1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 3/Table of contributors

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8647851911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 3 — - Vol 3 Table of contributors


A. C. P. Anna C. Paues, Ph.D.
Lecturer in Germanic Philology at Newnham College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Newnham College. Author of A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version; &c.
Bible, English.
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See biographical article: Swinburne, Algernon C.
Beaumont and Fletcher.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901 Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Barnes, Robert
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
A. G. G. Sir Alfred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on Dynamics; &c.
A. Hl. Arthur Hassall, M.A.
Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European History; The Balance of Power; &c. Editor of the 3rd edition of T. H. Dyer’s History of Modern Europe.
Austria-Hungary: History (in part).
A. H. N. Albert Henry Newman, LL.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Baylor University, Texas. Professor at McMaster University, Toronto, 1881–1901. Author of The Baptist Churches in the United States; Manual of Church History; A Century of Baptist Achievement.
Baptists: American.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Azerbaijān; Bakhtiari;
Bander Abbāsi
; Barfurush.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Litt., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
Babylon; Babylonia and Assyria; Belshazzar; Berossus.
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879–1901.
Bahia: State;
: City.
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Birds of Paradise.
A. P. H. Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P.
President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878–1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895–1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.
Basutoland: History (in part); Bechuanaland (in part).
A. Sp. Archibald Sharp.
Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent.
A. St H. G. Alfred St Hill Gibbons.
Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of Africa from South to North through Marotseland.
Barotse, Barotseland.
A. W.* Arthur Willey, F.R.S., D.Sc.
Director of Colombo Museum, Ceylon.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Austria-Hungary: History (in part);
: History (in part).
A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard, M.A.
Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King’s College, London. Hon. Secretary Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books; and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the “Globe” Chaucer.
Bibliography and Bibliology.
B. K. Prince Bojidar Karageorgevitch (d. 1908).
Artist, art critic, designer and goldsmith. Contributor to the Paris Figaro, the Magazine of Art, &c. Author of Enchanted India. Translator of the works of Tolstoi and Jokai, &c.
C. The Earl Of Crewe, K.G., F.S.A.
See the biographical article: Crewe, 1st Earl of.
C. A. C. Charles Arthur Conant.
Member of Commission on International Exchange of U.S., 1903. Treasurer, Morton Trust Co., New York, 1902–1906. Author of History of Modern Banks of Issue; The Principles of Money and Banking; &c.
Banks and Banking: American.
C. B.* Charles Bémont, D. és L., Litt.D. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: Bémont, C.
Baluze; Béarn.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Austrian Succession War: Military.
C. F. B. Charles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D.
Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International Trade; &c.
C. H. T. Cuthbert Hamilton Turner, M.A.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; Fellow of the British Academy. Speaker’s Lecturer in Biblical Studies in the University of Oxford, 1906–1909. First Editor of the Journal of Theological Studies, 1899–1902. Author of “Chronology of the New Testament,” and “Greek Patristic Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles” in Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible, &c.
Bible: New Testament Chronology.
C. H. W. J. Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A., Litt.D.
Master of St Catharine’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Assyriology, Queens’ College, Cambridge, and King’s College, London. Author of Assyrian Deeds and Documents of the 7th Century B.C ; The Oldest Code of Laws; Babylonian and Assyrian Laws; Contracts and Letters; &c.
Babylonian Law.
C. J. L. Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.).
Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King’s College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889–1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895–1898. Author of Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c.
C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James’s, 1895–1900, and 1902–1903.
C. Pl. Rev. Charles Plummer, M.A.
Fellow and Chaplain of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1901. Author of Life and Times of Alfred the Great; &c.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858–1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886–1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895–1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Beirut (in part).
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A.
D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulger.
Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; India in the 10th Century; History of Belgium; Belgian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Belgium: Geography and Statistics.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis—comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
Bach, J. S.;
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
 (in part);
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Austrian Succession War: Naval;
; Bainbridge, William;
Barbary Pirates
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London Missionary Society.
Berry, Charles Albert.
D. S. M.* David Samuel Margoliouth, M.A., D.Litt.
Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford; Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus.
D. S.-S. David Seth-Smith, F.Z.S.
Curator of Birds to the Zoological Society of London. Formerly President of the Avicultural Society. Author of Parrakeets, a Practical Handbook to those Species kept in Captivity.
E. B. Edward Breck, Ph.D.
Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. Author of Wilderness Pets.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar (Oxford), 1895.
Baldwin I. to IV. of Jerusalem.
E. Cl. Edward Clodd.
Vice-President of the Folk-Lore Society. Author of Story of Primitive Man; Primer of Evolution; Tom Tit Tot; Animism; Pioneers of Evolution
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dubl.).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.
Basilian Monks;
Benedict of Nursia
; Benedictines;
St Bernardin of Siena
E. F. S. Edward Fairbrother Strange.
Assistant-Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; Joint-editor of Bell’s “Cathedral” Series.
Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Baggesen; Ballade;
Beaumont, Sir John
: Literature;
E. G. B. Edward Granville Browne, M.A., M.R.C.S., M.R.A.S.
Sir Thomas Adams’s Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A Traveller’s Narrative, written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb; The New History of Mirzá Ali Muhammed the Báb; Literary History of Persia; &c.
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Ägyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme; &c.
Bactria; Bagoas;
; Balash;
E. Ma. Edward Manson.
Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation, Author of Short View of the Law of Bankruptcy; &c.
Bankruptcy: Comparative Law.
E. M. T. Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D.
Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1888 – 1909. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of the Chronicon Angliae, &c. Joint-editor of Publications of the Palaeographical Society.
E. N. S. E. N. Stockley.
Captain, Royal Engineers. Instructor in Construction at the School of Military Engineering, Chatham. For some time in charge of the Barracks Design Branch of the War Office.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society.
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Leonard Taunton (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.
E. V. Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819 – 1895).
Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.
Basilica (in part).
F. C. B. Francis Crawford Burkitt, M.A., D.D.
Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Part-editor of The Four Gospels in Syriac transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest. Author of The Gospel History and its Transmission; Early Eastern Christianity; &c.
Bible: New Testament, Higher Criticism.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
F. G. Frederick Greenwood.
See the biographical article: Greenwood, Frederick.
Beaconsfield, Earl of.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
F. L. L. Lady Lugard.
See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D.
F. P. Frank Podmore, M.A. (d. 1910).
Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Studies in Psychical Research; Modern Spiritualism; &c.
Automatic Writing.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Basutoland (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part).
F. R. M. Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G.
Lieut.-Col., Royal Artillery. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 1897–1898. Military Attaché, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901–1905. Author of Central Kurdistan; &c.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887–1889.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., D.Sc., Ph.D.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
G. B. B. Gerard Baldwin Brown, M.A.
Professor of Fine Arts, University of Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Author of From Schola to Cathedral; The Fine Arts; &c.
Basilica (in part).
G. B. G.* George Buchanan Gray, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.)
Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Mansfield College, Oxford. Examiner in Hebrew, University of Wales. Author of The Divine Discipline of Israel; &c.
Bible: Old Testament, Textual Criticism, and Higher Criticism.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Association of Literature.
Belgium: History.
G. F. Z. G. F. Zimmer, A.M.Inst.C.E.
Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.
G. G. S. George Gregory Smith, M.A.
Professor of English Literature, Queen’s University, Belfast. Author of The Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.
Barbour, John.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life; &c.
G. Sa. George Edward Bateman Saintsbury, LL.D., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, G. E. B.
Balzac, H. de.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Avempace; Averroes; Avicenna; Baidawi;
; Behā ud-Dīn;
Behā ud-Dīn Zuhair
H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D.
Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Balfour, A. J.
H. C. R. Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart., K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Rawlinson, Sir H. C.
Bagdad: City.
H. Fr. Henri Frantz.
Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts (Paris).
Barye; Bastien-Lepage;
Baudry, P. J. A.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of "Amphibia and Reptiles" in the Cambridge Natural History.
H. H. H.* Herbert Hensley Henson, M.A., D.D.
Canon of Westminster Abbey and Rector of St Margaret’s, Westminster. Proctor in Convocation since 1902. Formerly Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford. Select Preacher (Oxford), 1895–1896; (Cambridge), 1901. Author of Apostolic Christianity; Moral Discipline in the Christian Church; The National Church; Christ and the Nation; &c.
Bible, English: Revised Version.
H. H. J. Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston, D.Sc., G.C.M.G., K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Johnston, Sir H. H.
Bantu Languages.
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
Bell: House Bell..
H. M. W. H. Marshall Ward, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. (d. 1905).
Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sach’s Lectures the Physiology of Plants; Grasses; Disease in Plants; &c.
Bacteriology (in part);
Berkeley, Miles Joseph
H. N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c.
Baltic Sea.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins, 1066–1272.
Becket; Benedictus Abbas.
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897–1902) and Vienna.
Austria-Hungary: History (in part);
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c.
J. An. Joseph Anderson, LL.D.
Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, and Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Honorary Professor of Antiquities to the Royal Scottish Academy. Author of Scotland in Early Christian and Pagan Times.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London.
Avonian; Bajocian;
Barton Beds
Bathonian Series
: Geology.
J. B. B. John Bagnell Bury, LL.D., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Bury, J. B.
Baldwin I. and II.: of Romania;
Basil I.
 and II.: Emperors; Belisarius.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Balkan Peninsula.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Council of the Hispanic Society of America. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature.
Ayala y Herrera;
J. F. St. John Frederick Stenning, M.A.
Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic. Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College.
Bible: Old Testament: Texts and Versions.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
Baron; Baronet;
Battle Abbey Roll
Bayeux Tapestry
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Beauharnais, Eugène de
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Bacon, Francis (in part); Berkeley, George (in part).
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian (London).
Bed: Furniture;
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, a Handbook; The Upper Burma Gazetteer, &c.
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours eléméntaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
Bailiff: Bailli;
J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew, University of Pennsylvania. In charge of Expedition of University of Pennsylvania conducting excavations at Nippur, 1888–1895. Author of Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian; Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates; &c.
Bagdad: Vilayet;
: City;
J. R. P. Sir John Rahere Paget, Bart., K.C.
Bencher of the Inner Temple. Formerly Gilbart Lecturer on Banking. Author of The Law of Banking; &c.
Banks and Banking:          English Law.
J. Sm.* John Smith, C.B.
Formerly Inspector-General in Companies’ Liquidation, 1890–1904, and Inspector-General in Bankruptcy.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet, &c.
 (in part).
J. Vn. Julien Vinson.
Formerly Professor of Hindustani and Tamil at the École des Langues Orientales, Paris. Author of Le Basque et les langues mexicaines; &c.
Basques (in part).
J. V. B. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews).
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Austria-Hungary: History; Bamberger; Bebel;
; Beust.
K. L. Rev. Kirsopp Lake, M.A.
Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testament; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c.
Bible: New Testament: Texts and  Versions and Textual Criticism.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Bagpipe; Banjo;
; Barrel-organ;
Bass Clarinet
; Basset Horn; Bassoon; Batyphone.
L. A. Lyman Abbott, D.D.
See the biographical article: Abbott, L.
Beecher, Henry Ward.
L. D.* Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
Benedict (I.-X.)
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A., F.G.S.
Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Autunite; Axinite;
; Barytes;
; Bauxite; Biotite.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in East of Europe. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Azeglio; Bandiera, A. and E.; Bassi, Ugo;
Bentivoglio, Giovanni
L. W. K. Leonard William King, M.A., F.S.A.
Assistant to the Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. Lecturer in Assyrian at King’s College, London. Conducted Excavations at Kuyunjik (Nineveh) for British Museum. Author of Assyrian Chrestomathy; Annals of the Kings of Assyria; Studies in Eastern History; Babylonian Magic and Sorcery; &c.
Babylonia and Assyria:        Chronology.
M. A. C. Maurice A. Canney, M.A.
Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly Exhibitioner of St John’s College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholar (Oxford), 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896.
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
Beaumont and Fletcher:      Appendix.
M. D. Ch. Sir Mackenzie Dalzell Chalmers, K.C.B., C.S.I., M.A.
Trinity College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Home Department. Author of Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange; &c.
Bill of Exchange.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. Author of A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle.
M. H. C. Montague Hughes Crackanthorpe, K.C., D.C.L.
Honorary Fellow, St John’s College, Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. President of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Member of the General Council of the Bar and of the Council of Legal Education, and Standing Counsel to the University of Oxford.
Bering Sea Arbitration.
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
Babylonia and Assyria:         Proper Names;
Babylonian and Assyrian Religion
; Bel; Belit.
M. P.* Léon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences), Author of L’Industrie du sel en Franche-Comté.
Avaray; Bar-le-Duc;
; Bauffremont;
; Beaujeu;
: Family.
N. B. W. N. B. Wagle.
Formerly Lecturer on Sanskrit at the Robert Money Institution, Bombay. Vice-President of the London Indian Society. Author of Industrial Development of India; &c.
Bhau Daji.
N. H. M. Rev. Newton Herbert Marshall., M.A., Ph.D. (Halle)
Minister of Heath Street Baptist Church, Hampstead, London. Author of Gegenwartige Richtungen der Religionsphilosophie in England; Theology and Truth.
N. M. Norman McLean, M.A.
Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ’s College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Theological Tripos at Cambridge.
N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois.
Member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Société de l’Histoire de France and of the Société de l’Ecole de Chartes.
Basel, Council of;
Benedict XIII. (anti-pope)
N. W. T. Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902–1905.
Beard; Berkeley (Family);
Bill (Weapon)
O. Br. Oscar Briliant.
Austria-Hungary: Statistics.
O. Hr. Otto Henker, Ph.D.
On the Staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena, Germany.
Binocular Instrument.
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIIIe siècle.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc.Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist’s History of the English Constitution.
Bavaria: Statistics;
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, P. A.
Baikal; Baku;
 (in part).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888–1891. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
Biogenesis; Biology.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Balfour, Sir James.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
P. S. Philip Schidrowitz, Ph.D., F.C.S.
Member of Council, Institute of Brewing; Member of Committee of Society of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and Technology of Brewing, Distilling, &c.
R. A.* Robert Anchel.
Archivist of the Département de l’Eure.
R. Ad. Robert Adamson, M.A., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Adamson, Robert.
Bacon, Francis;
Bacon, Roger
; Beneke;
Berkeley, Bishop
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Joint author of Excavations in Palestine, 1898–1900.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard C.
R. Gn. Sir Robert Giffen, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Giffen, Sir R.
Balance of Trade
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., Litt.D. (Oxon.).
Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity College, Dublin. Author and Editor of Book of Enoch; Book of Jubilees; Apocalypse of Baruch; Assumption of Moses; Ascension of Isaiah; Testaments of XII. Patriarchs; &c.
R. H. I. P. Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S.
Director of Barclay & Co., Ltd., Bankers. Editor of the Economist, 1871–1883. Author of Notes on Banking in Great Britain and Ireland, Sweden, Denmark and Hamburg; &c. Editor of Dictionary of Political Economy.
Banks and Banking:           General.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette (London).
Beresford, John.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Avahi; Aye-Aye; Babirusa; Baboon; Beaver.
R. L. S. Robert Louis Stevenson.
See the biographical article: Stevenson, R. L. B.
R. M.* Robert Muir, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin).
Professor of Pathology, University of Glasgow. Professor of Pathology at St Andrews, 1898–1899. Author of Manual of Bacteriology; &c.
Bacteriology: Pathological Aspects.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613–1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; Charles XII. and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire; Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries; The Pupils of Peter the Great; &c.
Bakócz; Balassa; Bánffy;
Bar, Confederation of
; Basil;
; Batthyany;
Bela III.
 and IV.; Bern;
; Bernstorff;
; Bezborodko; Biren.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; &c.
S. C. Sidney Colvin, M.A., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney.
S. R. D. Samuel Rolles Driver, D.D., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Driver, S. R.
Bible: Old Testament: Canon   and Chronology.
T. A. J. Thomas Athol Joyce, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec., Royal Anthropological Institute.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.), F.S.A.
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow (Oxford). Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of the Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.
Auximum; Avella;
; Avernus; Baiae;
; Barletta; Bassano; Belluno; Benevento;
; Bertinoro.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Bailiff; Bill (law);
Bill of Sale
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
T. E. H. Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D.
Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Formerly Professor of International Law in the University of Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; Alberici Gentilis de jure belli; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties in a Maritime War; &c.
Bentham, Jeremy.
T. G. C. Thomas G. Carver, M.A., K.C. (d. 1906).
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Cambridge. 8th Wrangler, 1871. Author of On the Law Relating to the Carriage of Goods by Sea.
T. H. D. Rev. Thomas Herbert Darlow, M.A.
Literary Superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Sometime Scholar of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Historical Catalogue of Printed Editions of Holy Scriptures (vol. i with H. G. Moule); &c.
Bible Societies.
T. H. H. Thomas Henry Huxley, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Huxley, Thomas H.
Biology (in part).
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Persa-Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c.
Bahrein Islands
; Balkh;
; Bamian;
; Bhutan.
T. L. P. Rev. Thomas Leslie Papillon, M.A.
Hon. Canon of St Albans. Formerly Fellow, Dean and Tutor of New College, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
T. O. Thomas Okey.
Examiner in Basket Work for the City of London Guilds and Institute.
T. W. R. D. T. W. Rhys Davids, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; &c.
V. H. B. Vernon Herbert Blackman, M.A., D.Sc.
Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Bacteriology: Botany.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A, F.R.G.S, Ph.D.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889.
Baden: Switzerland; Barcelonnette; Basel;
; Beaulieu; Bellinzona; Bern; Bienne.
W. A. G. Walter Armstrong Graham.
His Siamese Majesty’s Resident Commissioner for the Siamese Malay State of Kelantan. Commander, Order of the White Elephant. Member of the Burma Civil Service, 1889–1903. Author of The French Roman Catholic Mission in Siam; Kelantan, a Handbook; &c.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; The War of Greek Independence; &c.
Austria-Hungary: History (in part);
; Balance of Power;
; Bates;
: History; Béguines;
: Congress and Treaty of; Bernard, St; Biretta.
W. Bo. Wilhelm Bousset, D.Th.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Göttingen. Author of Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c.
W. B. Ca. W. Broughton Carr.
Formerly Editor of the British Bee Journal and the Bee-Keepers’ Record.
Bee: Bee-keeping.
W. C. P. William Charles Popplewell, M.Sc., A.M.I.C.E.
Lecturer in Engineering in Manchester School of Technology (University of Manchester). Author of Compressed Air; Heat Engines; &c.
Bellows and Blowing Machines.
W. E. D. William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E.
Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Associate Member of the Institute of Naval Architects. Author of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and Valve Gear Mechanisms; &c.
W. E. G. Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G.
Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904–1908.
Bahr-el-Ghazal (in part).
W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.
W. H. Ha. William Henry Hadow, M.A., Mus.Doc.
Principal, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal College of Music. Editor Oxford History of Music. Author of Studies in Modern Music; &c.
Bach, K. P. E.
W. J. H.* William James Hughan.
Past Senior Grand Deacon of Freemasons of England, 1874. Hon. Senior Warden of Grand Lodges of Egypt, Quebec and Iona, &c.
W. L. D. William Leslie Davidson, LL.D.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Aberdeen University. Author of The Logic of Definition; Christian Ethics; &c. Editor of Alexander Bain’s Autobiography.
Bain, Alexander.
W. M. S. William Milligan Sloane, Ph.D., LL.D.
Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. Secretary to George Bancroft while American Ambassador in Berlin, 1872–1875. Author of Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Bancroft, George.
W. P. C. William Prideaux Courtney.
See the article: Courtney, L. H., Baron.
Bath, William Pulteney,
 Marquess of
W. P. J. William Price James.
University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. High Bailiff of County Courts, Cardiff. Author of Romantic Professions; &c.
Barrie, J. M.
W. P. R. Hon. William Pember Reeves.
Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner for New Zealand, 1896–1909. Minister of Education, Labour and Justice, New Zealand, 1891–1896. Author of The Long White Cloud, a History of New Zealand; &c.
Ballance, John.
W. R. L. W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A.
Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council. Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c.
W. Sa. William Sanday, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D.
Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Chaplain in Ordinary to His Majesty the King. Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Inspiration (Bampton Lecture, 1893); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans; &c.
Bible: New Testament: Canon.
W. T. Ca. William Thomas Calman, D.Sc., F.Z.S.
Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Author of “Crustacea” in Lankester’s Treatise on Zoology.
W. T. T.-D. Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc. LL.D., Ph.D., F.L.S.
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1885–1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 1902–1906. Joint-author of Flora of Middlesex. Editor of Flora Capenses and Flora of Tropical Africa.
Bentham, George.
W. W. William Wallace, M.A.
See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1844–1897).
W. We. Rev. Wentworth Webster (d. 1906).
Author of Basque Legends; &c.
Basque Provinces;
W. Wr. Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congregational Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c.
Bacon, Leonard.
W. R. S. W. Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen.
Benedict XI., XII., XIII., XIV.


Azo Compounds.
Baader, F. X.
Baden: Grand Duchy.
Bale, John.
Barbed Wire.
Barclay, Alexander.
Barère de Vieuzac.
Barlaam and Josaphat.

Barnes, William.
Barrow, Isaac.
Bastiat, F.
Baxter, Richard.
Bayard, P. T.
Bear-Baiting and Bull-Baiting.
Beaufort: Family.
Beaufort, Henry.
Beaumont: Family.
Beddoes, Thomas Lovell.
Bedford, Earls and Dukes of.
Beecher, Lyman.
Belfast: Ireland.

Belfort: Town.
Bell, Sir Charles.
Belle-Isle, C. L. A. F., Duc de.
Benjamin (Judah Philip).
Benson (Archbishop of Canterbury).
Bentley, Richard.
Benzoic Acid.
Beresford, Lord Charles.
Beresford, Viscount.

Bernhardt, Sarah.
Berwick (Duke of).
Bessemer, Sir Henry.
Bet and Betting.
Bible Christians.
Bichromates and Chromates.
Birney, James G.
Biron, Armand de Gontaut.
Biscay (Vizcaya).

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume