."—"A Great Subject Dedicated to the Royal College of Surgeons."—Sir Francis Burdett.—"Following the Leader."—"The Dog and the— Shadow,"—"A Race for the Westminster Stakes."—"A Fine Old English Gentleman."—"Jim Crow Dance and Chorus."pp. 235-253.

Political Sketches of HB. (continued).—Lord John Russell.—"Jonah."—Reduction of the Stamp on Newspapers.—How it was evaded.—Arguments of the Opponents of the Measure.—Hard and Soft Soap versus Newspapers.—Strange Arguments of the Newspaper Proprietors of the Day.—"The Rival Newsmongers."—Brougham Watches for the Door of Preferment being Opened.—"The Gheber Worshipping the Rising Sun."—Made Lord Chancellor.—"A Select Specimen of the Black Style."—A Scene in the House of Lords.—"The Duel that Did Not Take Place."—Dissolution of Parliament in 1834.—Brougham's Royal "Progress" through Scotland.—Annoyance of William IV., who Determines to Get Rid of Him.—"The Fall of Icarus."—"The Vaux and the Grapes."—The Irish Coercion Bill of 1833.—Irish Disaffection which led Up to It.—List of Irish Crimes for One Year.—Scenes between English and Irish Members.—"Prisoners of War."—Good Effects of the Coercion Bill.—Irish Agitators of 1833 and 1883 Compared.—O' Connell and

the Irish Peasant.—Unscrupulous Political Conduct of O'Connell.—"The Comet of 1835."—"Doctor Syntax [i.e. Peel] on his Faithful Steed in Search of the Picturesque."—Amazing Number of HB's Political Sketches.—His failings.—His Imitators and their Fate.pp. 254-276.
John Leech.—Birth.—At Charterhouse.—The "Coach Tree."—Early Efforts in Drawing brought to the notice of Flaxman.—Apprenticed to Whittle, an Eccentric Medical Man.—Transfer of Leech's Indentures.—Early Work.—Applies to Illustrate "Pickwick."—Style not Matured till 1840.—An Attack on Dickens.—Attack on "Phiz."—Attack on D'Israeli.—"Bentley's Miscellany."—Joins Punch.—Marriage.—The "Right-hand Man in Punch's Cabinet."—"Illuminated Magazine."—Portraits of Leech in Punch.—Douglas Jerrold and Albert Smith.— Douglas Jerrold and À Beckett.—Leech at a Fancy Ball.—Albert Smith and the Wide-awake Innkeepers at Chamounix.—George Cruikshank Borrowing from Leech.—Influence of Cruikshank on Leech.—The Two Compared.—Abhorrence of Frenchmen.—Mistake in "The Battle of Life."pp. 277-293.
John Leech's Punch Cartoons.—The "Albert" Hat.—O'Connell.—Sir James Graham.—"Peel's Dirty Little Boy."—"How do you Like the New Whig?"—"The Premier's Fix."—"The Railway Juggernaut."—Between Free Trade and Protection Sir Robert Peel falls through.—"Dombey and Son."—Lord Brougham "in order."—Smithfield.—Louis Philippe.—The Year of Unrest, 1848.—French Expedition to Rome.—"A Bright Idea."—General Haynau and Barclay & Perkins' Draymen.—"Joe" Hume.—The "Papal Aggression" Cartoons.—"The Boy who Chalked up 'No Popery' and then Ran Away."—Great Exhibition of 1851.—The Coup d'état.—The Peace Society.—"The Old 'Un and the Young 'Un."—War with Russia.—Evils of the Purchase System.—Generals Janvier and Fevrier.—"The Return from Vienna."—Incapacity of English Generals.—"Urgent Private Affairs."—"Staying Proceedings."—The Royal Levées.—The French Colonels.—"Religion à la mode."—Fête at Cremorne.—Plots against the French Emperor, and their Consequences.—"Invasion of French Light Wines."pp. 294-314.

Exhibition of Leech's "Sketches in Oil" at the Egyptian Hall in 1862.—What Thackeray said of them.—Gradual Decrease in the Numbers of his Cartoons for Punch.—Overwork.—Goes to the Continent with Mark Lemon in 1862.—"A day at Biarritz."—Returns with no Benefit.—Leech and Thackeray at Evans's in December, 1863.—Thackeray and Leech at Charterhouse on "Founder's Day."—Thackeray at the Wednesday Punch Dinner, 15th of December, 1863.—Death of Thackeray.—Death of Mr. R. W. Surtees.—The Punch Council Dinners.—John Leech a faithful Attendant.—"Moses Starting for the Fair."—John Leech's Illness described.—No Falling off in the Quality of his Designs.—"St. Genulphus."

—Starts off for Homburg with Mr. Alfred Elmore.—Death of Thomas Frederick Robson.—His Wonderful Powers Wasted.—Leech goes to Whitby.—Shirley Brooks joins him.—"The Weinbrunnen Schwalbach."—Reminiscences of the Whitby Visit.—Opening of Fechter's Season at the Lyceum.—John Leech at a Party at Mr. W. P. Frith's, 13th of October.—At the Weekly Punch Dinner, 26th of October.—Serious Change for the Worse.—His Death.—Shock caused by his Death in London and the Provinces.—His Funeral.—Shirley Brooks' Memorial in Punch.pp. 315-335.
Hablot Knight Browne ("Phiz").—Invincible Tendency to Exaggeration.—Charles Lever's Opinion.—Weakness and Attenuation of his Figures.—Compared with John Leech.—Tendency to Reproduce.—All his Heroes closely Resemble One Another.—Charles Lever's Complaint on this Score.—Great Ability of the Artist.—"Ralph Nickleby's Visit to his Poor Relations."—Newman Noggs.—Squeers.—Mrs. Nickleby's Lunatic Admirer.—"Pecksniff's Reception of the New Pupil."—"Pleasant Little Family Party at Mr. Pecksniff's."—"Warm Reception of Mr. Pecksniff by his Venerable Friend."—Quilp and Samson Brass.—Quilp and the Dog.—Mrs. Jarley's Waxwork Brigand.—Capture of "Bunsby by Mrs. Macstinger.—"Sunday under Three Heads."—The Jack Sheppard Mania of 1840.—"The Way to the Gallows made Easy and Pleasant."—"Phiz" not a Born Comic Artist.—Excellence in Depicting Graver Subjects.—"The Dombey Family."—"Mrs. Dombey at Home."—"Abstraction and Recognition."—"The Dark Road."—"Carker in his Hour of Triumph."—"Bleak House."—Why Browne suited Charles Dickens's Requirements.—Coolness between Artist and Author.—One of Browne's Finest Illustrations.—Decline of Book Etching.—Browne without an Idea of his Own.—Powerful Assistance rendered to Novelists by Book Illustrators of his day.—Sketches and Studies.—Death of the Artist.pp. 336-354.
Kenny Meadows.—"Portraits of the English."—A Thoroughly Useful Man.—Some Works Illustrated by Meadows.—His Merits Unequal.—His Contempt for Nature.—An Early Illustrator of Punch.—His Illustrated Shakespeare.—Some Excellent Work of Meadows.—His Death.—Robert William Buss.—Recommended to Illustrate "Pickwick" on Seymour's Death.—Etchings Suppressed.—The "Buss Plates" not his at all.—His Paintings.—Lectures on Caricature and Graphic Satire.—Comic Publications which preceded or ran side by side with Punch.—Alfred William Forrester (Alfred Crowquill).—"A General Utility Man."—Crowquill a Caricaturist.—His Talent and Cleverness.—Some of His Paintings.—Charles H. Bennett.—"Shadows."—"Shadow and Substance."—"Origin of Species."—Taken on the Punch Staff.—Early Death.—Theatrical Performances for the Benefit of his Family.—Kate Terry.—Thackeray as a Comic Artist.—Satire on Charles Lever.—Unfitted to Illustrate his own Novels, and why.—His Genius Displayed in Literature not in Art.—Illustrations to "Vanity Fair" Considered.—Anthony Trollope on this Subject.pp. 355-380.

First Work of Richard Doyle.—Receives his Art Training from his Father.—Joins Punch. The Peace-at-any-Price Party.—The Troubles of 1848.—The Sea-Serpent of Revolution Upsetting the Monarchical Cock-boats.—Lord Brougham.—Richard Doyle's Dream of the Future of Ireland.—The Window Tax.—"Manners and Customs of Ye Englishe."—"The Month" upon Exeter Hall.—Establishment of the Papal Hierarchy in England.—The Causes of Doyle's Retirement from Punch Explained.—Unselfishness of His Conduct.—Ultimate Consequences on his Prospects.—Number of his Punch Illustrations.—Caricatures of Richard Doyle.—"Brown, Jones, and Robinson."—Works Illustrated by Doyle.—Mr. Hamerton's Criticism on his Illustrations to "The Newcomes."—His Death.—John Tenniel.—Joins Punch at the Commencement of Troublous Times.—Death of the Duke of Wellington.—Battle of Oltenitza.—Lord Aberdeen as the "Courier of St. Petersburg."—Lord Aberdeen tries to Hold in the British Lion.—England the Unready.—"Peace" Seated on the Garrison Gun.—Punch's Low Estimate of the Third Napoleon.—An "International Poultry Show."—"The Eagle in Love."—"Playing with Edged Tools."—"An Unpleasant Neighbour."—Louis Closes his Firework Shop "to please Johnny."—Miss Britannia Refuses to Dance again with Louis.—Mr. Tenniel one of the most Versatile of Modern Designers.—Examples of his Graphic Satire.—Notice of his Cartoons Closes with 1864, in Accordance with the Plan of the Work.—His Comic Powers.pp.381-400.