1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 17/Table of contributors

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A. C. G. Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Gunther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875–1895. Gold Medalist, Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia salientia, and Fishes in the British Museum; &c.
Mackerel (in part).
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See the biographical article: Swinburne, Algernon Charles.
Marlowe, Christopher;
Mary, Queen of Scots
A. E. J. Arthur Ernest Jolliffe, M.A.
Fellow, Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Senior Mathematical Scholar, 1892.
Maxima; Minima.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Professor of English History in University of London. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; &c.
Macalpine, John.
A. G. D. Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada.
McGee, T. A.
A. Ha. Adolf Harnack.
See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf.
Manichaeism (in part);
A. H. F. Rev. Andrew Hollingworth Frost, M.A.
Principal of Church Missionary College, Islington, 1870–1874.
Magic Square.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, LL.D., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, Archibald Henry.
Lycia; Lydia.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
A. J. G.* Arthur James Grant, M.A.
King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of History in the University of Leeds.
Louis XIII., XIV. and XV. of   France.
A. J. H. Alfred J. Hipkins, F.S.A. (1826–1903).
Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Musical Instruments; &c.
Lute (in part);
 (in part).
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
Mayer, Johann Tobias
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Edward Wilde).
Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-editor of Sources of Roman History, 133–79 B.C.
A. M. F. Rev. Andrew Martin Fairbairn, M.A., D.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Fairbairn, A. M.
Martineau, James.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Lory; Love-Bird;
; Macaw; Magpie; Mallemuck; Manakin;
; Martin.
A. N. W Alfred North Whitehead, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Fellow and Senior Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of A Treatise on Universal Algebra.
A. R. C. Alexander Ross Clarke, C.B., F.R.S.
Colonel R.E. Royal Medal of Royal Society, 1887. In charge of Trigonometrical Operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854–1881.
Map: Projections (in part).
A. R. L.* Arthur Robert Ling, F.I.C.
Editor of the Journal of the Institute of Brewing. Lecturer on Brewing and Malting at the Sir John Cass Institute, London. Vice-President of the Society of Chemical Industry.
A. Sl. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water-Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.
Malaria (in part);
A. Sy. Arthur Symons.
See the biographical article: Symons, Arthur.
Mallarmé, Stéphane.
A. Wa. Arthur Waugh, M.A.
Managing Director of Chapman & Hall, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly Literary Adviser to Kegan Paul & Co. Author of Alfred Lord Tennyson; Legends of the Wheel; Robert Browning in “Westminster Biographies.” Editor of Johnson’s Lives of the Poets.
Lytton, 1st Baron.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Louis I., II., III. and IV.: Roman   Emperors;
Louis the German
Louis II.
 and III. of France;
Louis the Child
Magna Carta
Maximilian I.
: Roman Emperor.
A. W. Hu. Rev. Arthur Wollaston Hutton, M.A.
Rector of Bow Church, London. Formerly Librarian of the National Liberal Club. Author of Life of Cardinal Manning; &c.
Manning, Cardinal.
A. W. M. Arthur William Moore, C.V.O., M.A. (1853–1909).
Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly Speaker of the House of Keys, and J.P. for the Isle of Man. Author of A History of the Isle of Man; &c.
Man, Isle of.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Maxims, Legal.
B. W. Benjamin Williamson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Natural Philosophy, and Vice-Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Differential Calculus; &c.
Maclaurin, Colin.
C. A. M. F. Charles Augustus Maude Fennell, M.A., Litt.D.
Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Editor of Pindar’s Odes and Fragments, and of the Stanford Dictionary of Anglicized Words and Phrases.
Magic Square (in part).
C. B. P. Catherine Beatrice Phillips, B.A. (Mrs W. Alison Phillips).
Associate of Bedford College, London.
Louis XVIII. of France;
Marie Antoinette
C. Ch. Charles Chree, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Superintendent, Kew Observatory. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. President of Physical Society of London. Watt Medallist, Institute of Civil Engineers, 1905.
Magnetism, Terrestrial.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
C. F. Cl. Charles Frederick Close, C.M.G.
Lieutenant-Colonel, R.E. Head of the Geographical Section, British General Staff. Formerly British Representative on the Nyasa-Tanganyika Boundary Commission. Author of Text-Book of Topographical Surveying; &c.,
Map: Projections (in part).
C. G. Cr. Charles George Crump, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office, London. Editor of Landor’s Works; &c.
Manor: in England.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Matilda, Countess of Tuscany; Lucius.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow’s Survey of London.
Lovell, Viscount;
Margaret of Anjou
C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th.
Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c.
Lyons, Councils of;
Marburg, Colloquy of
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D. ès L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
Mayor of the Palace.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
 (in part).
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
Mahommedan Institutions;
Mahommedan Law
Malik Ibn Anas
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations and analyses of many other classical works.
Madrigal (in music);
Mass (in music)
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Magnesia; Malatia;
; Marash;
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Marryat, Frederick;
; Mathews, Thomas.
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals; &c.
Mackennal, Alexander.
D. M. W. Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891–1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and Officier de l’Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of New Volumes (10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
D. S. M.* David Samuel Margoliouth, M.A., D.Litt.
Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus.
E. A. J. E. Alfred Jones.
Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue of Leopold de Rothschild’s Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of the Royal Plate at Windsor Castle; &c.
E. Bn. Eduard Bernstein.
Member of the German Reichstag, 1902–1906. Author of Zur Theorie und Geschichte des Socialismus; &c.
E. C. B. Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dubl.).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of the Lausiac History of Palladius, in “Cambridge Texts and Studies.”
Mabillon; Maurists; Mechitharists.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Loti, Pierre; Lyrical Poetry; Macaronics;
Madrigal (in verse)
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Mantineia (in part);
 (in part).
E. G. R. Ernest George Ravenstein, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of Geography at Bedford College, London, 1882–1883. Formerly in Topographical (now Intelligence) Department of the War Office. Author of The Russians on the Amur; A Systematic Atlas; &c.
Map (in part).
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
E. L. W. Sir Edward Leader Williams (1828–1910).
Formerly Vice-President, Institute of Civil Engineers. Consulting Engineer, Manchester Ship Canal. Chief Engineer of the Manchester Ship Canal during its construction. Author of papers printed in Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers.
Manchester Ship Canal.
E. M. T. Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D.
Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898–1909. Sandars Reader in Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895–1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of Chronicon Angliae.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R. C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Lung; Lupus;
Mammary Gland
: Diseases.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
Manuel de Mello
E. R. B. Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of New College, Oxford. Author of House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the High Priests.
Macedonian Empire; Lysimachus.
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Luke Taunton (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.
E. W. B. N. Edward Williams Byron Nicholson, M.A.
Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Principal Librarian and Superintendent of the London Institution, 1873–1882. Author of Keltic Researches.
Mandeville, Sir John.
F. A. P. Frederick Apthorp Paley, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Paley, F. A.
F. C. C. Frederic Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Manichaeism (in part).
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop. Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Lymphatic System (in part); Mammary Gland: Anatomy.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D.
Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford University. Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906. Author of Monographs on Roman History, &c.
F. J. S. Frederick John Snell, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c.
F. K.* Fernand Khnopff.
See the biographical article: Khnopff, Fernand E. J. M.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperia German Archaeological Institute.
F. Po. Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L.
See the article: Pollock (family).
Maine, Sir Henry.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902 President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887–1889.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, d.E., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
G. Br. Rev. George Bryce, M.A., D.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Canada).
President of the Royal Society of Canada. Head of Faculty of Science and Lecturer in Biology and Geology in Manitoba University, 1891–1904. Author of Manitoba; A Short History of the Canadian People; &c.
Manitoba (in part).
G. B. S. George Barnett Smith.
Author of William I. and the German Empire; Life of Queen Victoria; &c.
G. C. L. George Collins Levey, C.M.G.
Member of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly Editor and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne.
McCulloch, Sir James.
G. G.* George Gladden.
Associate Editor of Current Literature, 1904–1905. Editor of Biography, New International Encyclopaedia, 1901–1904, 1906–1907, and New International Year Book, 1907–1908; &c.
Martha’s Vineyard.
G. G. S. George Gregory Smith, M.A.
Professor of English Literature, Queen’s University of Belfast. Author of The Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.
Lyndsay, Sir David.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life.
May-Fly (in part).
G. R. P. George Robert Parkin, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Parkin, George Robert.
Macdonald, Sir John    Alexander.
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B.
Maistre, Joseph de;
Malherbe, François de
Marguerite de Valois
Marivaux, Pierre
Marot, Clement
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Mahommedan Religion
 (in part);
; Masʽudi.
H. B. Wo. Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S.
Formerly Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of London; &c.
Lyell, Sir Charles.
H. Cl. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G.
Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903–1907. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language.
Malay Peninsula
Malay States
: Federated.
H. C. H. Rev. Horace Carter Hovey, A.M., D.D.
Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological Society of America, National Geographic Society and Société de Spéléologie (France). Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky; &c.
Luray Cavern;
Mammoth Cave
H. De. Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Acta Sanctorum.
Lucia, St;
Marcellinus, St
Margaret, St
; Martyrology.
H. E. S.* Horace Elisha Scudder (d. 1902).
Formerly Editor of the Atlantic Monthly. Author of Life of James Russell Lowell; History of the United States; &c.
Lowell, James Russell.
H. Fr. Henri Frantz.
Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux-Arts (Paris).
H. Le. Herbert Martin James Loewe, M.A.
Queen’s College, Cambridge. Curator of Oriental Literature, University Library, Cambridge. Formerly Chief English Master at the Schools of the Alliance at Cairo and Abyassiyyeh, Egypt. Author of Kitab el Ansab of Samani; &c.
H. Lb. Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of Royal Society, 1894–1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of London Mathematical Society, 1902–1904. Author of Hydrodynamics; &c.
Mechanics: Theoretical.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.S.I., L.R.C.P.I.
Malaria (in part).
H. M. S. Henry Morse Stephens, M.A., Litt.D.
Balliol College, Oxford. Professor of History in the University of California. Author of History of the French Revolution; &c.
Maintenon, Madame de; Mazarin.
H. S.* Sir Herbert Stephen, Bart., M.A., LL.M.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law. Clerk of Assize for the Northern Circuit.
Lytton, 1st Earl of.
H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism; &c.
Lotze (in part).
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Mandeville, Geoffrey de;
Marsh, Adam
Matilda, Queen
Matthew of Paris
H. W. R.* Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A.
Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, Oxford, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology (in Mansfield College Essays); &c.
Malachi (in part).
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry.

Mandeville, Sir John
 (in part); Marignolli (in part).
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Luzzatto, Moses Hayim
; Luzzatto, Samuel David;
; Marano.
J. A. C. Sir Joseph Archer Crowe, K.C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Crowe, Sir J. A.
J. A. S. John Addington Symonds.
See the biographical article: Symonds, J. A.
J. A. V.* John Augustus Voelcker, M.A., Ph.D., F.I.C, F.L.S.
Consulting Chemist to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, &c. Author of The Woburn Experiments; &c.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.
J. C. R. C. Sir John Charles Ready Colomb, K.C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Colomb, P. H.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College. Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Council of the Hispanic Society of America. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature.
Lull, Raimon;
J. Ga. James Gairdner, C.B., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gairdner, James.
Mary I., Queen.
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; The Upper Burma Gazetteer.
J. Hn. Jŭstŭs Hashagen, Ph.D.
Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of Das Rheinland unter die franzosische Herrschaft.
Louis I. and II. of Bavaria.
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
Lord Great Chamberlain;
Mar, Earldom of
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; chapters in the Cambridge Modern History.
Lowe, Sir Hudson; Maret.
J. I. Jules Isaac.
Professor of History at the Lycée of Lyons.
Louis XII. of France.
J. J. T. Sir Joseph John Thomson, D.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. President of the British Association, 1909–1910. Author of A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism; &c.
J. L. W. Jessie Laidlay Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory.
Malory, Sir Thomas;
Map, Walter
J. M. Gr. James Moncrieff Grierson, C.B., C.M.G., C.V.O.
Major-General, R.A. Commanding 1st Division Aldershot Command. Director of Military Operations at Headquarters, 1904–1906. Served through South African War, 1900–1901. Author of Staff Duties in the Field; &c.
Manœuvres, Military.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Mandeville, Bernard de; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.
J. P. P. John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum; &c.
Lucan (in part).
Jno. S. Sir John Scott, K.C.M.G., D.C.L. (1841–1904).
Deputy Judge Advocate-General to the Forces, 1898–1904. Judicial Adviser to the Khedive of Egypt, 1890–1898. Hon. Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford.
Martial Law.
J. Si.* Rev. James Sibree, F.R.G.S.
Principal Emeritus, United College (L.M.S. and F.F.M.A.), Antanànarivo, Madagascar. Membre de l’Académie Malgache. Author of Madagascar and its People; Madagascar before the Conquest; A Madagascar Bibliography; &c.
J. S. Bl. John Sutherland Black, M.A., LL.D.
Assistant-editor of the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Joint-editor of the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Mary: Mother of Jesus (in part); Mazzini.
J. S. Co. James Sutherland Cotton, M.A.
Editor of the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Exploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen’s College, Oxford. Author of India; &c.
Mahrattas (in part).
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Maritime Province (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh and Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Mackerel (in part).
J. T. M. John Theodore Merz, LL.D., Ph.D., D.C.L.
Chairman of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Electric Supply Co., Ltd. Author of History of European Thought in the XIXth Century; &c.
Lotze (in part).
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Louis VI., VII., IX., X. and XI. of    France.
J. V.* Jules Viard.
Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction, France. Author of La France sous Philippe VI de Valois; &c.
Lore, Ambroise de;
Louvet, Jean
Marcel, Étienne
J. V. B. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews).
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
Mark, St (in part);
Matthew, St
; Luke, St.
K. G. J. Kingsley Garland Jayne.
Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.
Malay Archipelago.
K. K. Konrad Kessler, Ph.D.
Formerly Professor of Semitic Languages at the University of Greifswald.
Mandaeans (in part).
K. L. Rev. Kirsopp Lake, M.A.
Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testament; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c.
Mary, Mother of Jesus (in part).
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Lute (in part); Lyre (in part); Mandoline.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A., F.G.S.
Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in East of Europe. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Mazzini: Bibliography.
L. W. V.-H. L. W. Vernon-Harcourt (d. 1909).
Barrister-at-Law. Author of His Grace the Steward and the Trial of Peers.
Lord High Steward.
M. A. W. Mary A. Ward (Mrs Humphry Ward).
See the biographical article: Ward, Mary Augusta.
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
Louis VIII. and XVII. of France.
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Lycurgus: Spartan Lawgiver; Lysander.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. (Oxon.).
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
Mantineia (in part);
Manuel I., Comnenus
 (in part).
M. P. Mark Pattison, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Pattison, Mark.
N. D. M. Newton Dennison Mereness, A.M., Ph.D.
Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province.
N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois.
Member of Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Société de l’Histoire de France, and of the Société de l’École des Chartes.
Marsilius of Padua;
Martin I.-V.
: Popes.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
O. R. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. M.Inst.C.E.
Formerly Professor of Engineering, Victoria University, Manchester. Honorary Fellow of Queens’ College, Cambridge.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc. Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
Lübeck (in part).
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince, P. A.
Maritime Province (in part).
P. G. Percy Gardner, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society.
P. G. T. Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Tait, Peter Guthrie.
Maxwell, James Clerk.
P. Vi. Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul.
Manor (in part).
R. A.* Robert Anchel.
Archivist to the Department de l’Eure.
Louis XVI.; Marat.
R. B. McK. Ronald Brunlees McKerrow, M.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of The Works of Thomas Nashe; &c.
Marprelate Controversy.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse.
Lysias (in part).
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
Lucan (in part);
Max Müller
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.Litt.
Grinfield Lecturer on the Septuagint at Oxford, 1905–1907. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of Biblical Greek at Trinity College, Dublin, 1898–1906. Hibbert Lecturer at Oxford, 1898; Jowett Lecturer, 1898–1899. Author of Critical History of a Future Life; &c.
Manasses, Prayer of.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Lundy, Robert;
Macdonnell, Sorley Boy
; McNeile, Hugh;
Manchester, Earls and Dukes of
; March, Earls of; Margaret, Queen of Scotland; Masham, Abigail.
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892–1907. Member of the Chinese Consular Service, 1858–1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; China; Europe and the Far East; &c.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
Loris; Macaque; Machaerodus; Mammalia (in part); Mammoth (in part); Manati; Mandrill; Marmot; Marsupialia; Mastodon.
R. M’L. Robert M’Lachlan, F.R.S.
Editor of the Entomologists’ Monthly Magazine.
May-Fly (in part).
R. M. D. Richard Mountford Deeley, M.Inst.CE., M.I.Mech.E., F.G.S.
Late Locomotive Superintendent, Midland Railway. Joint-author of Lubrication and Lubricants.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Louis I. and II. of Hungary; Malachowski; Margaret, Queen; Martinuzzi; Matthias I., Hunyadi; Matvyeev; Mazepa-Koledinsky.
R. P. Reinhold Pauli.
See the biographical article: Pauli, Reinhold.
Lübeck (in part).
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
R. Po. René Poupardin, D. ès L.
Secretary of the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; Recueil des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c.
Lorraine; Louis IV. and V. of France.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Mamertini; Marrucini; Marsi.
R. T. Sir Richard Temple.
See the biographical article: Temple, Sir Richard.
Mahrattas (in part).
R. We. Richard Webster, A.M. (Princeton).
Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of Maximianus; &c.
Mather, Increase;
Mather, Richard
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
S. Bi. Shelford Bidwell, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (1848–1909).
Conville and Caius Collge, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Physical Society and Member of Council of the Royal Society.
S. C. Sidney Colvin, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Mars: Planet.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford; Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.
Lucania; Lucca;
; Lucretilis, Mons;
Lucus Feroniae
; Luna; Magna Graecia; Manduria; Manfredonia;
Marches, The
; Marino; Marzabotto.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Mare Clausum.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
T. G. Br. Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology.
Lymph and Lymph Formation.
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet.
T. M. L. Thomas Martin Lindsay, LL.D., D.D.
Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of History of the Reformation; Life of Luther; &c.
Luther, Martin;
T. R. R. S. Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S.
Fellow of King’s College, London. Hon. Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford. Zoological Secretary of Linnaean Society, 1903–1907. Author of A History of Crustacea; The Naturalist of Cumbrae; &c.
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
Marlowe, Christopher (in part); Marston, Philip Bourke.
T. W. R. D. Thomas William Rhys Davids, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London, 1882–1904. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Buddhism; &c.
V. H. S. Rev. Vincent Henry Stanton, M.A., D.D.
Ely Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Canon of Ely. Formerly Fellow, Dean, Tutor and Lecturer of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Jewish and the Christian Messiahs; &c.
Mark, Gospel of St;
Matthew, Gospel of St
Luke, Gospel of St
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889.
Lötschen Pass;
: Canton, Town, Lake of;
Lugano, Lake of
Maggiore, Lago
W. A. G. Walter Armstrong Graham.
His Siamese Majesty’s Resident Commissioner for the Siamese Malay State of Kelantan. Adviser to his Siamese Majesty’s Minister for Lands and Agriculture. Author of Kelantan, a Handbook; &c.
Malay States: Non-Federated; Malay States: Siamese.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Louis Philippe;
Mahmud II.
: Church.
W. D. L. William Draper Lewis, LL.B., Ph.D.
Dean of the Law School, University of Pennsylvania. Lecturer on Economics, Haverford College, Pennsylvania, 1890–1896. Editor of Great American Lawyers; &c.
Marshall, John.
W. E. A. A. William Edward Armytage Axon, LL.D.
Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1874–1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the bardic name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c.
W. E. D. William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E.
Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University Demonstrator in the Engineering Department, Cambridge. Author of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and Valve-Gear Mechanism; &c.
Mechanics: Applied (in part).
W. E. G. F. William Edward Garrett Fisher, M.A.
Author of The Transvaal and the Boers.
W. F.* Rev. William Fairweather, M.A., D.D.
Minister of Dunnikier United Free Church, Kirkcaldy, N.B. Author of Maccabees (Cambridge Bible for Schools); The Background of the Gospels; &c.
Maccabees, Books of
W. Ho. Wynnard Hooper, M.A.
Clare College, Cambridge. Financial Editor of The Times, London.
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Mammalia (in part); Mammoth (in part);
 (in part);
W. J. M. R. William John Macquorn Rankine, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Rankine, William John Macquorn.
Mechanics: Applied (in part).
W. L. C.* William Lee Corbin, A.M.
Associate Professor of English, Wells College, Aurora, New York.
Mather, Cotton.
W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Author of Documentary History of Reconstruction; &c.
Lynch Law;
McGillivray, Alexander
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council, (“Colonial” series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration).
Mackenzie, William Lyon; Manitoba (in part).
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante G.
Luini; Mantegna;
; Masaccio;
Masolino da Panicale
W. M. Ra. Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Ramsay, Sir William Mitchell.
W. P. C. William Prideaux Courtney, D.C.L.
See the article: Courtney, L. H., Baron.
Marlborough, 1st Duke of.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
Malachi (in part); Mecca.
W. Wn. William Watson, D.Sc, F.R.S.
Assistant Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Vice-President of the Physical Society.
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881–1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Mars: Mythology;
W. Y. S. William Young Sellar, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sellar, William Young.
 (in part);


Lord Chamberlain.
Luchu Archipelago.
McKinley, William.

Madison, James.
Maine, U.S.A.


Marston Moor.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume