Quatrains of Omar Khayyam (tr. Whinfield, 1883)/Quatrains 1-100

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742379Quatrains of Omar Khayyám — Quatrains 1-100Edward Henry WhinfieldOmar Khayyám


[58] [59]


At dawn a cry through all the tavern shrilled,
"Arise my brethren of the revellers' guild,
    That I may fill our measures full of wine,
Or e'er the measure of our days be filled."


آمد سحری ندا ز میخانهٔ ما
کای رندِ خراباتیِ دیوانهٔ ما
برخیز که پر کنیم پیمانه ز می
زان پیش که پر کُنند پیمانهٔ ما

1.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Bl. considers this quatrain mystical.

[58] [59]


Who was it brought thee here at nightfall, who?
Forth from the harem, in this manner, who?
    To him who in thy absence burns as fire,
And trembles like hot air, who was it, who?


امشب برِ ما ماست که آورد ترا
وز پرده بدین دست که آورد ترا
نزدیکِ کسی که بیتُو در آتش بود
چُون باد همی جست که آورد ترا

2.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Bl. says the omission of the copulative wa in line 4 is characteristic of Khayyam. In line 4 I follow Blochmann's rendering. It may mean, "when the wind blows."

[60] [61]


'Tis but a day we sojourn here below,
And all the gain we get is grief and woe,
    And then, leaving life's riddles all unsolved,
And burdened with regrets, we have to go.


این دهر که بُود مُدّتی منزلِ ما
نامد بجز از بلا وغم حاصلِ ما
افسُوس که حل نگشت یک مشکلِ ما
رفتیم و هزار حسرت اندر دلِ ما

3.   N.

[60] [61]


Khaja! grant one request, and only one,
Wish me God-speed, and get your preaching done;
    I walk aright, 'tis you who see awry;
Go! heal your purblind eyes, leave me alone.


ای خواجه یکی کام روا کُن مارا
دم در کش و در کارِ خُدا کُن مارا
ما راست رویم ولیک تو کج بینی
رو چارهٔ دیده کُن رها کُن مارا

4.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.

[60] [61]


Arise! and come, and of thy courtesy
Resolve my weary heart's perplexity,
    And fill my goblet, so that I may drink,
Or e'er they make their goblets out of me.


برخیز و بیا بیا برایِ دلِ ما
حل کن بجمالِ خویشتن مُشکلِ ما
یک کوزهٔ می بیار تا نوش کُنیم
زان پیش که کوزها کُنند از گلِ ما

5.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   The heart is supposed to be the seat of reason.   "Or ever" and "or ere" are both found in Elizabethan English.   Abbot, Shakespearian Grammar, p. 89.

[62] [63]


When I am dead, with wine my body lave,
For obit chant a bacchanalian stave,
    And, if you need me at the day of doom,
Beneath the tavern threshold seek my grave.


چون فوت شوم بباده شوئید مرا
تلقین ز شراب و جام گوئید مرا
خواهید بروزِ حشر یابید مرا
از خاکِ درِ میکده جُوئید مرا

6.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Faut shudan is Turani Persian.   Bl.

[62] [63]


Since no one can assure thee of the morrow,
Rejoice thy heart to-day, and banish sorrow
    With moonbright wine, fair moon, for heaven's moon
Will look for us in vain on many a morrow.


چُون عُهده نمیشود کسی فردا را
حالی خوش کن این دلِ پر سودا را
می نوش بنورِ ماه ای ماه که ماه
بسیار بتابد و نیابد ما را

7.   Bl. C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Line 2 is in metre 14.

[62] [63]


Let lovers all distraught and frenzied be,
And flown with wine, and reprobates, like me;
    When sober, I find everything amiss,
But in my cups cry, "Let what will be be."


عاشق همه ساله مست و شیدا بادا
دیوانه و شوریده و رُسوا بادا
در هُشیاری غُصّهٔ هر چیز خوریم
ور مست شویم هرچه بادا بادا

8.   Bl. L. N.   Line 3 is in metre 13.

[64] [65]


In Allah's name, say, wherefore set the wise
Their hearts upon this house of vanities?
    Whene'er they think to rest them from their toils,
Death takes them by the hand, and says, "Arise."


عاقل بچه اُمّید درین شُوم سرا
بر دولتِ او نهد دل از بهرِ خدا
هرگاه که خواهد بنشیند از پا
گیرد اجلش دست که بالا بنما

9.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I.

[64] [65]


Men say the Koran holds all heavenly lore,
But on its pages seldom care to pore;
    The lucid lines engraven on the bowl,—
That is the text they dwell on evermore.


قرآن که بهین کلام خوانند اورا
گه گاه نه بر دوام خوانند اورا
در خطِ پیاله آیتی روشن هست
کاندر همه جا مدام خوانند اورا

10.   Bl. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Lines were engraven on the bowl to measure out the draughts.   Bl.

[64] [65]


Blame not the drunkards, you who wine eschew,
Had I but grace, I would abstain like you,
    And mark me, vaunting zealot, you commit
A hundredfold worse sins than drunkards do.


گر می نحوری طعنه مزن مستانرا
گر توبه دهَد توبه کُنم یزدانرا
تو فخر بدین کنی که من می نخُورم
صد کار کنی که می غُلامست آنرا

11.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I.   Yazdánrá, an oath.   Ghulám, mere "children" compared to your sins.

[66] [67]


What though 'tis fair to view, this form of man,
I know not why the heavenly Artisan
    Hath set these tulip cheeks and cypress forns
To deck the mournful halls of earth's divan.


هر چند که رنگ و بوی زیباست مرا
چون لاله رخ و چو سرو بالاست مرا
معلوم نشد که در طربخانهٔ خاک
نقاشِ من از بهرِ چه آراست مرا

12.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I.   Tarab here "grief."

[66] [67]


My fire gives forth no smoke-cloud here below,
My stock-in-trade no profit here below,
    And you, who call me tavern-haunter, know
There is indeed no tavern here below.


از آتشِ ما دود کجا بود اینجا
وز مایهٔ ما سود کجا بود اینجا
انکس که مرا نامِ خراباتی کرد
در اصل خرابات کجا بود اینجا

13.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   The anacoluthon in line 3, and the missing rhyme before the radíf, or burden, in line 4 are characteristics of Khayyam.   Bl.

[66] [67]


Thus spake an idol to his worshipper,
"Why dost thou worship this dead stone, fair sir?
    'Tis because He who gazeth through thine eyes,
Doth some part of His charms on it confer."


بت گفت به بت پرست کای عابدِ ما
دانی ز چه روی گشتهٔ ساجدِ ما
بر ما بجمال خود تجلّی کردست
آنکس که ز تُست ناظر ای شاهدِ ما

14.   L.   Meaning, all is of God, even idols.   See Gulshan i Raz, line 800.

[68] [69]


Whate'er thou doest, never grieve thy brother,
Nor kindle fumes of wrath his peace to smother;
   Dost thou desire to taste eternal bliss,
Vex thine own heart, but never vex another!


تا بتْوانی رنجه مگردان کسرا
بر آتشِ خشمِ خویش منْشان کسرا
گر راحتِ جاودان طمع میداری
میرنج همیشه و مرنجان کسرا

15.   L. b.   Line 1 is in metre 14.

[68] [69]


O Thou! to please whose love and wrath as well,
Allah created heaven and likewise hell;
   Thou hast thy court in heaven, and I have
Why not admit me in thy courts to dwell?


ای کرده بلطف و قهرِ تو صنع خدا
در عهدِ ازل بهشت و دوزخ پیدا
بزمِ تو بهشت است و مرا چیزی نیست
چونست که در بهشت ره نیست مرا

16.   Bl. L.   The person addressed is the prophet Muhammad.   The Sufis were fond of dwelling on the opposition between the beautiful (jamál) and terrible (jalál) attributes of Deity.   Gulshan i Raz, p. 27.

[68] [69]


So many cups of wine will I consume,
Its bouquet shall exhale from out my tomb,
   And every one that passes by shall halt,
And reel and stagger with that mighty fume.


چندان بخورم شراب کین بُویِ شراب
آید ز تراب چُون روم زیرِ تراب
تا بر سرِ خاکِ من رسد مخموری
از بُویِ شرابِ من شود مست و خراب

17.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.

[70] [71]


Young wooer, charm all hearts with lover's art,
Glad winner, lead thy paragon apart!
   A hundred Ka'bas equal not one heart,
Seek not the Ka'ba, rather seek a heart!


در راهِ نیاز هر دلی را دریاب
در کُویِ حضور مُقبِلی را دریاب
صد کعبهٔ آب و گل بیکدل نرسد
کعبه چه روی برو دلی را دریاب

18.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Line 2, "In the presence seize the perfect heart."   Niyáz, "lovers' entreaties."

[70] [71]


What time, my cup in hand, its draughts I drain,
And with rapt heart unconsciousness attain,
   Behold what wondrous miracles are wrought,
Songs flow as water from my burning brain.


روزی که بدست بر نهم جامِِ شراب
وز غایتِ خرّمی شوم مست و خراب
صد مُعجزه پیدا کنم اندر هر باب
این طبعِِ چو آتش، سخن‌هایِ چو آب

19.   L. N.   Sukhanháyĭ: Kasra i tausfíí before the epithet, chu áb.   Lumsden, ii. p. 259.

[70] [71]


To-day is but a breathing space, quaff wine!
Thou wilt not see again this life of thine;
   So, as the world becomes the spoil of time,
Offer thyself to be the spoil of wine!


روزی که دو مهلتست می خور میِِ ناب
کین عمرِ گذشته در نیابی دریاب
دانی که جهان رو بخرابی دارد
تو نیز شب و روز بمی باش خراب

20.   L. N.   Do muhlat, "inhaling and exhaling."

[72] [73]


'Tis we who to wine's yoke our necks incline,
And risk our lives to gain the smiles of wine;
   The henchman grasps the flagon by its throat
And squeezes out the lifeblood of the wine.


مائیم نهاده سر بفرمانِ شراب
جان کرده فدایِ لبِ خندانِ شراب
هم ساقیِ ما حلقِ صراحی در دست
هم بر لبِ ساغر آمده جانِ شراب

21.   L. N.   Line 3 is in metre 19.

[72] [73]


Here in this tavern haunt I make my lair,
Pawning for wine, heart, soul, and all I wear,
   Without a hope of bliss, or fear of bale,
Rapt above water, earth and fire and air.


مائیم و می و مطرب و این کُنجِ خراب
جان ودل وجام و جامه در رهنِ شراب
فارغ ز امیدِ رحمت وبیمِ غذاب
آزاد ز باد و خاک وز آتش و آب

22.   Bl. C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Note the diphthong in mái dissolved in scanning. Bl., Prosody 13.

[72] [73]


Quoth fish to duck, "'Twill be a sad affair,
If this brook leaves its channel dry and bare;"
   To whom the duck, " When I am dead and roasted
The brook may run with wine for aught I care."


با بط میگفت ماهئی در تب و تاب
باشد که بجوی رفته باز آید آب
بط گفت چو من و تو بگشتیم کباب
بود از پسِ مرگِ من چه دریا چه شراب

23.   L.   Meaning Après nous le déluge.

[74] [75]


From doubt to clear assurance is a breath,
A breath from infidelity to faith;
    Oh, precious breath I enjoy it while you may,
'Tis all that life can give, and then comes death.


از منزلِ کفر تا بدین یکنفس ست
وز عالمِ شک تا بیقین یکنفس ست
این یکنفسِ عزیز را خوش میدار
کز حاصلِ عُمرِ ما همین یکنفس ست

24.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.

[74] [75]


Ah! wheel of heaven to tyranny inclined,
'Twas e'er your wont to show yourself unkind;
    And, cruel earth, if they should cleave your breast,
What store of buried jewels they would find!


ای چرخِ فلک خرابی از کینهُ تست
بیدادگری شیوهُ دیرینهُ تست
ای خاک اگر سینهُ تو بشْکافند
بس گوهرِ قیمتی که در سینهُ تست

25.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   "Wheel of heaven," i.e. destiny, fortune.   Sir Thomas Browne talks of the "wheel of things."   In line 1 scan khará bĭyaz.

[74] [75]


My life lasts but a day or two, and fast
Sweeps by, like torrent stream or desert blast,
    Howbeit, of two days I take no heed,—
The day to come, and that already past.


این یک دو سه روزه نوبتِ عمر گذشت
چون آب بجویبار و چون باد بدشت
هرگز غمِ دو روز مرا یاد نگشت
روزی که نیامدست و روزی که گذشت

26.   Bl. C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Do sih roza is an adjective.   Bl.

[76] [77]


That pearl is from a mine unknown to thee,
That ruby bears a stamp thou can'st not see,
    The tale of love some other tongue must tell,
All our conjectures are mere phantasy.


آن لعلِ گران بها زکانی دگرست
وان درِّ یکانه را نشانی دگرست
اندیشه‌ٔ این وآن خیالِ من وتست
افسانه‌ٔ عشق از زبانی دگرست

27.   Bl. L. N.   Káni, Yá i batní.   Bl., Pros. 7. or, perhaps, yá i tankír.   See note to No. 373.   Meaning, real love of God differs from the popular idea of it. Bl.

[76] [77]


Now with its joyful prime my age is rife,
I quaff enchanting wine, and list to fife;
    Chide not at wine for all its bitter taste
Its bitterness sorts well with human life!


امروز که نوبتِ جوانّیِ من ست
می نوشم از آنکه کامرانّیِ من ست
عیبش مکنید اگرچه تلخ ست خوش ست
تلخ ست از آنکه زندگانّیِ من ست

28.   Bl. C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Bl. notes "Regarding the tashdíd on jawání, see my Prosody, p. 11."

[76] [77]


O soul! whose lot it is to bleed with pain,
And daily change of fortune to sustain,
    Into this body wherefore didst thou come,
Seeing thou must at last go forth again?


ای دل چو نصیبِ تو همه خون شدنست
احوالِ تو هر لحظه دگرگون شدنست
ای جان تو درین تنم چه کار آمده‌ٔ
چون عاقبتِ کارِ تو بیرون شدنست

29.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.

[78] [79]


To-day is thine to spend, but not to-morrow,
Counting on morrows breedeth naught but sorrow;
    Oh! squander not this breath that heaven hath lent thee,
Nor make too sure another breath to borrow!


امروز ترا دست رسی فردا نیست
واندیشه‌ٔ فردات بجز سودا نیست
ضایع مکن ایندم ار دلت شیدا نیست
کین باقی عمر را بقا پیدا نیست

30.   Bl. C. N. A. B. I.   In line 4, scan Kí bákĭyĭ 'umrărá.   Bl., Prosody 11.

[78] [79]


'Tis labour lost thus to all doors to crawl,
Take thy good fortune, and thy bad withal;
    Know for a surety each must play his game,
As from heaven's dice-box fate's dice chance to fall.


از هرزه بهر دری نمیباید تاخت
با نیک و بدِ زمانه میباید ساخت
از طاسکِ چرخ و کعبتینِ تقدیر
هر نقش که پیدا شود آن باید باخت

31.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Naksh, the dots on dice.

[78] [79]


This jug did once, like me, love's sorrows taste,
And bonds of beauty's tresses once embraced,
    This handle, which you see upon its side,
Has many a time twined round a slender waist!


این کوزه چو من عاشقِ زاری بودست
در بند سرِ زلفِ نگاری بودست
این دسته که در گردنِ او می بینی
دستیست که بر گردنِ یاری بودست

32.   Bl. C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Budast, the perfect in astam, is archaic.   Bl., Prosody 12.

[80] [81]


Days changed to nights, ere you were born, or I,
And on its business ever rolled the sky;
    See you tread gently on this dust-perchance
'Twas once the apple of some beauty's eye.


پیش از من و تو لیل و نهاری بودست
گردنده فلک زبهرِ کاری بودست
زینهار قدم بخاک آهسته نهی
کان مردمکِ چشمِِ نگاری بودست

33.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Niháre, Yá i tankir.

[80] [81]


Pagodas, just as mosques, are homes of prayer,
'Tis prayer that church-bells chime unto the air,
    Yea, Church and Kaaba, Rosary and Cross
Are all but divers tongues of world-wide prayer.


بتخانه و کعبه خانه‌ٔ بندگیست
ناقوس زدن ترانه‌ٔ بندگیست
زنّار و کلیسیا و تسبیح و صلیب
حقّا که همه نشانه‌ٔ بندگیست

34.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Scan bandăgĭyast.   Bl.   Meaning, forms of faith are indifferent.

[80] [81]


'Twas writ at first, whatever was to be,
By pen, unheeding bliss or misery,
    Yea, writ upon the tablet once for all,
To murmur or resist is vanity.


بر لوح نشانِ بودنیها بوده است
پیوسته قلم ز نیک و بد آسوده است
اندر تقدیر هر چه بایست بداد
غم خوردن و کوشیدنِ ما بیهوده است

35.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Meaning, fate is heartless and resistless.   Scan búd ast, dropping silent he, and Alif i wasl.

[82] [83]


There is a mystery I know full well,
Which to all, good and bad, I can not tell;
    My words are dark, but I can not unfold
The secrets of the station where I dwell.


با هر بد و نیک راز نتْوانم گفت
کوته سخنم دراز نتْوانم گفت
حالی دارم که شرح نتْوانم داد
رازی دارم که باز نتْوانم گفت

36.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Hálé, a state of ecstacy.

[82] [83]


No base or light-weight coins pass current here,
Of such a broom has swept our dwelling clear;
    Forth from the tavern comes a sage and cries,
"Drink! for ye all must sleep through ages drear."


با ما درمِ قلب نمیگیرد جفت
جاروب طربخانهٔ ما پاک برُفت
پیری ز خرابات برون آمد و گفت
می خور که بعمرهات میباید خفت

37.   Bl. L. N.   Meaning, Mollas' fables will not go down with us.

[82] [83]


With outward seeming we can cheat mankind,
But to God's will we can but be resigned;
    The deepest wiles my cunning e'er devised,
To balk resistless fate no way could find.


با حکمِ خدا بجز رضا در نگرفت
با خلق بجز روی و ریا در نگرفت
هر حیله که در تصوّرِ عقل آید
کردیم ولیک با قضا در نگرفت

38.   L. N.   Meaning, weakness of human rule compared to the strength of Divine decrees.

[84] [85]


Is a friend faithless? spurn him as a foe;
Upon trustworthy foes respect bestow;
    Hold healing poison for an antidote,
And baneful sweets for deadly eisel know.


بیگانه اگر وفا کند خویشِ من است
ور خویش خطا کند بداندیشِ من است
گر زهرموافقت کند تریاک است
ور نوش مُخالفت کُند نیشِ من است

39.   L. N.   These gnomical epigrams are not common in Khayyam

[84] [85]


No heart is there but bleeds when torn from Thee,
No sight so clear but craves Thy face to see;
    And though perchance Thou carest not for them,
No soul is there but pines with care for Thee.


پر خون ز فراقت جگري نیست که نیست
شیدایِ تو صاحبنضري نیست که نیست
با آنکه نداري سرِ سودايِ کسي
سودايِ تو در هیچ سری نیست که نیست

40.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Jigar, the liver, was considered to be the seat of love.

[84] [85]


Sobriety doth dry up all delight,
And drunkenness doth drown my sense outright;
    There is a middle state, it is my life,
Not altogether drunk, nor sober quite.


تا هشیارم طرب ز من پنهان است
چون مست شدم در خردم نقصان است
حالیست میانِ مستی و هشیاری
من بندهءِ آن که زندگاني آنست

41.   C. N. I.   Mastí o: scan mastĭyō.   The Epicurean golden mean.   See Ecclesiastes, vii, 16, 17.

[86] [87]


Behold these cups! Can He who deigned to make them,
In wanton freak let ruin overtake them,
    So many shapely feet and hands and heads,—
What love drives Him to make, what wrath to break them?


ترکیبِ پیالهٔ که در هم پیوست
بشْکستنِ آن کجا روا دارد مست
چندین سر و پایِ نازنین و کف و دست
از مهرِ چه ساخت و بکینِ چه شکست

42.   C. N. A. B. I. J.   Piyálăē, a cup.   So Job, "Thy hands have made me, yet thou dost destroy me."

[86] [87]


Death's terrors spring from baseless fantasy,
Death yields the tree of immortality;
    Since 'Isa breathed new life into my soul,
Eternal death has washed its hands of me!


ترسِ اجل و وهمِ فنا مستي تست
ورنه ز فنا شاخِ بقا خواهد رُست
تا از دمِ عیسوی شدم زنده بجان
مرگِ ابد از وجودِ من دست بشست

43.   L. N.   Meaning the Sufi doctrine of Baká ba'd ul faná.   See Gulshan i Raz, p. 31.

[86] [87]


Like tulips in the Spring your cups lift up,
And, with a tulip-cheeked companion, sup
    With joy your wine, or e'er this azure wheel
With some unlooked-for blast upset your cup.


چون لاله بنوروز قدح گیر بدست
با لاله رخی اگر ترا فرصت هست
می نوش بخرّمي که این چرخِ کبود
ناگاه ترا چو باد گرداند پست

44.   C. L. N. A. I. J.

[88] [89]


Facts will not change to humor man's caprice,
So vaunt not human powers, but hold your peace;
    Here must we stay, weighed down with grief for this,
That we were born so late, so soon decease.


چون کار نه بر مرادِ ما خواهد رفت
اندیشهٔ جهْدِ ما کجا خواهد رفت
پیوسته نشسته‌ایم از حسرتِ آنک
دیر آمده‌ایم و زود میباید رفت

45.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Meaning, the futility of striving against predestination.   Ánk, for ánki.   Bl. Prosody 13.

[88] [89]


Khayyam! why weep you that your life is bad?
What boots it thus to mourn? Rather be glad.
    He that sins not can make no claim to mercy,
Mercy was made for sinners—be not sad.


خیّام ز بهْرِ گنه این ماتم چیست
وز خوردنِ غم فایده بیش و کم چیست
آنرا که گنه نکرد غفران نبود
غفران ز برایِ گنه آمد غم چیست

46.   C. L. N. A. B. I.   See note on No. 130.

[88] [89]


All mortal ken is bounded by the veil,
To see beyond man's sight is all too frail;
    Yea! earth's dark bosom is his only home:—
Alas! 'twere long to tell the doleful tale.


در پردهٔ اسرار کسی را ره نیست
زین تعبیه جانِ هیچ کس اگه نیست
جز در دلِ خاکِ تیره منزلگه نیست
افسوس که این فسانها کوته نیست

47.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.

[90] [91]


This faithless world, my home, I have surveyed,
Yea, and with all my wit deep question made,
    But found no moon with face so bright as thine,
No cypress in such stateliness arrayed.


در عالمِ بیوفا که منزلگهِ ماست
بسیار بجستم بقیاسی که مراست
چون رویِ تو ماه نیست روشن گفتم
چون قدِّ تو سرو نیست میگویم راست

48.   L. N.

[90] [91]


In synagogue and cloister, mosque and school,
Hell's terrors and heaven's lures men's bosoms rule,
    But they who master Allah's mysteries,
Sow not this empty chad their hearts to fool.


در صومعه و مدرسه و دیر و کنشت
ترسنده ز دوزخند و جویایِ بهشت
آنکس که ز اسرارِ خدا با خبر است
زین تخم در اندرونِ خود هیچ نکِشت

49.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Meaning, souls re-absorbed in the Divine essence have no concern with the material heaven and hell.

[90] [91]


You see the world, but all you see is naught,
And all you say, and all you hear is naught,
    Naught the four quarters of the mighty earth,
The secrets treasured in your chamber naught.


دنیا دیدی و هرچه دیدی هیچ است
وان نیز که گفتی و شنیدی هیچست
سر تا سرِ آفاق دویدی هیچ است
وان نیز که در خانه خزیدی هیچ است

50.   L. N.   Meaning, all is illusion (Maya).

[92] [93]


I dreamt a sage said, "Wherefore life consume
In sleep? Can sleep make pleasure's roses bloom?
    For gather not with death's twin-brother sleep,
Thou wilt have sleep enough within thy tomb!"


در خواب بُدم مرا خردمندی گفت
کز خواب کسی را گلِ شادی نشکفت
کاری چکنی که با اجل باشد جفت
می خور که بزیرِ خاک میباید خفت

51.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   So Homer, Kasignétos thanatoio.

[92] [93]


If the heart knew life's secrets here below,
At death 'twould know God's secrets too, I trow;
    But, if you know naught here, while still yourself,
To-morrow, stripped of self, what can you know?


دل سرِّ حیات اگر کماهی دانست
در موت هم اسرارِ الهی دانست
اکنون که تو با خودی ندانستی هیچ
فردا که ز خود روی چه خواهی دانست

52.   C. L. N. A. I.   In line 2 scan Ĭláhí.   Bl. Prosody, p. 7.

[92] [93]


On that dread day, when wrath shall rend the sky,
And darkness dim the bright stars' galaxy,
    I'll seize the Loved One by His skirt, and cry,
"Why hast Thou doomed these guiltless ones to die?"


روزیکه شود اذا السماء انفطَرَت
واندم که شود اذا النجوم انکدرت
من دامنِ تو بگیرم اندر عرصات
گویم صنما بایّ ذنبٍ قتلت

53.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   See Koran, lxxxii. 1.   Note the alif i wasls in lines 1 and 2.   In line 4 scan kata lat, transposing the last vowel.   Bl. Prosody, p. ii.

[94] [95]


To knaves Thy secret we must not confide,
To comprehend it is to fools denied,
   See then to what hard case Thou doomest men,
Our hopes from one and all perforce we hide.


(Persian characters)

54.   C. L. N. A. B. I.   There is a variation of this, beginning Asrár i jahán.

[94] [95]


Cupbearer! what though fate's blows here betide us,
And a safe resting-place be here denied us,
   So long as the bright wine-cup stands between us,
We have the very Truth at hand to guide us.


(Persian characters)

55.   C. L. N. A. I.   In line 3 scan măyāst.   Bl. Prosody, p. 13, and note tashdíd on Hakk dropped.   Ibid, p. iv.

[94] [95]


Long time in wine and rose I took delight,
But then my business never went aright;
   Since wine could not accomplish my desire,
I have abandoned and forsworn it quite.


(Persian characters)

56.   C. L. N. A. I. J.

[96] [97]


Bring wine! my heart with dancing spirit teems,
Wake I fortune's waking is as fleeting dreams;
   Quicksilver-like our days are swift of foot,
And youthful fire subsides as torrent streams.


(Persian characters)

57.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   In line 3 scan bedárĭyĭ.

[96] [97]


Love's devotees, not Moslems here you see,
Not Solomons, but ants of low degree;
   Here are but faces wan and tattered rags,
No store of Cairene cloth or silk have we.


(Persian characters)

58.   L. N.   For the story of Solomon and the ants, see Koran, xxvii. 18.   Kasab, linen made in Egypt.

[96] [97]


My law it is in pleasure's paths to stray,
My creed to shun the theologic fray;
   I wedded Luck, and offered her a dower,
She said, "I want none, so thy heart be gay."


(Persian characters)

59.   C. L. N. A. I. J.

[98] [99]


From mosque an outcast, and to church a foe,
Allah! of what clay didst thou form me so?
   Like skeptic monk, or ugly courtesan,
No hopes have I above, no joys below.


(Persian characters)

60.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Ummed has the tashdíd ob metrum.   Bl., Prosody 9.   Line 2 is in metre 17.   Gil i mará for gil i man rá, Vullers, pp. 173 and 193.

[98] [99]


Men's lusts, like house-dogs, still the house distress
With clamor, barking for mere wantonness;
   Foxes are they, and sleep the sleep of hares;
Crafty as wolves, as tigers pitiless.


(Persian characters)

61.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   "Sleep of hares," deceit

[98] [99]


Yon turf, fringing the margent of the stream,
As down upon a cherub's lip might seem,
   Or growth from dust of buried tulip cheeks;
Tread not that turf with scorn, or light esteem!


(Persian characters)

62.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Juyiy: the of júy is hamzated because followed by another .   Vullers, p. 24.

[100] [101]


Hearts with the light of love illumined well,
Whether in mosque or synagogue they dwell,
   Have their names written in the book of love,
Unvexed by hopes of heaven or fears of hell.


هر دل که در او نورِ محبّت بسرشت
گر ساکنِ مسجد است وگرز اهلِ کنشت
در دفترِ عشق هرکه را نام نوشت
آزاد زدوزخ است و فارغ زبهشت

63.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Compare Hafiz, Ode 79: "Wherever love is, there is the light of the Beloved's face."

[100] [101]


One draught of wine outweighs the realm of Tús,
Throne of Kobád and crown of Kai Kawús;
   Sweeter are sighs that lovers heave at morn,
Than all the groanings zealot breasts produce.


یکجرعهءِ می زماكِ كاووس بهست
وز تختِ قباد و ملكت طوس بهست
هر ناله كه عاشقي برآرد بسحر
از نعرهءِ زاهدانِ سالوس بهست

64.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Kawús is the old spelling.

[100] [101]


Though Moslems for my sins condemn and chide me,
Like heathens to my idol I confide me;
   Yea, when I perish of a drunken bout,
I'll call on wine, whatever doom betide me.


هر چند که از گناه بدبختم و زشت
نومید نیم چو بت پرستان ز كنشت
امّا سحري که میرم از مخموری
مي خواهم و معشوقه چه دوزح چه بهشت

65.   L. N.   See a variation of this below, No. 111.

[102] [103]


In drinking thus it is not my design
To riot, or transgress the law divine,
   No! to attain unconsciousness of self
Is the sole cause I drink me drunk with wine.


مي خوردنِ من نه از برايِ طربست
نز بهْرِ فساد و ترکِ دین و ادبست
خواهم که ز بیخودي بر آرم نفسی
می خوردن و مست بودنم زین سببست

66.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Perhaps a hit at the Sufis.

[102] [103]


Drunkards are doomed to hell, so men declare,
Believe it not, 'tis but a foolish scare;
   Heaven will be empty as this hand of mine,
If none who love good drink find entrance there.


گویند که دوزخي بود مردمِ مست
قولیست خلاف دل در او نتْوان بست
گر عاشق و مست دوزخي خواهد بود
فردا باشد بهشت همچون کفِ دست

67.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Line 4 is in metre 17.

[102] [103]


'Tis wrong, according to the strict Korán,
To drink in Rajab, likewise in Sha'bán,
   God and the Prophet claim those months as theirs;
Was Ramazan then made for thirsty man?


گویند مخور باده که شعبان نه رواست
نه نیز رجب که آنمهِ خاصِّ خداست
شعبان و رجب ماهِ خدا هست و رسول
ما در رمضان خوریم کان خاصهٔ ماست

68.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   The point, of course, is that Ramazán is the Muhammadan Lent.

[104] [105]


Now Ramadan is come, no wine must flow,
Our simple pastimes we must now forego,
   The wine we have in store we must not drink,
Nor on our mistresses one kiss bestow.


(Persian characters)

69.   L. N.   Does Sáda mean the winter feast?

[104] [105]


What is the world? A caravanserai,
A pied pavilion of night and day;
   A feast whereat a thousand Jamsheds sat,
A couch whereon a thousand Bahrams lay.


(Persian characters)

70.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Wámánda, "leavings."

[104] [105]


Now that your roses bloom with flowers of bliss,
To grasp your goblets be not so remiss;
   Drink while you may! Time is a treacherous foe,
You may not see another day like this.


(Persian characters)

71.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Bar bár, 'blooming, on the branch,' i.e. you are still young.   Bl.

[106] [107]


Here in this palace, where Bahram held sway,
The wild roes drop their young, and tigers stray;
   And that great hunter king—ah! well a day!
Now to the hunter death is fallen a prey.


(Persian characters)

72.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Daró: see Bl. Pros. 11.

[106] [107]


Down fall the tears from skies enwrapt in gloom,
Without this drink, the flowers could never bloom!
   As now these flowerets yield delight to me,
So shall my dust yield flowers—God knows for whom.


(Persian characters)

73.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   In line 4 is the the "ta i tajáhul," meaning, 'I do not know whether,' 'perhaps.'   Bl.

[106] [107]


To-day is Friday, as the Moslem says,
Drink then from bowls served up in quick relays;
   Suppose on common days you drink one bowl,
To-day drink two, for 'tis the prince of days.


(Persian characters)

74.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Friday is the day "of assembly," or Sabbath.

[108] [109]


The very wine a myriad forms sustains,
And to take shapes of plants and creatures deigns
   But deem not that its essence ever dies,
Its forms may perish, but its self remains.


(Persian characters)

75.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   On this Bl. notes "The Arabic form hayawán is required by the metre."   And suwar is the Arabic plural, used as a singular.   Bl. Prosody 5.   Wine means the divine "Noumenon.

[108] [109]


'Tis naught but smoke this people's fire doth bear,
For my well-being not a soul doth care;
   With hands fate makes me lift up in despair,
I grasp men's skirts, but find no succor there.


(Persian characters)

76.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Scan tayĭfa.

[108] [109]


This bosom friend, on whom you so rely,
Seems to clear wisdom's eyes an enemy;
   Choose not your friends from this rude multitude,
Their converse is a plague 'tis best to fly.


(Persian characters)

77.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   The MSS. transpose the lines.

[110] [111]


O foolish one! this molded earth is naught;
This particolored vault of heaven is naught;
   Our sojourn in this seat of life and death
Is but one breath, and what is that but naught?


(Persian characters)

78.   Bl. L. N.   Shakl i mujassam, 'the earth.'   Bl.

[110] [111]


Some wine, a Houri (Houris if there be),
A green bank by a stream, with minstrelsy;—
   Toil not to find a better Paradise,
If other Paradise indeed there be!


(Persian characters)

79.   Bl. C. L. N. A. I. J.   Dozakh i farsúda, 'an old hell,' i.e. vain things which create a hell for you.   Bl.

[110] [111]


To the wine-house I saw the sage repair,
Bearing a wine-cup, and a mat for prayer;
   I said, "O Shaikh, what does this conduct mean?"
Said he, "Go drink! the world is naught but air."


(Persian characters)

80.   N.

[112] [113]


The Bulbul to the garden winged his way,
Viewed lily cups, and roses smiling gay,
   Cried in ecstatic notes, "O live your life,
You never will re-live this fleeting day."


(Persian characters)

81.   N.   The MSS. have a variation of this, beginning Bulbul chu. Jám . . . . rá.   See Bl. Prosody, p. 12.

[112] [113]


Thy body is a tent, where harbourage
The Sultan spirit takes for one brief age;
   When he departs, comes the tent-pitcher death,
Strikes it, and onward moves, another stage.


(Persian characters)

82.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Manzil, in line 2, 'lodging;' in line 3, 'stage.'   Khímăyé, a 'tent'.

[112] [113]


Khayyám, who long time stitched the tents of learning,
Has fallen into a furnace, and lies burning,
   Death's shears have cut his thread of life asunder,
Fate's brokers sell him off with scorn and spurning.


(Persian characters)

83.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.

[114] [115]


In the sweet spring a grassy bank I sought,
And thither wine, and a fair Houri brought;
   And, though the people called me graceless dog,
Gave not to Paradise another thought!


(Persian characters)

84.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Batar, a contraction.   See Bl. Prosody, p. 10.

[114] [115]


Sweet is rose-ruddy wine in goblets gay,
And sweet are lute and harp and roundelay;
   But for the zealot who ignores the cup,
'Tis sweet when he is twenty leagues away!


(Persian characters)

85.   N.   The MSS. have a variation of this.   Note Khŭsh.

[114] [115]


Life, void of wine, and minstrels with their lutes,
And the soft murmurs of Irákian flutes,
   Were nothing worth: I scan the world and see:
Save pleasure, life yields only bitter fruits.


(Persian characters)

86.   L. N.    See an answer to this in No. 97.

[116] [117]


Make haste! soon must you quit this life below,
And pass the veil, and Allah's secrets know;
   Make haste to take your pleasure while you may,
You wot not whence you come, nor whither go.


(Persian characters)

87.   C. L. N. A. I.   In line 3 scan nĭdánĭyaz.

[116] [117]


Depart we must! what boots it then to be,
To walk in vain desires continually?
   Nay, but if heaven vouchsafe no place of rest,
What power to cease our wanderings have we?


(Persian characters)

88.   N.   In line 3 scan jáyīgă.   Bl., Prosody, p. 15.

[116] [117]


To chant wine's praises is my daily task,
I live encompassed by cup, bowl, and flask;
   Zealot! if reason be thy guide, then know
That guide of me doth ofttimes guidance ask.


(Persian characters)

89.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   In line 1 scan maddáhĭyĭ; and compare Horace, "Edocet artes;
Fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum."

[118] [119]


O men of morals! why do ye defame,
And thus misjudge me? I am not to blame.
   Save weakness for the grape, and female charms,
What sins of mine can any of ye name?


(Persian characters)

90.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   This change of persons is called Iltifát.   Gladwin, Persian Rhetoric, p. 56.

[118] [119]


Who treads in passion's footsteps here below,
A helpless pauper will depart, I trow;
   Remember who you are, and whence you come.
Consider what you do, and whither go.


(Persian characters)

91.   C. L. N. A. I.   Khabarat: see Bl. Prosody, p. v.

[118] [119]


Skies like a zone our weary lives enclose,
And from our tear-stained eyes a Jihun flows;
   Hell is a fire enkindled of our griefs;
Heaven but a moment's peace, stolen from our woes.


(Persian characters)

92.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   This balanced arrangement of similes is called Tirsí'a.   Gladwin, p. 5.

[120] [121]


I drown in sin—show me Thy clemency!
My soul is dark—make me Thy light to see!
   A heaven that must be earned by painful works,
I call a wage, not a gift fair and free.


(Persian characters)

93.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Arabic words like razá' drop the hamza in Persian, except with the izáfat: (Bl. Prosody 14).   For this hamza, ya is often used, as here.

[120] [121]


Did He who made me fashion me for hell,
Or destine me for heaven? I can not tell.
   Yet will I not renounce cup, lute, and love,
Nor earthly cash for heavenly credit sell.


(Persian characters)

94.   C. L. N. A. B. I.   In line 4, the izáfat is dropped after silent he.   Bl., Prosody, p. 15.

[120] [121]


From right and left the censors came and stood,
Saying, "Renounce this wine, this foe of good;"
   But if wine be the foe of holy faith,
By Allah, right it is to drink its blood!


(Persian characters)

95.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   See Koran, ii. 187.

[122] [123]


The good and evil with man's nature blent,
The weal and woe that heaven's decrees have sent,—
   Impute them not to motions of the skies,—
Skies than thyself ten times more impotent.


(Persian characters)

96.   C. L. N. A. I. J.   Fate is merely the decree of Allah.   For the distinction between kazá and kadar, see Pocock, Specimen Historiæ Arabum, p. 207.

[122] [123]


Against death's arrows what are buckles worth?
What all the pomps and riches of the earth?
   When I survey the world, I see no good
But goodness, all beside is nothing worth.


(Persian characters)

97.   N.   Possibly written on the margin by some pious reader as an answer to No. 86.

[122] [123]


Weak souls, who from the world can not refrain,
Hold life-long fellowship with rule and pain;
   Hearts free from worldly cares have store of bliss,
All others seeds of bitter woe contain.


(Persian characters)

98.   L. N.   Tajríd, see Gulshan i Ráz, p. 8, n.

[124] [125]


He, in whose bosom wisdom's seed is sown,
To waste a single day was never known;
   Either he strives to work great Allah's will,
Or else exalts the cup, and works his own.


(Persian characters)

99.   C. L. N. A. B. I. J.   Tarabe, query, takhme? giving a line in metre 23.

[124] [125]


When Allah mixed my clay, He knew full well
My future acts, and could each one foretell;
   Without His will no act of mine was wrought;
Is it then just to punish me in hell?


(Persian characters)

100.   C. L. N. A. I.   Of the Moslem theory of predestination, Khayyam might truly say, "Ten thousand mortals drowned in endless woe, For doing what they were compelled to do."