A treasury of war poetry, British and American poems of the world war, 1914-1919

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A Treasury of War Poetry: British and American Poems of the World War,
1914—1919
 (1917)  by George Herbert Clarke

CONTENTS, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, INTRODUCTION
See also: INDEXES


A TREASURY OF

WAR POETRY

BRITISH AND AMERICAN POEMS
OF THE WORLD WAR, 1914-1919


EDITED, WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES, BY

GEORGE HERBERT CLARKE

Professor of English in the University of Tennessee


HODDER AND STOUGHTON

LONDON NEW YORK TORONTO



Copyright, 1917,

by George Herbert Clarke.

All rights reserved.



To all those
who have fought
for freedom



"Now let us all for the Perssy praye
     To Jhesu most of myght,
 To bryng hys sowlle to the blysse of heven,
     For he was a gentyll knyght."

The Battle of Otterburn


               "Rightly to be great
 Is not to stir without great argument,
 But greatly to find quarrel in a straw
 When honour's at the stake."


"Prepare, prepare the iron helm of war,
 Bring forth the lots, cast in the spacious orb;
 The Angel of Fate turns them with mighty hands,
 And casts them out upon the darkened earth,
          Prepare, prepare!"


"Hark! now the drums beat up again,
 For all true soldiers, gentlemen!"

Corporal John Brown, Grenadier Guards, 1854



CONTENTS



PAGE
Sir Henry Newbolt The Vigil 43
John Galsworthy England to Free Men 44
Charles William Brodribb Expeditional 45
Lance-Corporal Francis Ledwidge Evening in England 46
C. Fox Smith Saint George of England 46
George Herbert Clarke Lines Written in Surrey, 1917 47
John Freeman Sweet England 48
Henry Lawson England Yet 50
Lieutenant Leonard Van Noppen "Burn up the World" 51
Lieutenant Leonard Van Noppen England 52
Rudyard Kipling "For all we have and are" 52


Neil Munro Pipes in Arras 54
Neil Munro "Lochaber no More" 56
Isabel Westcott Harper Highland Night, 1715—1815—1915 56


Norreys Jephson O'Conor Moira's Keening 58
Winifred M. Letts The Connaught Rangers 59
Lieutenant T. M. Kettle A Song of the Irish Armies 60


Marjorie L. C. Pickthall Canada to England 62
Wilfred Campbell Langemarck 62
Will H. Ogilvie Canadians 66


Archibald T. Strong Australia to England 67
C. Fox Smith Farewell to Anzac 67
Will H. Ogilvie Queenslanders 68
Ben Kendim The New Zealander 69
Henry Lawson Song of the Dardanelles 70
Henry Lawson Fighting Hard 72


Laurence Binyon To the Belgians 74
Edith Wharton Belgium 75
Lieutenant Herbert Asquith A Flemish Village 76
Sir Owen Seaman To Belgium in Exile 76
Gilbert Keith Chesterton The Wife of Flanders 77
M. Forrest The Heroes 78


Cecil Chesterton France 79
Hilaire Belloc Sedan 80
Charlotte Holmes Crawford Vive la France! 80
Herbert Jones To France 82
Florence Earle Coates Place de la Concorde 82
John Finley The Valleys of the Blue Shrouds 84
Grace Ellery Channing Flower-Beds in the Tuileries 86
Henry Van Dyke The Name of France 87


Robert Bridges To the United States of America 88
Vachel Lindsay Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight 88
John Helston "Advance, America!" 90
Morley Roberts To America 90
O. W. Firkins To America in War Time 91
Harry Kemp The New Ally 92
Rudyard Kipling The Choice 92


Helen Gray Cone A Chant of Love for England 94
Lieutenant Charles Langbridge Morgan To America 95
Maurice Hewlett The Fourth of July, 1776 96
Laurence Binyon The New World 96
Rowland Thirlmere Jimmy Doane 98
Alfred Noyes Princeton, May, 1917 100


Clinton Scollard Italy in Arms 103
Moray Dalton To Italy 105
George Edward Woodberry On the Italian Front, MCMXVI 105


Lance-Corporal Francis Ledwidge Autumn Evening in Serbia 106
Florence Earle Coates Serbia 106
Lance-Corporal Francis Ledwidge The Homecoming of the Sheep 107
George Edward Woodberry Roumania 108


Stephen Phillips The Kaiser and Belgium 109
Dana Burnet The Battle of Liège 109


Lord Gorell Ypres 113
W. S. S. Lyon Easter at Ypres, 1915 115
Margaret L. Woods The First Battle of Ypres 116
George Herbert Clarke Ruins 119


Laurence Binyon Men of Verdun 120
Eden Phillpotts Verdun 121
Patrick R. Chalmers Guns of Verdun 122


Winifred M. Letts The Spires of Oxford 123
Laurence Binyon Oxford in War-Time 124
Christopher Morley To the Oxford Men in the War 125
W. Snow The Ghosts of Oxford 127
Mildred Huxley Subalterns 127
Tertius van Dyke Oxford revisited in War-Time 128
Lieutenant Ernest Alan Mackintosh Oxford from the Trenches 130


Thomas Hardy "Men who March away" 131
Thomas Hardy In Time of "The Breaking of Nations" 132
Thomas Hardy Then and Now 133
John Masefield The Choice 133
Alfred Noyes The Searchlights 134
John Galsworthy The Soldier Speaks 136
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson The Ragged Stone 137
Sir Henry Newbolt The War Films 137
A. E. Gods of War 138
A. E. Shadows and Lights 140
George Edward Woodberry Sonnets Written in the Autumn of 1914 142
John Drinkwater We Willed it not 146
John Drinkwater Of Greatham 147
Percy Mackaye Christmas, 1915 148
Henry van Dyke The Peaceful Warrior 148
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Ronald Ross The Death of Peace 149
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Ronald Ross Apocalypse 152
Walter de la Mare The Fool Rings his Bells 155
Barry Pain The Kaiser and God 157
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle The Guns in Sussex 158
Kathleen Knox A Lost Land 159
Olive Tilford Dargan "It Will be a Hard Winter" 161
Patrick R. Chalmers The Steeple 162
Mrs. C. T. Whitmell Christ in Flanders 163
Edith Wharton Battle Sleep 165
John Finley The Road to Dieppe 165
W. Macneile Dixon To Fellow Travellers in Greece 168
John Freeman The Stars in their Courses 169
Gamaliel Bradford Napoleon 171
Dana Burnet Napoleon's Tomb 172
Robert Grant The Superman 173
H. H. Bashford The Vision of Spring, 1916 174
Vachel Lindsay Niagara 176
Everard Owen Three Hills 178
Everard Owen Ypres Tower, Rye 178
Clinton Scollard A Summer Morning 179
G. O. Warren Fulfilment 180
Guy Kendall To my Pupils, Gone before Their Day 181
Theodosia Garrison "These Shall Prevail" 181
Stuart P. Sherman Kaiser and Councillor 182
Odell Shepard The Hidden Weaver 183
Evelyn Underhill Non-Combatants 184
W. H. Draper The Red Christmas 185
Sara Teasdale "There Will Come Soft Rains" 186
Ethel M. Hewitt Bois-Étoilé 187
Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley Going to the Front 188
Robert W. Service Faith 189
Robert W. Service The Song of the Pacifist 189
Chaplain G. A. Studdert Kennedy A Mother Understands 190
Bliss Carman The War Cry of the Eagles 191


Robert W. Service The Volunteer 194
Robert W. Service Fleurette 195
John Freeman The Return 198
Sir Henry Newbolt The Toy Band 199
Sir Henry Newbolt A Letter from the Front 200
Sir Owen Seaman Thomas of the Light Heart 201
Maurice Hewlett In the Trenches 202
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle The Guards Came Through 203
William Dean Howells The Passengers of a Retarded Submersible 205
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson Retreat 206
John Ernest Adamson Resurrection 207
F. W. Bourdillon The Call 213
Lieutenant William Rose Benét Front Line 214
Eden Phillpotts In Gallipoli 215
John Gould Fletcher The Last Rally 216
John Gould Fletcher Channel Sunset 218
Rowland Thirlmere Richmond Park 218
Patrick R. Chalmers Infantry 219
Gilbert Keith Chesterton The Ballad of St. Barbara 220
Maud Anna Bell From a Trench 226
Guy Kendall Mopsus 227
Herbert Kaufman The Hell-Gate of Soissons 230
George Sterling Henri 233
Neil Munro Romance 234
Grace Fallow Norton The Mobilization in Brittany 236
Isabel Ecclestone Mackay The Recruit 238
Maxwell Struthers Burt Pierrot at War 239
Katharine Tynan High Summer 240
Grace Hazard Conkling Rheims Cathedral, 1914 240
Lieutenant T. M. Kettle To My Daughter Betty, the Gift of God 241
Sergeant Leslie Coulson The Rainbow 241
Lieutenant William Noel Hodgson ("Edward Melbourne") Back to Rest 242
Sergeant Joyce Kilmer Prayer of a Soldier in France 243
Chaplain G. A. Studdert Kennedy Solomon in all his Glory 244
Chaplain G. A. Studdert Kennedy War 244


Lieutenant Rupert Brooke The Soldier 245
Lieutenant Rupert Brooke Safety 245
Lieutenant Rupert Brooke Peace 246
Alan Seeger I Have a Rendezvous with Death 246
Alan Seeger Champagne, 1914—15 247
Captain Julian Grenfell Into Battle 250
Lance-Corporal Francis Ledwidge The Place 251
Lance-Corporal Francis Ledwidge Evening Clouds 252
Captain Lord Dunsany Songs from an Evil Wood 252
Captain Charles Hamilton Sorley Expectans Expectavi 255
Captain Charles Hamilton Sorley "All the Hills and Vales Along" 256
Flight-Commander Jeffrey Day To My Brother 257
Lieutenant Robert Ernest Vernède A Petition 259
Sergeant Joyce Kilmer The New School 259
Sergeant Joyce Kilmer Kings 261
Lieutenant Robert Nichols Comrades: An Episode 261
Lieutenant Robert Nichols Fulfilment 264
Lieutenant Robert Nichols The Day's March 265
Captain Siegfried Sassoon The Troops 266
Captain Siegfried Sassoon Trench Duty 267
Captain T. P. Cameron Wilson Magpies in Picardy 267
Lieutenant Frederic Manning The Face 269
Lieutenant Frederic Manning The Sign 269
Lieutenant Frederic Manning The Trenches 270
Lieutenant Frederic Manning Transport 271
Captain James H. Knight-Adkin No Man's Land 272
Captain James H. Knight-Adkin "On Les Aura!" 273
Captain Robert Graves The Last Post 274
Lieutenant Herbert Asquith On a Troopship, 1915 274
Lieutenant Herbert Asquith The Volunteer 275
Patrick MacGill Before the Charge 275
Patrick MacGill In the Morning 276
Lieutenant E. Wyndham Tennant Home Thoughts from Laventie 277
Lieutenant E. Wyndham Tennant Reincarnation 279
Lieutenant E. Wyndham Tennant Light after Darkness 279
Captain Edward de Stein To a Skylark behind Our Trenches 280
Lieutenant F. W. Harvey The Bugler 281
Lieutenant E. Armine Wodehouse Before Ginchy 281
Lieutenant E. Armine Wodehouse Next Morning 284
Captain James Norman Hall The Cricketers of Flanders 286
Captain James Norman Hall A Finger and a Huge, Thick Thumb 287
Lieutenant Henry William Hutchinson Sonnets 290
Lieutenant William Noel Hodgson ("Edward Melbourne") God's Hills 291
Captain Gilbert Frankau Headquarters 281
Captain Gilbert Frankau Ammunition Column 294
Captain Gilbert Frankau The Voice of the Guns 295
Bernard Freeman Trotter A Kiss 297
Bernard Freeman Trotter The Poplars 298
Captain William G. Shakespeare The Cathedral 299
Lieutenant-Commander E. Hilton Young Memories 300
W. S. S. Lyon Lines Written in a Fire-Trench 300
Lieutenant Joseph Lee Back to London: A Poem of Leave 301
Lieutenant Joseph Lee German Prisoners 303
Private A. N. Field The Challenge of the Guns 304
Lieutenant-Colonel W. Campbell Galbraith Red Poppies in the Corn 304
Captain W. Kersley Holmes Horse-Bathing Parade 305
Lieutenant William Noel Hodgson ("Edward Melbourne") Before Action 306
Lieutenant Robert Haven Schauffler After Action 306
Captain James Sprent A Confession of Faith 307
Lieutenant Ronald Lewis Carton Hereafter 307
Major Charles G. D. Roberts Cambrai and Marne 310
Lieutenant Donald F. Goold Johnson Battle Hymn 312
Sergeant Joyce Kilmer The Peacemaker 312


Winifred M. Letts Chaplain to the Forces 314
Eden Phillpotts Song of the Red Cross 315
Laurence Binyon The Healers 316
Edith M. Thomas The Red Cross Nurse 317


Alfred Noyes Wireless 318
Alfred Noyes Kilmeny 319
Alfred Noyes The "Vindictive" 320
Robert Bridges The Chivalry of the Sea 322
Sir William Watson The Battle of the Bight 323
Sir Henry Newbolt The Song of the Guns at Sea 324
Morley Roberts The Merchantmen 325
Reginald McIntosh Cleveland Destroyers off Jutland 327
Katharine Tynan After Jutland 327
J. Edgar Middleton Off Heligoland 328
Lieutenant-Commander N. M. F. Corbett The Auxiliary Cruiser 329
C. Fox Smith British Merchant Service 330
C. Fox Smith The North Sea Ground 332
Henry Head Destroyers 333
Lieutenant Nowell Oxland Outward Bound 334
Cecil Roberts Watchmen of the Night 336
Norah M. Holland Captains Adventurous 337
Flight-Commander Jeffery Day The North Sea 338


Maurice Baring In Memoriam A. H. 340
George Edward Woodberry To the Wingless Victory 346
Grace Hazard Conkling Letter to an Aviator in France 347
Duncan Campbell Scott To a Canadian Aviator who died for his Country in France 349
Florence Earle Coates Captain Guynemer 350
Captain Paul Bewsher Searchlights 351


Robert Bridges Trafalgar Square 353
Winifred M. Letts To a Soldier in Hospital 354
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson Between the Lines 355
Amy Lowell Convalescence 360
Rowland Thirlmere Gassed 360
Edward Shillito Invalided 362
Lieutenant Robert Haven Schauffler The White Comrade 362
Alberta Vickridge, V.A.D. Out of the Conflict 365


Lieutenant Rupert Brooke The Dead 367
Sir Henry Newbolt Hic Jacet Qui in Hoc Saeculo Fideliter Militavit 368
Laurence Binyon For the Fallen 368
Captain Charles Hamilton Sorley Two Sonnets 369
Captain Charles Hamilton Sorley The Dead 370
Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae In Flanders Fields 371
Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae The Anxious Dead 371
Lieutenant Robert Ernest Vernède To Our Fallen 372
Lieutenant Herbert Asquith The Fallen Subaltern 373
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson Lament 373
John Galsworthy Valley of the Shadow 374
Lord Crewe A Harrow Grave in Flanders 374
E. V. Lucas The Debt 370
John Drinkwater Riddles, R.F.C. 376
Barry Pain The Army of the Dead 377
G. O. Warren The Spectral Army 378
John Jay Chapman To a Dog 378
Norreys Jephson O'Conor For Francis Ledwidge 379
A. E. The Last Hero 380
John Masefield The Island of Skyros 380
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson Rupert Brooke 381
Moray Dalton Rupert Brooke (In Memoriam) 383
Eden Phillpotts To Rupert Brooke 383
Robert Bridges Lord Kitchener 384
John Helston Kitchener 384
Wilfred Campbell Where Kitchener Sleeps 385
Amelia Josephine Burr Kitchener's March 386
Sir Owen Seaman To the Memory of Field-Marshal Earl Roberts 387
George Edward Woodberry Edith Cavell 388
Thomas Hardy Before Marching, and After 389
W. L. Courtney To our Dead 390
G. E. Rees Telling the Bees 390
Captain A. T. Nankivell The House of Death 391
Margaret Adelaide Wilson Gervais 391
Lieutenant Sigourney Thayer The Dead 392
Claude Houghton To the Fallen 392
Captain T. P. Cameron Wilson Sportsmen in Paradise 393
A. E. Murray The Dead 393
Duncan Campbell Scott To a Canadian Lad, Killed in the War 394
Moray Dalton To Some Who have Fallen 395
Lieutenant Ewart Alan Mackintosh In Memoriam 395
Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick George Scott The Silent Toast 397
Hermann Hagedorn Resurrection 398
Francis Bickley The Players 398
Captain W. Kersley Holmes Fallen 399
John Hogben "Somewhere in France" 399
Marjorie Wilson To Tony (aged 3) 400
Mildred Huxley To my Godson 401
Katharine Tynan New Heaven 402
Katharine Tynan The Old Soldier 403
Lieutenant Ronald Lewis Carton Réveillé 403
Lieutenant Walter Lightowler Wilkinson A Lament from the Dead 404


Winifred M. Letts The Call to Arms in our Street 406
G. O. Warren The Endless Army 407
Katharine Tynan The Mother 408
Marjorie Wilson The Devonshire Mother 409
F. W. Bourdillon The Heart-Cry 410
Ada Tyrell My Son 410
Margaret Widdemer Homes 411
Edward J. O'Brien Song 412
Josephine Preston Peabody Harvest Moon 412
Josephine Preston Peabody Harvest Moon, 1916 414
Grace Fallow Norton The Journey 415
Captain Gilbert Frankau Mother and Mate 416
Gabrielle Elliot Pierrot Goes to War 417
Katherine Hale Grey Knitting 417
Katharine Tynan At Parting 418
Beatrice W. Ravenel Missing 419
Sara Teasdale Spring in War-Time 420


Austin Dobson "When there is Peace" 421
Austin Dobson Clean Hands 421
G. O. Warren Peace 422
Richard le Gallienne After the War 423
Marjorie L. C. Pickthall When It Is Finished 423
Eden Phillpotts Réveillé 424
Sergeant Leslie Coulson When I Come Home 425


Indexes 427



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



THE Editor desires to express his cordial appreciation of the assistance rendered him in his undertaking by the officials of the British Museum (Mr. F. D. Sladen, in particular) and the Librarians of the University of Tennessee; Professor W. Macneile Dixon, of the University of Glasgow; Professor Kemp Smith, of Princeton University; Mr. Norreys Jephson O'Connor, of Harvard University; Mr. Francis Bickley, of London; Mr. Francis Parsons, of Hartford, Connecticut; and Miss Olympe D. Trabue, of Washington, D.C. He wishes also to acknowledge the courtesies generously extended by the following authors, authors' representatives, periodicals, and publishers in granting permission for the use of the poems indicated, rights in which are in each case reserved by the owner of the copyright:—


Dr. John Ernest Adamson and the Fortnightly Review:—"Resurrection."

The Right Honourable H. H. Asquith, Lady Cynthia Asquith and the Spectator:—"On a Troopship, 1915," and "A Flemish Village"; "The Volunteer" and "The Fallen Subaltern," from The Volunteer, and Other Poems (Messrs. Sidgwick & Jackson, London), by Lieutenant Herbert Asquith.

The Honourable Maurice Baring:—"In Memoriam A. H.", from Poems: 1914-1917 (Martin Seeker).

Dr. H. H. Bashford and the Nation (London):—"The Vision of Spring, 1916," from Songs out of School (Messrs. Constable & Company, London, and Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston).

Miss Maud Anna Bell and the London Times:—"From a Trench."

Mr. Hilaire Belloc and the New Witness:—"Sedan."

Lieutenant William Rose Benét and the Century Magazine:—"Front Line."

Captain Paul Bewsher and the London Graphic:—"Searchlights"; from The Bombing of Bruges (Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton).

Mr. Francis Bickley and the Westminster Gazette:—"The Players."

Mr. Laurence Binyon:—"To the Belgians", "Men of Verdun", "The Anvil", "The Healers" and "For the Fallen," from The Anvil and The Winnowing Fan (Elkin Mathews, London); Mr. Binyon and the New York Times:—"The New World;" Mr. Binyon and the Atlantic Monthly:—"Oxford in War Time," from The New World (Elkin Mathews, London).

Mr. F. W. Bourdillon:—"The Heart-Cry"; Mr. Bourdillon and the Spectator:—"The Call"; "The Debt Unpayable."

Dr. Gamaliel Bradford and the Nation (New York):—"Napoleon."

Mr. Robert Bridges and the London Times:—"The Chivalry of the Sea," "Lord Kitchener," "Trafalgar Square" and "To the United States of America."

Mr. Charles William Brodribb and the Times:—"Expeditional."

Mr. Dana Burnet and the New York Evening Sun:—"The Battle of Liège" and "Napoleon's Tomb."

Miss Amelia Josephine Burr:—"Kitchener's March," from Life and Living (Messrs. George H. Doran Company, New York).

Mr. Maxwell Struthers Burt and Scribner's Magazine:—"Pierrot at War."

Miss Margaretta Byrde and the Spectator:—"America at St. Paul's."

Mrs. Wilfred Campbell and The Musson Book Company (Toronto):—"Langemarck" and "Where Kitchener Sleeps," by the late Wilfred Campbell.

Mr. Bliss Carman:—"The War Cry of the Eagles."

Lieutenant Ronald Lewis Carton:—"Hereafter" and "Réveillé," from Steel and Flowers (Elkin Mathews, London).

Mr. Patrick R. Chalmers and Punch:—"Guns of Verdun," "Infantry" and "The Steeple."

Mrs. Grace Ellery-Channing-Stetson and the New York Tribune:—"Flower-Beds in the Tuileries."

Mr. John Jay Chapman and Vanity Fair:—"To a Dog."

The late Cecil Chesterton and the New Witness:—"France."

Mr. Gilbert Keith Chesterton and the New Witness:—"The Ballad of St. Barbara"; Mr. Chesterton and Messrs. Burns & Gates:—"The Wife of Flanders," from Poems (published also by the John Lane Company, New York).

Mr. Reginald McIntosh Cleveland and the New York Times:—"Destroyers off Jutland."

Mrs. Florence Earle Coates:—"Place de la Concorde," from The Collected Poems of Florence Earle Coates (Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston); "Serbia" and "Captain Guynemer."

Miss Helen Gray Cone and Messrs. J. M. Dent & Sons, Limited, London:—"A Chant of Love for England," from A Chant of Love for England, and Other Poems (published also by Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Company, New York); Miss Cone and the New York Times:—"To Belgium."

Mrs. Grace Hazard Conkling:—"Rheims Cathedral—1914," from Afternoons of April (Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston); "Letter to an Aviator in France."

Lieutenant-Commander N. M. F. Corbett and Land and Water:—"The Auxiliary Cruiser."

Mr. F. Raymond Coulson and Mr. Erskine Macdonald: "The Rainbow," and "When I Come Home," by Sergeant Leslie Coulson, from From an Outpost (Erskine Macdonald).

Mr. W. L. Courtney and the Fortnightly Review:—"To Our Dead."

Miss Charlotte Holmes Crawford and Scribner's Magazine:—"Vive la France!"

Lord Crewe and the Harrovian:—"A Harrow Grave in Flanders."

Mr. Moray Dalton and the Spectator:—"To Italy" and "Rupert Brooke"; Mr. Dalton and the West Sussex Gazette:—"To Some Who Have Fallen."

Mrs. Olive Tilford Dargan and the Atlantic Monthly:—" 'It Will Be a Hard Winter.' "

Mr. G. D. Day: "North Sea," from Poems and Rhymes, by Flight-Commander Jeffery Day, R.N.A.S. (Sidgwick & Jackson).

Lord Desborough and the London Times:—"Into Battle," by the late Captain Julian Grenfell.

Mr. Walter de la Mare and the Westminster Gazette:—"The Fool Rings his Bells."

Captain Edward de Stein and the London Times:—"To a Skylark behind Our Trenches," from The Poets in Picardy (John Murray, London).

Professor W. Macneile Dixon and the London Times:—"To Fellow Travellers in Greece."

Mr. Austin Dobson:—"When There is Peace" and "Clean Hands."

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and the London Times:—"The Guns in Sussex" and "The Guards Came Through." (John Murray).

Rev. W. H. Draper and the Spectator:—"The Red Christmas," from Poems of the Love of England (Messrs. Chatto & Windus).

Mr. John Drinkwater and Messrs. Sidgwick and Jackson:—"Riddles, R.F.C." (the Saturday Review), "Of Greatham," and "We Willed It Not." (the Sphere).

Lord Dunsany and the Saturday Review:—"Songs from an Evil Wood."

Miss Gabrielle Elliot and the New York Times:—"Pierrot Goes to War."

Mrs. Theodosia Garrison Faulks and Good Housekeeping:—"These Shall Prevail."

Mrs. Sara Teasdale Filsinger and Harper's Magazine:—" 'There Will Come Soft Rains' "; "Spring in War-Time," from Rivers to the Sea (The Macmillan Company).

Dr. John H. Finley and the Yale Review:—"The Valleys of the Blue Shrouds." Dr. Finley and the Atlantic Monthly:—"The Road to Dieppe."

Professor O. W. Firkins and the Nation (New York):—"To America in War Time."

Mr. John Gould Fletcher and the Century Magazine:—"The Last Rally"; Mr. Fletcher and the New Republic:—"Channel Sunset."

Mrs. M. Forrest and the Spectator:—"The Heroes."

Captain Gilbert Frankau:—"Headquarters," "Ammunition Column" and "The Voice of the Guns," from The Guns (Messrs. Chatto & Windus, London); and A Song of the Guns (Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston); and "Mother and Mate," from The Other Side and Other Poems (Alfred A. Knopf, New York).

Mr. John Freeman and the Westminster Gazette:—"The Return"; Mr. Freeman and Messrs. Selwyn & Blount, London:—"Sweet England" and "The Stars in their Courses," from Presage of Victory and Other Poems of the Time.

Lieutenant-Colonel W. Campbell Galbraith and the Westminster Gazette:—"Red Poppies in the Corn."

Mr. John Galsworthy and the Westminster Gazette:—"England to Free Men"; Mr. Galsworthy and the London Chronicle:—"The Soldier Speaks"; Mr. Galsworthy and the Nation (London):—"Valley of the Shadow," from A Sheaf (William Heinemann, London, and Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York).

Mrs. John W. Garvin ("Katherine Hale"), the Toronto Globe, and William Briggs, Toronto:—"Grey Knitting."

Lady Glenconner: "Home Thoughts from Laventie" (the London Times), "Reincarnation" and "Light after Darkness," from Worple Flit (B. H. Blackwell, Oxford), by the late Lieutenant E. Wyndham Tennant.

Mr. Wilfrid Wilson Gibson and the Fortnightly Review:—"Rupert Brooke," from Battle and Other Poems (The Macmillan Company): "Lament" and "The Ragged Stone," from Hill-Tracks (The Macmillan Company); "Retreat," and "Between the Lines" (The Macmillan Company).

Colonel Lord Gorell and the Contemporary Review:—"Ypres," from Days of Destiny (Messrs. Longmans, Green & Company).

Mr. Robert Grant and the Nation (New York):—"The Superman."

Captain Robert Graves and the Nation (London):—"The Last Post," from Fairies and Fusiliers (William Heinemann, London).

Mr. Herman Hagedorn and the Century Magazine:—"Resurrection."

Captain James Norman Hall and the Spectator:—"The Cricketers of Flanders"; Captain Hall and the Century Magazine:—"A Finger and a Huge, Thick Thumb."

Mr. Thomas Hardy and the Fortnightly Review:—"Before Marching, and After"; Mr. Hardy and the London Times:—"Men Who March Away" and "Then and Now," from Satires of Circumstance (Macmillan & Company); Mr. Hardy and the Saturday Review:—"In Time of 'the Breaking of Nations,' " from Moments of Vision (Messsrs. Macmillan & Company).

Miss Isabel Westcott Harper and Chambers' Journal:—"Highland Night, 1715, 1815, 1915."

Lieutenant F. W. Harvey:—"The Bugler," from Gloucester Friends (Messrs. Sidgwick & Jackson, London).

Dr. Henry Head and the Yale Review:—"Destroyers," from Destroyers and Other Verses (Oxford University Press).

Mr. John Helston:—"Advance, America!"; Mr. Helston and the English Review:—"Kitchener."

Mr. Aubrey Herbert ("Ben Kendim") and the Spectator:—"The New Zealander."

Miss Ethel M. Hewitt and Harper's Magazine:—"Bois Étoilé."

Mr. Maurice Hewlett:—"In the Trenches," from Sing-Songs of the War (The Poetry Bookshop; "The Fourth of July, 1776."

Mrs. Katharine Tynan Hinkson and the New Witness:—"High Summer"; Mrs. Hinkson and the Nation (London):—"New Heaven"; "After Jutland," "The Mother," and "At Parting," from Late Songs (Messrs. Sidgwick & Jackson); "To the Others."

Mr. John Hogben and the Spectator:—"Somewhere in France."

Miss Norah M. Holland:—"Captains Adventurous" (Messrs. J. M. Dent & Company, London and Toronto).

Captain W. Kersley Holmes and the Glasgow News:—"Fallen" and "Horse-Bathing Parade," from More Ballads of Field and Billet (Alexander Gardner, Paisley).

Mr. Claude Houghton and the New Witness:—"To the Fallen," from The Phantom Host (Elkin Mathews, London).

Mr. William Dean Howells and the North American Review:—"The Passengers of a Retarded Submersible."

Lady Hutchinson:—"Sonnets," by the late Lieutenant Henry William Hutchinson.

Miss Mildred Huxley and the Spectator:—"Subalterns" and "To my Godson."

Lady Jenkins:—"Crusaders" and "Happy Warriors," from Forlorn Adventurers (Sidgwick & Jackson).

Mr. Herbert Kaufman:—"The Hell-Gate of Soissons," from The Hell-Gate of Soissons and Other Poems (T. Fisher Unwin, Limited, London; published also by the Macmillan Company, New York).

Mr. Harry Kemp and Munsey's Magazine:—"The New Ally."

Dr. Guy Kendall and the Spectator:—"Mopsus" and "To my Pupils, Gone before their Day," from The Call and Other Poems (Messrs. Chapman & Hall).

Mrs. Mary S. Kettle:—"A Song of the Irish Armies," and "To My Daughter Betty," from Poems and Parodies (London: Duckworth. Dublin: The Talbot Press).

Mr. Rudyard Kipling:—"For All We Have and Are," and "The Choice," from The Years Between (Methuen).

Captain James H. Knight-Adkin and the Spectator:—"No Man's Land" and "On Les Aura!"

Miss Kathleen Knox and Punch:—"A Lost Land."

Lieutenant Joseph Lee and the Spectator:—"German Prisoners" and "Back to London," from Work-a-Day Warriors (John Murray).

Mr. Richard le Gallienne:—"After the War."

Miss Winifred M. Letts and the Spectator:—"To a Soldier in Hospital"; Miss Letts and the Westminster Gazette:—"The Spires of Oxford," "Chaplain to the Forces," and "The Call to Arms in Our Street," from Hallowe'en, and Poems of the War (John Murray, London); The Spires of Oxford and Other Poems (E. P. Dutton & Company, New York); Miss Letts and the Yale Review:—"The Connaught Rangers."

Mr. Vachel Lindsay:—"Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight," from The Congo and Other Poems (The Macmillan Company); "Niagara," from The Chinese Nightingale and Other Poems (The Macmillan Company).

Miss Amy Lowell and Scribner's Magazine:—"Convalescence."

Mr. E. V. Lucas and the Sphere:—"The Debt."

Rev. W. T. Lyon:—"Lines Written in a Fire-Trench" and "Easter at Ypres, 1915," by the late W. S. S. Lyon, from Easter at Ypres, 1915, and Other Poems (Messrs. James Maclehose & Sons, Glasgow).

Mr. Patrick MacGill:—"Before the Charge" and "In the Morning," from Soldier Songs (Herbert Jenkins, Ltd., London, and Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Company, New York).

Mrs. Isabel Ecclestone Mackay and the Canadian Magazine:—"The Recruit."

Mr. Percy MacKaye:—"Christmas, 1915," from Poems and Plays (The Macmillan Company); "Magna Carta," from The Present Hour (The Macmillan Company.)

Lieutenant Frederic Manning:—"The Sign," "The Trenches," "The Face" and "Transport," from Eidola (John Murray, London, and Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Company, New York).

Mrs. Josephine Preston Peabody Marks:—"Harvest Moon," and "Harvest Moon, 1916," from Harvest Moon (Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company.)

Mr. Edward Marsh, literary executor of the late Lieutenant Rupert Brooke: "The Soldier," "The Dead," "Peace" and "Safety," from 1914, and Other Poems (Messrs. Sidgwick & Jackson, London, and Messrs. McClelland & Stewart, Toronto); The Collected Poems of Rupert Brooke (The John Lane Company, New York).

Mr. John Masefield and Contemporary Verse:—"The Choice." Mr. Masefield and the Macmillan Company: "The Island of Skyros."

Mrs. David McCrae and Dr. Thomas McCrae:—"In Flanders Fields" (Punch) and "The Anxious Dead" (the Spectator), from In Flanders Fields and Other Poems (Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York; Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton, London).

Mr. J. Edgar Middleton:—"Off Heligoland," From Sea Dogs and Men-at-Arms (Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, and Messrs. McClelland & Stewart, Toronto).

Mrs. Stuart Moore ("Evelyn Underhill") and the Westminster Gazette:—"Non-Combatants," from Immanence (Messrs. J. M. Dent & Company, London, and Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Company, New York).

Lieutenant Charles Langbridge Morgan and the Westminster Gazette:—"To America."

Mr. Christopher Morley:—"To the Oxford Men in the War," from Songs for a Little House (The George H. Doran Company).

Mr. Neil Munro and Blackwood's Magazine:—"Romance," "Pipes in Arras," and "Lochaber No more!"

Miss A. E. Murray and the Nation (London):—"The Dead."

Captain A. T. Nankivell and the Westminster Gazette:—"The House of Death."

Sir Henry Newbolt:—"The Vigil"; "The War Films"; "The Toy Band"; "A Letter from the Front"; "The Song of the Guns at Sea," and "Hic Jacet Qui in Hoc Saeculo Militavit."

Lieutenant Robert Nichols:—"Comrades: An Episode," "Fulfilment" and "The Day's March," from Ardours and Endurances (Messrs. Chatto & Windus, London, and the Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York).

Miss Grace Fallow Norton:—"The Mobilization in Brittany," and "The Journey," from Roads (Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston).

Mr. Alfred Noyes:—"Wireless" and "The 'Vindictive' " (The Frederick A. Stokes Company); "The Searchlights" (London Times), "Kilmeny" and "Princeton, May, 1917"; New Poems (Blackwood).

Mr. Edward J. O'Brien and the Century Magazine:—"Song."

Mr. Norreys Jephson O'Conor:—"Moira's Keening"; Mr. O'Conor and Contemporary Verse:—"For Francis Ledwidge."

Mr. Will H. Ogilvie and the Spectator:—"Queenslanders" (Messrs. Angus & Robertson, Ltd., Sydney, Australia); Mr. Ogilvie and Country Life:—"Canadians."

Rev. Everard Owen:—"Ypres Tower, Rye"; Mr. Owen and Messrs. Sidgwick & Jackson:—"Three Hills" (London Times), from Three Hills and Other Poems.

Mr. Barry Pain and the London Times:—"The Kaiser and God"; Mr. Pain and the Westminster Gazette:—"The Army of the Dead."

Mr. Eden Phillpotts:—"Verdun," "Song of the Red Cross," "In Gallipoli," "To Rupert Brooke," and "Réveillé," from Plain Song, 1914–1916 (William Heinemann, London, and The Macmillan Company, New York).

Mrs. Marjorie L. C. Pickthall:—"When It is Finished"; Mrs. Pickthall and the London Times:—"Canada to England."

Mrs. Beatrice W. Ravenel and the Atlantic Monthly:—"Missing."

Rev. Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley:—"Going to the Front."

Rev. G. E. Rees, and the Westminster Gazette:—"Telling the Bees."

Mr. Cecil Roberts and the Poetry Review:—"Watchmen of the Night."

Major Charles G. D. Roberts: "Cambrai and Marne," from New Poems, by Major Charles G. D. Roberts (Constable).

Mr. Morley Roberts and the Westminster Gazette:—"To America" and "The Merchantmen," from War Lyrics (Messrs. Selwyn & Blount, London).

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Ronald Ross:—"The Death of Peace" and "Apocalypse" (The Poetry Review).

Mr. George W. Russell ("A. E.") and the London Times:—"Gods of War" and "Shadows and Lights"; Mr. Russell and Messrs. Macmillan & Company:—"The Last Hero."

Captain Siegfried Sassoon (by Lieutenant Robert Nichols):—"Troops" and "Trench Duty," from Counter-Attack and Other Poems (William Heinemann, London, and Messrs. E. P. Dutton & Company, New York).

Lieutenant Robert Haven Schauffler:—"The White Comrade" and "After Action."

Mr. Clinton Scollard:—"Italy in Arms," from Italy in Arms, and Other Poems (Lawrence J. Gomme, New York); "A Summer Morning," from Let the Flag Wave (Messrs. James T. White & Company, New York).

Mr. Duncan Campbell Scott:—"To a Canadian Lad Killed in the War," from Lundy's Lane and Other Poems (Messrs. McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, and the George H. Doran Company, New York); Mr. Scott and Scribner's Magazine:—"To a Canadian Aviator Who Died for his Country in France."

Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick George Scott:—"The Silent Toast" (Messrs. Constable & Company, London).

Sir Owen Seaman, Punch, and Messrs. Constable & Company:—"Thomas of the Light Heart," and "To Belgium in Exile," from War-Time; Sir Owen Seaman and Punch:—"To the Memory of Field-Marshal Earl Roberts."

Mr. Robert W. Service: "The Volunteer," "Fleurette," "Faith," and "The Song of the Pacifist," from The Rhymes of a Red Cross Man (Fisher Unwin).

Captain William G. Shakespeare:—"The Cathedral," from Ypres and Other Poems (Messrs. Sidgwick & Jackson, London).

Professor Odell Shepard:—"The Hidden Weaver," from A Lonely Flute (Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company).

Professor Stuart P. Sherman and the Nation (New York):—"Kaiser and Councillor."

Mr. Edward Shillito and the London Chronicle:—"Invalided."

Miss C. Fox Smith:—"Farewell to Anzac" (the Spectator) and "St. George of England," from Fighting Men (Elkin Mathews, London); Miss Smith and the Spectator:—"British Merchant Service," from The Naval Crown (Elkin Mathews); Miss Smith and Punch:—"The North Sea Ground." By permission also of the George H. Doran Company, New York.

Mr. W. Snow and the Oxford Magazine—"The Ghosts of Oxford."

Professor William R. Sorley:—"Expectans Expectavi." "All the Hills and Vales Along," "Two Sonnets," and "The Dead," by the late Captain Charles Hamilton Sorley, from Marlborough and Other Poems (The Cambridge University Press).

Mr. George Sterling and the Delineator:—"Henri."

Rev. William G. Thayer and the Atlantic Monthly:—"The Dead," by Lieutenant Sigourney Thayer.

Miss Edith M. Thomas and Harper's Magazine:—"The Red Cross Nurse."

The late Professor Thomas Trotter:—"The Poplars," and "A Kiss," by the late Bernard Freeman Trotter, from A Canadian Twilight and Other Poems of War and of Peace (McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, and the George H. Doran Company, New York).

Mrs. Ada Tyrrell and the Saturday Review:—"My Son."

Dr. Henry van Dyke and Scribner's Magazine:—"The Peaceful Warrior."

Mr. Tertius van Dyke and the Spectator:—"Oxford Revisited in War-Time."

Mrs. Robert E. Vernède, the London Times, and William Heinemann, London:—"To our Fallen" and "A Petition," by the late Lieutenant Robert Ernest Vernède.

Mr. John Walker ("Rowland Thirlmere"):—"Richmond Park," from Diogenes at Athens and Other Poems (Messrs. Selwyn & Blount, London); "Jimmy Doane" (The Poetry Review) and "Gassed."

Mrs. G. O. Warren:—"The Spectral Army," "Peace," and "The Endless Army," from Trackless Regions (B. H. Blackwell, Oxford, and Messrs. Longmans, Green & Company, New York); Mrs. Warren and the Spectator:—"Fulfilment."

Sir William Watson:—"The Battle of the Bight," from The Man Who Saw, and Other Poems Arising out of the War (John Murray, London, and Messrs. Harper & Brothers, New York).

Mrs. Edith Wharton, the Century Magazine, and Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons:—"Battle Sleep"; Mrs. Wharton:—"Belgium," from King Albert's Book (Hearst's International Library Company).

Miss Margaret Widdemer:—"Homes," from The Old Road to Paradise (Messrs. Henry Holt & Company).

Mrs. Fredeline Wilson, the Westminster Gazette, and Mr. Harold Monro, The Poetry Bookshop, London:—"Magpies in Picardy" and "Sportsmen in Paradise," by the late Captain T. P. Cameron Wilson.

Miss Margaret Adelaide Wilson and the Yale Review:—"Gervais."

Miss Marjorie Wilson and the Spectator:—"To Tony, Aged 3"; Miss Wilson and the Westminster Gazette:—"The Devonshire Mother."

Lieutenant E. Armine Wodehouse and the Fortnightly Review:—"Before Ginchy"; "Next Morning," from On Leave (Elkin Mathews, London).

Dr. George Edward Woodberry and the Boston Herald:—"On the Italian Front, MCMXVI"; Dr. Woodberry, the New York Times and the North American Review:—"Sonnets Written in the Autumn of 1914"; Dr. Woodberry and the Atlantic Monthly:—"To the Wingless Victory"; Dr. Woodberry and the North American Review:—"Roumania"; Dr. Woodberry and Scribner's Magazine:—"Edith Cavell."

Mrs. Margaret L. Woods and the Fortnightly Review:—"The First Battle of Ypres."

Lieutenant-Commander E. Hilton Young and the Cornhill Magazine:—"Memories."

The Canadian Magazine:—"Ruins," by George Herbert Clarke.

The Spectator:—"Christ in Flanders," by Mrs. C. T. Whitmell; "To my Brother," by the late Flight-Commander Miles Jeffrey Game Day; and "The Challenge of the Guns," by Private A. N. Field.

The London Times:—"Outward Bound," by the late Lieutenant Nowell Oxland.

The Westminster Gazette:—"Lines Written in Surrey, 1917," by George Herbert Clarke.

Messrs. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, Australia: "England Yet," by Henry Lawson, from Selected Poems.

The Cambridge Press: "Battle Hymn," from Poems, by Lieut. Donald F. Goold Johnson.

Messrs. Cassell & Company, London, and the Funk & Wagnalls Company, New York:—"A Confession of Faith," by Captain James Sprent, from The Anzac Book (Anzac Book Committee).

Messrs. Constable & Company:—"I have a Rendezvous with Death," and "Champagne, 1914-15," by the late Alan Seeger, from Poems (published also by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York).

The George H. Doran Company, New York:—"Kings" and "The New School," from Main Street and Other Poems, by the late Sergeant Joyce Kilmer.

Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton: "Prayer of a Soldier in France," and "The Peacemaker," by Joyce Kilmer, from Joyce Kilmer: Poems, Essays and Letters. "War," and "A Mother Understands," from Rough Rhymes of a Padre, and "Solomon in All His Glory," from More Rough Rhymes of a Padre, by G. A. Studdert Kennedy, M.C., C.F. ("Woodbine Willie"). "The Name of France," by Henry Van Dyke, from The Red Flower.

Herbert Jenkins, Limited, London:—"Evening in England," "The Place," "Evening Clouds," "Autumn Evening in Serbia," and "The Homecoming of the Sheep," from Songs of Peace, by the late Lance-corporal Francis Ledwidge, edited by Lord Dunsany.

Mr. John Lane:—"The Kaiser and Belgium," by the late Stephen Phillips. "In Memoriam" and "Oxford from the Trenches," from A Highland Regiment, by Lieut. E. A. Mackintosh.

Messrs. Macmillan & Company:—"Australia to England," by Archibald T. Strong, from Sonnets of the Empire.

Mr. Erskine Macdonald: "A Lament for the Dead," by Lieut. Walter L. Wilkinson, from More Songs by the Fighting Men. "Out of the Conflict," by Alberta Vickridge, V.A.D., from The Sea Gazer.

Mr. Elkin Mathews: "England," and "Burn up the World," from The Challenge, by Lieut. Leonard Van Noppen, U.S.A.

Mr. John Murray and the New Witness:—"God's Hills," by the late Lieutenant William Noel Hodgson ("Edward Melbourne").

Mr. John Murray:—"Before Action" and "Back to Rest," from Verse and Prose, by W. Noel Hodgson.

The Princeton University Press:—"To France," by Herbert Jones, from A Book of Princeton Verse.

Messrs. Tyrell's, Limited, Sydney, Australia: "Song of the Dardanelles," and "Fighting Hard," by Henry Lawson, from My Army, O, My Army.



INTRODUCTION



BECAUSE man is both militant and pacific, he has expressed in literature, as indeed in the other forms of art, his pacific and militant moods. Nor are these moods, of necessity, incompatible. War may become the price of peace, and peace may so decay as inevitably to bring about war. Of the dully unresponsive pacifist and the jingo patriot, quick to anger, the latter no doubt is the more dangerous to the cause of true freedom, yet both are "undesirable citizens." He who believes that peace is illusory and spurious unless it be based upon justice and liberty, will be proud to battle, if battle he must, for the sake of those foundations. If man is inexhaustible, his poetry is peculiarly so, because in his poetry his spirit is least partisan, most catholic and curious. War, adventure, the mysteries of faith, the changeful aspects of Nature (whether virgin or domesticated), and romantic love—about these themes, or some variation or interrelation of them, the poets have always wondered and sung. From all five of them derives a sense of anticipation, discovery, of Platonic reminiscence. The significance of human life, the riddle of its essential quality, the meaning of its discipline, the secret of its destiny,—these questions challenge the poet most of all. From this vantage and from that he attacks them with all the imaginative ardour at his command, hoping that he may somewhere disengage a hint of latent harmony, may lessen in some degree the perplexities of that "boundless Phantasmagoria and Dream-Grotto"—our human life. What is a poem, then, but a spiritual impulse and adventure shaped and realized (in part at least) in words of inspiring beauty, of passionate sincerity, of creative insight? But since life is whole, the artistic interpretation of life tends progressively toward unity. Poetry, says a true poet,[1] "is, on the one hand, a spirit, animating one individual here and another there; on the other hand, in its outward manifestations, it is a collection of works produced by that spirit working in individuals." So Shelley speaks of "that great poem which all poets, like the co-operating thoughts of one great mind, have built up since the beginning of the world." And Sir William Watson writes:—

". . . 'neath the unifying sun,
Many the songs—but Song is one."

In a sense, then, we do less than justice to the spirit of poetry when we assign its outward manifestations too readily to class and category, save only as the study of form and manner may require. The phrase "war poetry" is a convenient one, but war poetry, after all, may be as broadly comprehensive in its insights and occasions as poetry which has no relation to war. If it be worthy, it is the finely wrought record of a sympathetic reaction to the enkindling heroisms of war, or of an antipathetic reaction to its sorrows, its brutalities and its uglinesses. Nobly conceived and expressed as are not a few poems written by combatants, the contention that the soldier-poet must possess more authentic power as an interpreter of war than his equally endowed but non-militant fellow is, I think, without warrant. The history of war poetry does not so attest. When we respond to the epical struggles in Homer and Spenser and Milton, or follow the unfolding of the great war-pageantry of Shakespeare, or stir to the ringing music of the martial ballads; when we re-create for ourselves Drayton's Agincourt, Lovelace's incomparable lyrics to Lucasta, Collins' How Sleep the Brave, Cowper's Boadicea, Scott's Flodden Field and Bonny Dundee, Campbell's Hohenlinden, The Soldier's Dream, and The Battle of the Baltic, Tennyson's The Revenge, The Defence of Lucknow, and Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington, Browning's Cavalier Tunes and Hervé Riel, Walt Whitman's Drum-Taps, or Thomas Hardy's monumental drama, The Dynasts;—when these veritable war poems take hold upon us we have no need to seal our pleasure with any assurance that the writers did or did not physically participate in conflict. The true warrior-poet is born a poet, but becomes a warrior, and it is even possible that if his actual experience in war be too long continued it may dull and blunt that restless, inquiring, delicately registering organ, the poet's mind. The poet in the soldier, indeed, may rejoice at his experience so long as it offers food imaginatively convenient for him, but the essay at the artistic interpretation of war is, like all similar efforts, primarily a spiritual undertaking, conditioned rather upon qualities of personality than upon definite objective contacts, valuable as these latter may be in point of stimulus. Whether he wear uniform or mufti, the war poet must imagine war, and imagination,[2] Carveth Read tells us, "is not made of particular fact, but of infinite analogies of things, and of things that were never observed or thought of until analogy called them to life." True poets, as Ibsen thought, are really far-sighted, whether the thing that inspires them be concretely near or far. Undoubtedly, the artist who functions in a world at peace might gain much from travel, should oportunity offer, but in any case he realizes that the world is made up of its own miniatures, and that he who interprets in a catholic spirit the life about him interprets all life. So, in a war-torn world, the poet becomes sensitively aware of the dreads and longings, the prides and pities, engendered by war within his own interior spirit and within the spirits of those about him. It is in these that the subtler meanings and realities of war are most surely to be found.

Two points of difference, however, between the militant and the non-militant war poet are sometimes appreciable. The fighting poet seem seldom to display a spirit of personal hatred toward the enemy, but apparently reserves his hatred for the impersonal Wrong for whose sake the enemy fights. This tendency is well illustrated by Lieutenant Joseph Lee's German Prisoners; the late Captain Charles Hamilton Sorley's sonnet, To Germany ; Corporal Alexander Robertson's "Thou Shalt Love Thine Enemies," and Captain James Norman Hall's Out of Flanders. Again, the poet at the Front, unless he be a determined Realist, often turns impatiently away from the attempt to represent actual warfare, and tries instead to visualize some emotional antidote. As Lord Crewe[3] has discerningly said, "It seems that the soldier who is also a writer is as likely to set his mind on green fields and spring flowers as on the bloody drama in which he is an actor, and to tune his lyre accordingly. . . . So that among the verse written by soldiers in this war it is not surprising to find as many poems recalling loves of home and memories of country days as proclaiming the delight of battle, or even the loftier summons of patriotism and duty. Some of this work of to-day, as we all know, transcends the lyrical faculty which is the frequent appanage of youth, and reaches the level of true poetry; some of it is made sacred by the death of the writer, and cannot be coldly weighed in the balance."

Whether or not, then, he be privileged to see war with the eye of sense, and to share its rigours and ardours with fellow-soldiers, the first duty of the war-poet toward his art is to be a poet, to discover the timeless and placeless in the momentary and parochial, and to bring back to us a true and moving report of the experience and behaviour of the human spirit during its recurrent struggles with its own worser self. If he be on active service, the poet will, like Archilochus, the more loyally render unto Ares the things that are Ares', because he continues to offer unto Apollo the things that are Apollo's. If he be involved in other than the military activities of war, he may have even the greater need to preach to himself, as to his readers, the gospel of Art, and to carry his priesthood pure through moments of civic dejection or gusty passion. In either case, it will be his ultimate desire as a poet to develop and express (even though indirectly) a poet's philosophy of war. And his philosophy will be both stern and kind, both just and magnanimous. He will not quarrel about professional or political attitudes toward war. He will not quarrel about attitudes at all. He will see war now as a great and gallant adventure; now as an inevitable molecular movement; now as the abomination of desolation; now, perhaps, as Rowland Thirlmere sees it in Nocturne:—

"O silent heavens, where infinite kings abide,
 What wars impassion the invisible spheres
 That people you? What unimagined fears
Possess their habitants? Does excessive pride
Move them in cheerful hosts to fratricide?
 Beyond the eternal hope of earth, do tears
 Fall, as the unavengéd widow peers
Into the night with prayer unsatisfied?

"Gods against gods may war in agony,—
  Sovereignties against sovereignties disperse
Their lightnings in unending enmity
 Of good and ill,—and they whose thoughts accurse
Our world, perchance fight now vicariously
 For secret princes of the universe."

Sometimes war will seem to the poet, despite its evils, to offer an ennobling spiritual enfranchisement in the face of danger and death, to encourage the soul to renounce the petty timidities and cautions to which the prosaic life of getting on in the world teaches men to conform. The man of war, he will feel, has an altogether unusual opportunity to realize himself, to cleanse and heal himself through the mastering of his physical fears; through the facing of his moral doubts; through the re-examination of whatever thoughts he may have possessed, theretofore, about life and death and the universe; and through the quietly unselfish devotion he owes to the welfare of his fellows and to the cause of his native land. Sometimes the poet will persuade himself that war is, in its essence, merely the noun that corresponds to the adjective dynamic, that it means effort, adventure, burden, growth, struggle, work, indeed the maintenance and development of one's being, that it includes every expression of ideas in the service of knowledge and wisdom, and that it is in this sense an inalienable condition of existence. And sometimes he will curse the very thought of war as he sees it oversweep all humanity's painful safeguards, attacking the Ariel of man's hopes to make room for his enemy Caliban, brazenly emerging like an international Mr. Hyde from a too trustful Dr. Jekyll, and "reeling back into the beast."

Into the stuff of his thought and utterance, whether he be on active service or not, the poet-interpreter of war weaves these various intentions, and co-operates with his fellows in building up a little higher and better, from time to time, that edifice of truth for whose completion can be spared no human experience, no human hope.

Thus he will be striking balances in mood and verdict, while the seemingly insoluable realities behind these conflicting thoughts continue to impinge upon one another. It is natural enough, therefore, that the long debate between Romanticism and Realism in art should have affected war poetry. The partisans of the work of Robert Nichols, Frederic Manning, and the later Siegfried Sassoon, and of Gilbert Frankau's grimly impatient protest, The Other Side, will find little in common with those who turn habitually to Rupert Brooke, Alan Seeger, Francis Ledwidge, or Laurence Binyon. But poetry is a more flexible thing than are the minds of either its creators or its critics, who so often allow their temperamental differences to harden into creeds and dicta. Between Realist and Romanticist there is no radical, permanent cleavage. Both are aware that the world is made up of multiple symbols (for even the realist's fact[4] is the symbol of an idea); both select for artistic patterning such symbols as attract their respective imagination. Realistic closeness to fact does not, if it be wise, aim at mere objective copyism, but rather at the precipitation of the bald fact's subjective values, while the Romantic singling out of the exceptional as against the commonplace is due merely to the belief that the exceptional (precisely because it is exceptional) is of more symbolic worth than the commonplace. The art that is broad enough to include the whispered assonances of Poe, the cryptic chants of Emerson, the flooding harmonies of Shelley, the dreamy magic of Keats and of Coleridge, the subtle appraisements of Browning, and the marrowy tales of Masefield, can reject neither the bare, hard fact of the Realist nor the "sleep and forgetting" of the Romanticist, provided only that the offering be beautiful in spirit and in truth. Idealistic Realism is as natural as idealistic Romanticism. The difference is one of varying preference and emphasis in the choice and treatment of material. The same poet, it is apparent, may write, with equal success and sincerity, now in one mode, now in another; only he must make sure that fact-symbol and fancy-symbol are in each case prescribed by his imagination, and that the focus of his vision does not suffer distortion. Although Romanticism must continue to offer to the coming poet the most grateful means of escaping sufficiently from the physical world to observe its phenomena with the wholesome perspective of Art, yet he will readily adopt the realistic method where it is indicated by the scale and intention of his work. He may even synthetically employ "romantic realism" (to use Arthur Symons' phrase), as Browning did in Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came. The more creative the poet, indeed, the more difficult it must prove to "place" and confine him. He will care less for theory and experimentation—even his own necessary theory and experimentation—than for the patient worship and service of that Truth which "Art remains the one way possible" of discovering,—that true Truth, that essential Truth, which Mrs. Browning so thoughtfully opposes to

". . . relative, comparative,
And temporal truths."

As the following pages will attest, English and American literatures have both received genuine accessions during the Great War. With its close, the attempt to review and assemble its poetic voices becomes measurably possible. In the present Anthology the editorial policy has been humanly hospitable rather than academically critical, especially in the case of some of the verses written by soldiers at the Front, which, however slight in certain instances their technical merit may be, are yet of psychological value as sincere transcripts of personal experience, and will, it is thought, for that very reason, particularly attract and interest the reader. It goes without saying that there are several poems in this group which conspicuously succeed also as works of art. For the rest, the attempt has been made, within such limitations as have been experienced, to present pretty freely the best of what has been found available in contemporary British and American war verse. It must speak for itself, and in not a few instances it does so with unusual sympathy and with living power; sometimes, too, with that quietly intimate companionableness which we find in Gray's Elegy, rightly indicated by John Masefield as a prime quality in English poetry. But if this quality appears in Chaucer and the pre-Romanticists and Wordsworth, it appears also in Longfellow and Lowell, in Emerson and Lanier, and in William Vaughn Moody; for American poetry is, after all, as English poetry—"with a difference"—sprung from the same sources, and coursing along similar channels.

The new fellowship of the two great Anglo-Saxon nations which a book of this character may, to a degree, illustrate, is filled with such high promise for both of them, and for all civilization, that it is perhaps hardly too much to say, with Ambassador Walter H. Page, in his address at the Pilgrims' Dinner in London, April 12, 1917: "We shall get out of this association an indissoluble companionship, and we shall henceforth have indissoluble mutual duties for mankind. I doubt if there could be another international event comparable in large value and in long consequences to this closer association." Mr. Balfour struck the same note when, during his mission to the United States, he expressed himself in these words: "That this great people should throw themselves whole-heartedly into this mighty struggle, prepared for all efforts and sacrifices that may be required to win success for this most righteous cause, is an event at once so happy and so momentous that only the historian of the future will be able, as I believe, to measure its true proportions."

The words of these eminent men ratify the spirit of those poems in the present volume that seek to interpret to Britons and Americans the values of a deepening friendship. "Poets," said Shelley, "are the unacknowledged legislators of the world," and he meant by legislation the guidance and determination of the verdicts of the human soul. In the collection as a whole, the receptive reader will find many suggestions, finely and sensitively expressed, touching the poetic truth (the "essential truth") of War, and the spiritual reciprocities that relate our personal lives to our national and international struggles.

G. H. C.

  1. Sir Henry Newbolt: A New Study of English Poetry (Constable).
  2. Carveth Read: The Function of Relations in Thought (The British Journal of Psychology, December, 1911).
    Cf. the graphic story, The Red Badge of Courage, by Stephen Crane, written before he had experienced war at first-hand.
  3. The Marquis of Crewe: War and English Poetry (The English Association).
  4. "Beauty to her, as to all who have felt, lies not in the thing but in what the thing symbolizes."—Thomas Hardy: Tess of the D'Urbervilles.
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).