1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 22/Table of contributors

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. Bo.* Auguste Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of Paris. Editor of the Canoniste Contemporain.
Pope.
A. C. G. Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Guenther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia and Fishes in the British Museum; &c.
Ray (in part).
A. C. McG. Rev. Arthur Cushman McGiffert, M.A., Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia of Eusebius.
Prophet (in part).
A. D. Austin Dobson, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin.
Prior, Matthew.
A. de W. F. Arthur de Wint Foote.
Superintendent of North Star Mining Company, California.
Power Transmission: Pneumatic.
A. E. G.* Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D.
Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus; &c.
Predestination.
A. E. H. A. E. Houghton.
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain.
Quesada y Matheus.
A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Master of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology. Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
Priapuloidea.
A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
Prison.
A. Ha. Adolf Harnack, Ph.D.
See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf.
Prophet (in part).
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Preaching; Primitive Methodist Church; Priscillian.
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew.
Poltergeist; Prometheus; Psychical Research.
A. McA. Alexander McAulay, M.A.
Professor of Mathematics and Physics. University of Tasmania. Author of Utility of Quaternions in Physics; &c.
Quaternions (in part).
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Edward Wilde).
Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C.
Publicani.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Pratincole; Quail; Quezal; Rail (in part); Raven; Razorbill; Redshank; Redstart; Redwing.
A. Sl. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water-Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.
Prostitution.
A. S. P.-P. Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy, Author of Man’s Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
Pythagoras (in part).
A. S. Wo. Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of the Geological Society of London.
Pterodactyles.
A. T. H. Arthur Twining Hadley, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Hadley, Arthur Twining.
Railways: Economics.
A. Wi.* Aneurin Williams, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International Co-operative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 1910. Author of Twenty-eight Years of Co-partnership at Guise; &c.
Profit-sharing.
A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard, M.A.
Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King’s College, London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the “Globe” Chaucer.
Polyglott.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Proclamation.
B. B. A. Braman Blanchard Adams.
Associate Editor of the Railway Age Gazette, New York.
Railways: Accident Statistics.
C. B.* Charles Bémont, D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Bémont, C.
Quicherat.
C. E. W. C. E. Webber, C.B., M.Inst.CE., M.I.E.E. (1838-1905).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Served in Indian Mutiny, 1857-1860; Egyptian Expedition, 1882; &c. Founder (with late Sir Francis Bolton) and Past President of the Institute of Electrical Engineers.
Railways: Light Railways (in part).
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Ravenna: Battle of 1512.
C. G. Cr. Charles George Crump, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office, London. Editor of Landor’s Works; &c.
Record.
C. Hi. Charles Hiatt.
Author of Picture Posters; &c.
Poster.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Purgatory.
C. H. T.* Crawford Howell Toy, A.M., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Toy, Crawford Howell.
Proverbs, Book of.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Polo, Marco (in part); Ptolemy (in part); Pytheas (in part).
C. T. J. Charles T. Jacobi.
Managing Partner of the Chiswick Press, London. Author of Printing; &c.
Printing.
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
Ramaḍān.
D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulger.
Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; India in the 19th Century; History of Belgium; &c.
Raffles, Sir Thomas.
D. D. A. Rev. Daniel Dulany Addison, D.D.
Rector of All Saints’ Church, Brookline, Mass. Examining Chaplain to Bishop of Massachusetts. Secretary, Cathedral Chapter of Diocese of Massachusetts. Author of The Episcopalians; &c.
Protestant Episcopal Church.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
Programme Music.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Priene; Pteria.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Quiberon, Battle of; Raleigh, Sir Walter.
D. H. S. Dukinfield Henry Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
President of the Linnean Society. Professor of Botany, Royal College of Science, London, 1885-1892. Author of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil Botany; &c.
Pringsheim, Nathanael.
D. W. T. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, C.B., M.A.
Professor of Natural History, University College, Dundee. British Delegate, Bering Sea Fisheries and other Conferences. Author of A Glossary of Greek Birds; &c.
Ray, John.
E. A. J. E. Alfred Jones.
Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue of Leopold de Rothschild’s Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of the Royal Plate at Windsor Castle; &c.
Quaich.
E. A. M. Edward Alfred Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S.
Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University College, London.
Polyp; Protoplasm; Protozoa.
E. Ba. Edwin Bale, R.I.
Art Director, Cassell & Company, Ltd. Member of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours. Hon. Sec, Artists’ Copyright Committee.
Process.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
Raymund of Antioch; Raymund of Toulouse; Raymund of Tripoli; Raynald of Châtillon.
E. B. E. Edward B. Ellington.
Founder and Chief Engineer of the General Hydraulic Power Co., Ltd. Author of Contributions to Proceedings of Institutions of Civil Engineers and of Mechanical Engineers.
Power Transmission: Hydraulic.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., Litt.D.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius” in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Premonstratensians; Rance, Armand de.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Prologue; Prose.
E. Ga. Emile Garcke, M.Inst.E.E.
Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of Electrical Undertakings; &c.
Railways: Light Railways (in part).
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Propylaea.
E. G. C. Ernest George Coker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), M.Sc, M.I.Mech.E.
Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the City and Guilds of London Technical College. Author of various papers in Transactions of the Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh and Canada; &c.
Pulley.
E. H. B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; &c.
Pompeii (in part); Ptolemy (in part); Pytheas (in part).
E. J. J. Edmund Janes James, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D.
President of the University of Illinois; President of American Economic Association. Author of History of American Tariff Legislation, and Essays and Monographs on Economic, Financial, Political and Educational subjects.
Protection.
E. O'N. Elizabeth O'Neill, M.A. (Mrs H. O. O’Neill).
Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of the University of Manchester.
Prebendary; Prelate; Prior; Procurator.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
Portugal: Literature.
E. Ru. Ernest Rutherford, F.R.S., D.Sc. LL.D., Ph.D.
Langworthy Professor of Physics, University of Manchester. Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1908. Author of Radio-activity; Radio-active Transformations; &c.
Radio-activity.
E. R. B. Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A.
New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the High Priests.
Ptolemies.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th.
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Purification.
F. C. S. S. Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller, M.A., D.Sc.
Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Author of Riddles of the Sphinx; Studies in Humanism; &c.
Pragmatism.
F. Dr. Francis M. D. Drummond.
 
Precedence (in part).
F. D. A. Frank Dawson Adams, Ph.D., D.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.S.
Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Logan Professor of Geology, McGill University, Montreal; President of Canadian Mining Institute. Author of Papers dealing with problems of Metamorphism; &c., also Researches on Experimental Geology; &c.
Quebec (in part); Queen Charlotte Islands.
F. E. W. Rev. Frederick Edward Warren, M.A., F.S.A.
Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds, and Honorary Canon of Ely. Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford, 1865-1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals; The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church; &c.
Prayer, Book of Common.
F. G. P.* Frank George Pope.
Lecturer on Chemistry, East London College (University of London).
Purin.
F. H. D.* Frank Haigh Dixon, Ph.D., A.M.
Professor of Economics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. Member of the National Waterways Commission. Author of State Railroad Control.
Railways: American Railway Legislation.
F. J. H. M. Hon. Frederick James Hamilton Merrill, Ph.D., F.G.S. (America), M. American Inst.M.E., &c.
Consulting Geologist and Mining Engineer. State Geologist of New York, 1899-1904. Author of Reports of New Jersey and New York Geological Surveys; &c.
Quarrying.
F. K.* Fernand Khnopff.
See the biographical article: Khnopff, F. E. J. M.
Portaels, J. F.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis; &c.
Psammetichus; Rameses (in part).
F. M. L.* Francis Manley Lowe.
Major R.A. (retired). Member of the Staff of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., Elswick Works. Assistant-Superintendent of Experiments, Shoeburyness, 1898-1903. Author of articles in the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution; &c.
Range-finder.
F. P. Frank Podmore, M.A. (d. 1910).
Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Studies in Psychical Research; Modern Spiritualism; &c.
Premonition.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Portuguese East Africa; Rabah Zobeir.
F. Wa. Francis Watt, M.A. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law’s Lumber Room.
 
Pound (in part).
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
Pyrites; Pyrope.
F. Y. E. Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, M.A., D.C.L.
Professor of Political Economy in the University of Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, and of King’s College, London. Editor of the Economic Journal. Author of Mathematical Psychics, and numerous papers on the Calculus of Probabilities in the Philosophical Magazine; &c.
Probability.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
Prakrit; Rajasthani.
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of New Edition of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Prieur, Pierre.
G. E.* Robert Geoffrey Ellis.
Peterhouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Joint-editor of English Reports. Author of Peerage Law and History.
Privy Council.
G. G. S. George Gregory Smith, M.A.
Professor of English Literature, Queen’s University, Belfast. Author of The Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.
Ramsay, Allan.
G. J. A. George Johnston Allman, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., D.Sc. (1824-1905).
Professor of Mathematics in Queen’s College, Galway, and in Queen’s University of Ireland, 1853-1893. Author of Greek Geometry from Thales to Euclid; etc.
Ptolemy (in part); Pythagoras: Geometry.
G. J. T. George James Turner.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden Society.
Provision; Rape.
G. Re. Sir George Reid, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Reid, Sir George.
Portraiture.
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B.
Quinet; Rabelais; Racine.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Rāwendis.
H. A. Y. Horatio Arthur Yorke, C.B.
Lieut.-Colonel, R.E. (retired). Chief Inspecting Officer of Railways, Board of Trade. Served in Afghan War, 1879-1880; Nile Expedition, 1884-1885.
Railways: British Railway Legislation.
H. D. W. Sir Henry Drummond Wolff, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. (1830-1908).
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at Madrid, 1892-1900. M.P. for Christchurch, 1874-1880; for Portsmouth, 1880-1885. Author of A Life of Napoleon at Elba; &c.
Primrose League.
H. Fr. Henri Frantz.
Art Critic, Gazette des beaux arts, Paris.
Puvis de Chavannes.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of “Amphibia and Reptiles” in the Cambridge Natural History; &c.
Python; Ratitae; Rattlesnake (in part).
H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Pelham, H. F.
Polybius (in part).
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
Railways: Introduction. Construction, Rolling Stock.
H. N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, MA., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S.
Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford University. Author of Meteorology; Elements of Weather and Climate; &c.
Red Sea.
H. O. Hermann Oelsner, M.A., Ph.D.
Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in the University of Oxford. Member of Council of the Philological Society. Author of A History of Provençal Literature; &c.
Provençal Literature: Modern.
H. R. L. The Rev. Henry Richards Luard, M.A., D.D. (1825-1891).
Registrary of the University of Cambridge, 1862-1891. Formerly Fellow, Bursar and Lecturer at Trinity College. Honorary Fellow of King’s College, London. Editor of the Annales Monastici; the Historia of Matthew Paris and other works for the “Rolls” Series.
Porson (in part).
H. Ti. Henry Tiedemann.
London Editor of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant. Author of a Dutch biography, and various pamphlets and travel works, including Via Flushing.
Potgieter.
H. T. A. Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of " The Commentary on Acts" in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the Apocryphal Books in the “Century” Bible.
Polycarp; Presbyter.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College. Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne;
Ralph of Coggeshall.
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry.
Polo, Marco (in part); Prester John; Ramusio.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Proselyte; Qaraites; Qaro; Raba Ben Joseph Ben Ḥama; Rabbah Bar Naḥmani; Rapoport, Samuel; Rashbam; Rashi.
J. A. B. Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines, C.S.I.
President, Royal Statistical Society, 1909-1910. Census Commissioner under the Government of India, 1889-1893. Secretary to Royal Commission on Opium, 1894-1895. Author of Official Reports on Provincial Administration of Indian Census Operations; &c.
Population.
J. A. Bl. John A. Black.
Press reader of the New Volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (10th ed.).
Proof-reading (in part).
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
Pre-Cambrian.
J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Symonds, John A.
Pontanus, Jovianus.
J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt*.D., LL.D.
Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A History of Classical Scholarship; &c.
Porson (in part).
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Quevedo y Villegas.
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
Pontus.
J. G. F. Sir Joshua Girling Fitch, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Fitch, Sir Joshua Girling.
Polytechnic (in part).
J. G. Fr. James George Frazer, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden Bough; &c.
Praefect (in part); Praeneste (in part); Praetor (in part); Proserpine (in part); Province (in part).
J. G. K. John Graham Kerr, M.A., F.R.S.
Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1904.
Ray (in part).
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; The Upper Burma Gazetteer.
Rangoon.
J. Hn. Jŭstŭs Hashagen, Ph.D.
Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of Das Rheinland unter der Französische Herrschaft.
Puttkammer.
J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896).
Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.
Raphael.
J. Ja. Joseph Jacobs, Litt.D.
Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c.
Purim.
J. L.* Sir Joseph Larmor, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in the University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Professor of Natural Philosophy, Queen’s College, Galway, 1880-1885. Author of Ether and Matter, and various memoirs on Mathematics and Physics.
Radiation, Theory of; Radiometer.
J. M. Sir John Macdonell, C.B., LL.D.
Master of the Supreme Court. Counsel to the Board of Trade and London Chamber of Commerce. Formerly Quain Professor of Comparative Law, University College, London. Editor of State Trials; Civil Judicial Statistics; &c. Author of Survey of Political Economy; The Land Question; &c.
Protectorate.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Pomponazzi, Pietro; Price, Richard.
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
Prefect; Provost (in France).
J. P. P. John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum; &c.
Propertius, Sextus.
J. R.* John Randall.
Formerly Secretary of the London Association of Correctors of the Press. Sub-editor of the Athenaeum and Notes and Queries.
Proof-reading (in part).
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Porphyry; Pumice; Pyroxenite; Quartzite; Quartz-Porphyry.
J. S. R. James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Browne’s and Chancellor’s Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero’s Academia, De Amicitia; &c.
Quintilian.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Poltava (in part); Pskov (in part); Radom (in part).
J. T. Cr. James Troubridge Critchell.
London Correspondent of the Australasian Pastoralists’ Review, North Queensland Herald; &c. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Author of Polynesian Labour in Queensland; Guide to Queensland; &c.
Queensland: History.
J. W. James Williams, D.C.L., LL.D.
All Souls’ Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Lincoln College. Author of Wills and Succession; &c.
Possession (law); Prescription (in part).
J. W.* James Ward, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ward, James.
Psychology.
J. W. G. John Walter Gregory, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Geology at the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Heart of Australia; &c.
Queensland: Geology.
K. G. J. Kingsley Garland Jayne.
Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.
Portugal: Geography and History.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Pommer; Portative Organ; Positive Organ; Psaltery; Rackett; Ravanastron; Rebab; Rebec; Recorder (music); Reed Instruments.
L. Count Lützow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), D.Ph. (Prague), F.R.G.S.
Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author of Bohemia: a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c.
Prague.
L. Bl. Louis Bell, Ph.D.
Consulting Engineer, Boston, U.S.A. Chief Engineer, Electric Power Transmission Department, General Electric Co., Boston. Formerly Editor of Electrical World, New York. Author of Electric Power Transmission; &c.
Power Transmission: Electrical.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Proustite; Pyrargyrite; Pyrolusite; Pyromorphite; Pyrrhotite; Quartz; Realgar.
L. Wr. Lewis Wright.
Author of The Practical Poultry Keeper; The New Book of Poultry; &c.
Poultry and Poultry-farming.
L. W. V.-H. L. W. Vernon-Harcourt (d. 1909).
Barrister-at-Law. Author of His Grace the Steward and the Trial of Peers.
Reclamation of Land.
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
 
Pope, Alexander (in part).
M. Ha. Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S.
Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Formerly Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland. Author of “Protozoa” in Cambridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals.
Proteomyxa; Radiolaria.
M. M. Bh. Sir Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownaggree, K.C.I.E.
Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906. Author of History of the Constitution of the East India Company; &c.
Readymoney, Sir Cowasji Jehangir.
M. N. T, Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Pylos.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.
Polycrates; Punic Wars.
N. M. Norman M'Lean, M.A.
Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint.
Rabbūlā.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
Possession (Psychology).
O. C. W. Rev. Owen Charles Whitehouse, M.A., D.D.
Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cambridge. Formerly Principal and Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Theology in the Countess of Huntingdon’s College, Cheshunt. Author of Primer of Hebrew Antiquities; &c.
Priest (in part); Prophet (in part).
O. H. Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent Figures; &c.
Projection.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Poltava (in part); Pskov (in part); Radom (in part).
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England.
Prynne, William (in part); Pym, John.
P. G. Percy Gardner, Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Polyclitus; Polygnotus; Praxiteles.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society.
Q; R.
P. G. K. Paul George Konody.
Art Critic of the Obsever and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c.
Potter, Paul.
P. G. T. Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Tait, Peter Guthrie.
Quaternions (in part).
P. M. Paul Meyer.
See the biographical article: Meyer, Paul Hyacinthe.
Provençal Language; Provençal Literature (in part).
P. McC. Primrose McConnell, F.G.S.
Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary of a Working Farmer; &c.
Reaping.
R. H. K. Rev. Robert Hatch Kennett, M.A., D.D.
Regius Professor of Hebrew, Cambridge, and Canon of Ely. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, Queens’ College, and University Lecturer in Aramaic. Author of A Short Account of the Hebrew Tenses; In our Tongues; &c.
Psalms, Book of (in part).
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
Pycnogonida.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Racquets.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Porcupine (in part); Porpoise; Primates; Proboscidea; Prongbuck; Rabbit (in part); Rat; Ratel.
R. Mo. Ray Morris, M.A.
Formerly Managing Editor, Railway Age Gazette, New York. Author of Railroad Administration.
Railways: General Statistics and Financial Organization.
R. M. L. Robert Murray Leslie, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P.
Senior Physician, Prince of Wales’s General Hospital. London. Lecturer on Medicine. London Post-Graduate College. Author of Clinical Types of Pneumonia; &c.
Pygmy.
R. M. W. R. Mortimer Wheeler.
 
Punch.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian. British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1786; &c.
Poniatowski, Joseph A.; Potemkin, Prince; Potocki, Ignaty; Potocki, Stanislaw F.; Prokopovich; Pugachev; Rakóczy; Razin.
R. Po. René Poupardin, D.-ès-L.
Secretary of the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale. Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens: Recueil des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c.
Provence; Quierzy, Capitulary of.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College. London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Porch.
R. R. M. Robert Ranulf Marett, M.A.
Reader in Social Anthropology, Oxford University, and Fellow Tutor of Exeter College. Author of The Threshold of Religion.
Prayer.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College. Cardiff: and Fellow of Gonville and Cains College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Pompeii: Oscan Inscriptions; Praeneste (in part); Praetuttii.
St C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biogaphical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
Quesnel, Pasquier; Quietism.
S. F. H. Sidney Frederic Harmer, D.Sc., F.R.S., F.Z.S.
Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Departments. British Museum. Fellow, formerly Tutor and Lecturer, King’s College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of The Cambridge Natural History.
Polyzoa; Pterobranchia.
St G. M. St. George Jackson Mivart, M.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Mivart, St George Jackson.
Rattlesnake (in part).
S. R. G. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gardiner, S. R.
Prynne, William (in part).
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt.
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Pompeii (in part); Pomposa; Pomptine Marshes; Popilia, Via; Portus; Postumia, Via; Praeneste (in part); Praenestina, Via; Puteoli; Pyrgi; Ravenna (in part).
T. A. C. Timothy Augustine Coghlan, I.S.O.
Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, 1886-1905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand; &c.
Queensland: Geography and Statistics.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Post and Postal Service; Pound (in part); Praemunire.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Privateer; Prize: War; Raid; Rebellion.
T. F. D. Thomas F. Dale, M.A.
Queen’s College. Oxford. Steward and Member of the Council of the Polo and Riding Pony Society. Author of Polo, Past and Present; &c.
Polo.
T. H. Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, Thomas.
Ravenna (in part).
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet.
Quetta.
T. L. H. Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., Sc.D.
Assistant-Secretary to the Treasury, London. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Apollonius of Perga; Treatise on Conic Sections; The Thirteen Books of Euclid’s Elements; &c.
Porism.
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
Reeve, Henry.
T. Wo. Thomas Woodhouse.
Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee.
Ramie.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881; &c.
Ragatz; Rambert.
W. A. L. William Alexander Lindsay, K.C., M.A., J.P., D.L., F.S.A.
Windsor Herald. Bencher of the Middle Temple. Peerage Counsel. Author of The Royal Household, 1837-1897; &c.
Precedence (in part).
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Prince; Provost (in part).
W. Ba. Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.
Professor at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest. Knight of the Iron Crown. Author of Die Agada der Tannaiten; &c.
Rabbi.
W. B. P. William Barclay Parsons, CE., LL.D.
Formerly Chief Engineer, Rapid Transit Commission, New York. Advisory Engineer, Royal Commission on London Traffic. Author of Track; Turnouts; &c.
Railways: Intra-Urban Railways.
W. E. D. William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.CE.
Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University Demonstrator in the Engineering Department, Cambridge. Author of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and Valve-Gear Mechanism; etc.
Power Transmission: Introductory and Mechanical; Railways: Locomotive Power.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, Kings College, London. Editor of Archibold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
Quarter Sessions, Court of; Recognizance.
W. G. William Garnett, M.A., D.C.L.
Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of St John’s College, Cambridge. Principal and Professor of Mathematics, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; &c.
Polytechnic (in part).
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Porcupine (in part); Rabbit (in part).
W. H. L. William H. Lang, M.B., D. Sc.
Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, University of Manchester.
Pteridophyta.
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial Series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration).
Prince Edward Island; Quebec: Province (in part); Quebec: City.
W. M. William Minto, M.A., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Minto, William.
Pope, Alexander (in part).
W. M. F. P. William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. F.
Pyramid.
W. O. B. Ven. Winfrid Oldfield Burrows, M.A.
Archdeacon of Birmingham. Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, 1884-1891. Principal of Leeds Clergy School, 1891-1900. Author of The Mystery of the Cross.
Prayers for the Dead.
W. R. M. William Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1910).
Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; Slavonic Literature; &c.
Pushkin.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
Priest (in part); Prophet (in part); Psalms, Book of (in part); Rameses (in part).
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Pontifex.
W. Y. Rev. William Young.
Minister, Higher Broughton Presbyterian Church, Manchester, 1877-1901, and Association Secretary for the Religious Tract Society in the North of England.
Presbyterianism.

PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Pollination.
Polygon.
Polyhedron.
Polynesia.
Pomegranate.
Pomerania.
Pontoon.
Poor Law.
Poplar.
Porto Rico.
Portuguese Guinea.
Potassium.
Potato.

Potentiometer.
Prerogative.
Press Laws.
Primrose.
Primulaceae.
Princeton University.
Principal and Agent.
Probate.
Procession.
Proctor.
Prohibition.
Protestant.
Prussia.

Prussic Acid.
Public Health.
Publishing.
Puffin.
Pugilism.
Pump.
Punjab.
Pyrazoles.
Pyrenees.
Pyridine.
Pyrones.
Quarantine.

Quinine.
Quinoline.
Quinones.
Radium.
Rainbow.
Ranunculaceae.
Rare Earths.
Raspberry.
Rationalism.
Ravenna, Exarchate of.
Real Property.
Red River.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume