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Index:Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1892).djvu

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Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (1892).djvu

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CONTENTS.





AUTHOR'S BIRTH.

Author's place of birth—Description of country—Its inhabitants—Genealogical trees—Method of counting time in slave districts—Date of author's birth—Names of grandparents—Their cabin—Home with them—Slave practice of separating mothers from their children—Author's recollections of his mother—Who was his father? 25


REMOVAL FROM GRANDMOTHER'S.

Author's early home—Its charms—Author's ignorance of "old master"—His gradual perception of the truth concerning him—His relations to Col. Edward Lloyd—Author's removal to "old master's" home—His journey thence—His separation from his grandmother—His grief. 29


TROUBLES OF CHILDHOOD.

Col. Lloyd's plantation—Aunt Katy—Her cruelty and ill-nature—Capt. Anthony's partiality to Aunt Katy—Allowance of food—Author's hunger—Unexpected rescue by his mother—The reproof of Aunt Katy—Sleep—A slave-mother's love—Author's inheritance—His mother's acquirements—Her death. 34


A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE SLAVE PLANTATION.

Home plantation of Colonel Lloyd—Its isolation—Its industries—The slave rule—Power of overseers—Author finds some enjoyment—Natural scenery—Sloop "Sally Lloyd"—Wind-mill—Slave quarter—"Old master's" house—Stables, store-houses, etc., etc.—The great house—Its surroundings—Lloyd Burial-place—Superstition of Slaves—Colonel Lloyd's wealth—Negro politeness—Doctor Copper—Captain Anthony—His family—Master Daniel Lloyd—His brothers—Social etiquette. 40


A SLAVEHOLDER'S CHARACTER.

Increasing acquaintance with old master—Evils of unresisted passion—Apparent tenderness—A man of trouble—Custom of muttering to himself—Brutal outrage—A drunken overseer—Slaveholder's impatience—Wisdom of appeal—A base and selfish attempt to break up a courtship. 50


A CHILD'S REASONING.

The author's early reflections on Slavery—Aunt Jennie and Uncle Noah—Presentiment of one day becoming a freeman—Conflict between an overseer and a slave woman—Advantage of resistance—Death of an overseer—Col. Lloyd's plantation home—Monthly distribution of food—Singing of Slaves—An explanation—The slaves' food and clothing—Naked children—Life in the quarter—Sleeping-places—not beds—Deprivation of sleep—Care of nursing babies—Ash cake—Contrast. 56


LUXURIES AT THE GREAT HOUSE.

Contrasts—Great House luxuries—Its hospitality—Entertainments—Fault-finding—Shameful humiliation of an old and faithful coachman—William Wilks—Curious incident—Expressed satisfaction not always genuine—Reasons for suppressing the truth. 65


CHARACTERISTICS OF OVERSEERS.

Austin Gore—Sketch of his character—Overseers as a class—Their peculiar characteristics—The marked individuality ofAustin Gore—His sense of duty—Murder of poor Denby—Sensation—How Gore made his peace with Col. Lloyd—Other horrible murders—No laws for the protection of slaves possible of being enforced. 75


CHANGE OF LOCATION.

Miss Lucretia—Her kindness—How it was manifested—"Ike"—A battle with him—Miss Lucretia's balsam—Bread—How it was obtained—Gleams of sunset amidst the general darkness—Suffering from cold—How we took our meal mush—Preparations for going to Baltimore—Delight at the change—Cousin Tom's opinion of Baltimore—Arrival there—Kind reception—Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Auld—Their son Tommy—My relations to them—My duties—A turning-point in my life. 83


LEARNING TO READ.

City annoyances—Plantation regrets—My mistress—Her history—Her kindness—My master—His sourness—My comforts—Increased sensitiveness—My occupation—Learning to read—Baneful effects of slaveholding on my dear, good mistress—Mr. Hugh forbids Mrs. Sophia to teach me further—Clouds gather on my bright prospects—Master Auld's exposition of the Philosophy of Slavery—City slaves—Country slaves—Contrasts—Exceptions—Mr. Hamilton's two slaves—Mrs. Hamilton's cruel treatment of them—Piteous aspect presented by them—No power to come between the slave and slaveholder. 91


GROWING IN KNOWLEDGE.

My mistress—Her slaveholding duties—Their effects on her originally noble nature—The conflict in her mind—She opposes my learning to read—Too late—She had given me the "inch," I was resolved to take the "ell"—How I pursued my study to read—My tutors—What progress I made—Slavery—What I heard said about it—Thirteen years old—Columbian orator—Dialogue—Speeches—Sheridan—Pitt—Lords Chatham and Fox—Knowledge increasing—Liberty—Singing—Sadness——Unhappiness of Mrs. Sophia—My hatred of slavery—One Upas tree overshadaws us all. 99


RELIGIOUS NATURE AWAKENED.

Abolitionists spoken of—Eagerness to know the meaning of word—Consults the dictionary—Incendiary information—The enigma solved—"Nat Turner" insurrection—Cholera—Religion—Methodist minister—Religious impressions—Father Lawson—His character and occupation—His influence over me—Our mutual attachment—New hopes and aspirations—Heavenly light—Two Irishmen on wharf—Conversation with them—Learning to write—My aims. 108


THE VICISSITUDES OF SLAVE LIFE.

Death of old Master's son Richard, speedily followed by that of old Master—Valuation and division of all the property, including the slaves—Sent for to come to Hillsborough to be valued and divided—Sad prospects and grief—Parting—Slaves have no voice in deciding their own destinies—General dread of falling into Master Andrew's hands—His drunkenness—Good fortune in falling to Miss Lucretia—She allows my return to Baltimore—Joy at Master Hugh's—Death of Miss Lucretia—Master Thomas Auld's second marriage—The new wife unlike the old—Again removed from Master Hugh's—Reasons for regret—Plan of escape. 116


EXPERIENCE IN ST. MICHAELS.

St. Michaels and its inhabitants—Capt. Auld—His new wife—Sufferings from hunger—Forced to steal—Argument in vindication thereof—Southern camp-meeting—What Capt. Auld did there—Hopes—Suspicions—The result—Faith and works at variance—Position in the church—Poor Cousin Henny—Methodist preachers—Their disregard of the slaves—One exception—Sabbath-school—How and by whom broken up—Sad change in my prospects—Covey, the negro-breaker. 126

 

RETROSPECTION.

Meeting of colored citizens in Washington to express their sympathy at the great national bereavement, the death of President Garfield—Concluding reflections and conviction. 577


Oration at the unveiling of the Freedmen's monument, at Lincoln Park, Washington, D. C., April 14, 1876—Extract from a speech delivered at Elmira, N. Y., August 1, 1880. 584




THIRD PART.


LATER LIFE.

Again summoned to the defense of his people—The difficulties of the task—The race problem—His life work—The anti-slavery movement. 619


A GRAND OCCASION.

Inauguration of President Garfield—A valuable precedent—An affecting scene—The greed of the office-seekers—Conference with President Garfield—Distrust of the Vice-President. 626


DOUBTS AS TO GARFIELD'S COURSE.

Garfield not a stalwart—Encounter of Garfield with Tucker—Hope in promises of a new departure—The sorrow-stricken nation. 633

 

RECORDER OF DEEDS.

Activity in behalf of his people—Income of the Recorder of Deeds—False impressions as to his wealth—Appeals for assistance—Persistent beggars. 638


PRESIDENT CLEVELAND'S ADMINISTRATION.

Circumstances of Cleveland's election—Political standing of the District of Columbia—Estimate of Cleveland's character—Respect for Mr. Cleveland—Decline for strength in the Republican party—Time of gloom for the colored people—Reason for the defeat of Blaine. 644


THE SUPREME COURT DECISION.

Action of the Supreme Court—Its effects on the colored people—Address at Lincoln Hall. 652


DEFEAT OF JAMES G. BLAINE.

Causes of the Republican defeat—Tariff and free trade—No confidence in the Democratic party. 670


EUROPEAN TOUR.

Revisits Parliament—Changes in Parliament — Recollections of Lord Brougham—Listens to Gladstone—Meeting with old friends. 674


CONTINUATION OF EUROPEAN TOUR.

Through France—Dijon and Lyons—The palace of the Popes—The Amphitheater at Aries—Visits Nice—Pisa and its leaning tower—The Pantheon—Modern Rome—Religion at Rome—Rome of the Past—Vesuvius and Naples—Through the Suez Canal—Life in the East—The Nile—The religion of Mahomet—At the graves of Theodore Parker and Mrs. Browning—The mountains of the Tyrol. 681

 

THE CAMPAIGN OF 1888.

Preference for John Sherman—Speech at the convention—On the stump—The Tariff question. 717


ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT HARRISON.

Appointed minister at Haïti—Unfriendly criticism—Admiral Gherardi. 723


MINISTER TO HAITI.

The Môle St. Nicolas—Social Relations—Sympathy for Haïti—The facts about the Môle St. Nicolas—Conference with the Haïtian Government—Negotiations for the Môle St. Nicolas—Close of the interview. 727


CONTINUED NEGOTIATIONS FOR THE MOLE ST. NICOLAS.

Unfortunate delay—Renewed authority from the United States—Haïti's Refusal—Reasons for the Refusal—The Clyde contract—A dishonest proposition—A strange demand—Haïti's mistake—Bad effect of the Clyde proposition—Final words. 739