1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 24/Table of contributors

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXIV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. A. R.* Arthur Alcock Rambaut, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1892-1897.
Schönfeld, Eduard.
A. Cy. Arthur Ernest Cowley, M.A., Litt.D.
Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College.
Samaritans; Seadiah.
A. C. G. Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Guenther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medal1ist, Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia, and Fishes in the British Museum; &c.
Shark (in part).
A. E. H. A. E. Houghton.
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain.
Serrano y Dominguez, Francisco.
A. E. J. Arthur Ernest Jolliffe, M.A.
Fellow, Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer, Cornus Christi College, Oxford. Senior Mathematical Scholar, 1892.
Series.
A. F. L. Arthur Francis Leach, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. Formerly Assistant-Secretary of the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools at the Reformation; &c.
Schools.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Sanders, Nicholas.
A. Ge. Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Geikie, Sir Archibald.
Scotland: Geography and Geology (in part).
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester.
Saravia, Adrian; Servetus, Michael.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
Sardanapalus; Sargon; Sennacherib; Shalmaneser.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Seistan (in part); Shiraz; Shushter.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Septuagint, The.
A. L. Andrew Lang, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew.
Scotland: History; Second Sight.
A. M.* Rev. Allan Menzies, D.D.
Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, St Mary’s College, St Andrews. Author of History of Religion; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy.
Scotland, Church of.
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde).
Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 B.C.
Senate.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Sand-grouse; Sandpiper; Scaup; Scoter; Scrub-bird; Secretary-bird; Seriema; Shearwater; Sheathbill; Sheldrake; Shoe-bill; Shoveler; Shrike.
A. No. Adolf Gotthard Noreen, Ph.D.
Professor of Scandinavian Languages at the University of Upsala. Author of Geschichte der Nordischen Sprachen; Altislandische und Altnorwegische Grammatik; &c.
Scandinavian Languages.
A. S. P.-P. Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Man’s Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
Scepticism; Scholasticism.
B. R.* Hon. Bradford Rhodes.
Head of Banking Firm of Bradford Rhodes & Co. Founder and First President of 34th Street National Bank, New York.
Savings Banks: United States.
B. S. P. Bertha Surtees Phillpotts, M.A. (Dublin).
Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.
Scandinavian Civilization.
C. A. G. B. Sir Cyprian Arthur George Bridge, G.C.B.
Admiral. Commander-in-Chief, China Station, 1901 – 1904. Director of Naval Intelligence, 1889 – 1894. Author of The Art of Naval Warfare; Sea-Power and other Studies; &c.
Sea, Command of the; Sea-Power.
C. El. Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L.
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. H.M.’s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900 – 1904.
Saka.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Seven Weeks' War (in part).
C. F. B. Charles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D.
Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International Trade; &c.
Seigniorage.
C. H. Charles Hose, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc.
Jesus College, Cambridge. Formerly Divisional Resident and Member of the Supreme Council of Sarawak. Knight of the Prussian Crown. Author of A Descriptive Account of the Mammals of Borneo; &c.
Sarawak.
C. H.* Sir Charles Holroyd.
See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir C.
Short, Francis Job.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, Member of the American Historical Association.
Sforza.
C. J. F. Lieut.-Col. Charles James Fox, F.R.G.S.
Chief Officer, London Salvage Corps. President of Association of Professional Fire Brigade Officers. Vice-President of National Fire Brigades Union; &c.
Salvage Corps.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant-Secretary to the. Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London, and Stow’s Survey of London.
Salisbury, Thomas de Montacute, Earl of; Shore, Jane; Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of.
C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th.
Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c.
Sardica, Council of.
C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James’, 1895 – 1900 and 1902 – 1903.
Servia.
C. M. W. Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B. f
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputy-Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896 – 1902. Served under General Gordon in the Soudan, 1874 – 1875.
Sepulchre, The Holy.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D.-ès-L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
Salic Law.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A.. D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Sanuto, Marino; Schiltberger, Johann.
C. W. R. Charles Walker Robinson, C.B., D.C.L.
Major-General (retired). Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, 1890 – 1892. Lieut.-Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895 – 1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c.
Salamanca: Battle, 1812.
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
Shāfi'ī.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
Scherzo; Serenade.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905. Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Samsun; Sardis; Scala Nuova; Schliemann, Heinrich.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Saints, Battle of the; St Vincent, Earl of; St Vincent, Battle of; Santa Cruz, Marquis of; Seamanship; Seven Years' War: Naval Operations.
D. O. Douglas Owen.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer at the Royal Naval War College, Portsmouth, and at London School of Economics. Hon. Secretary and Treasurer of the Society of Nautical Research. Author of Declaration of War; Belligerents and Neutrals; Ports and Docks; &c.
Shipping.
E. A. M. Edward Alfred Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S.
Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University College, London.
Scyphomedusae.
E. B. T. Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Tylor, Edward Burnett.
Salutations.
E. C. B. Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., Litt.D.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius” in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Servites.
E. F. Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Fry.
See the biographical article: Fry, Sir Edward.
Selborne, 1st Earl of.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Samain, Albert Victor; Sermon.
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Samos (in part).
E. H. B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; &c.
Samos (in part).
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
Sarmatae; Scythia.
E. J. D. Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac.
Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Author of A. Scarlatti: his Life and Works.
Scarlatti, Alessandro.
E. K. C. Edmund Kerchever Chambers.
Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Chancellor’s English Essayist, 1891. Author of The Medieval Stage. Editor of the “Red Letter” Shakespeare; Donne’s Poems; Vaughan’s Poems; &c.
Shakespeare.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D. D.Litt., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
Sanatruces; Satrap; Seleucia; Shapur I.-III.
E. M. T. Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D.
Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader in Bibliography, Cambridge University, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society, the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles.
Seals; Shorthand: Greek and Roman Typography.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Scalp: Surgery; Shock.
E. R. B. Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A.
New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the High Priests.
Seleucid Dynasty.
E. Wa. Rev. Edmond Warre, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O.
Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Headmaster of Eton College, 1884-1905. Author of Grammar of Rowing; &c.
Ship: History to the Invention of Steamships.
F. E. Br. Rev. Frank Edward Brightman, M.A., PH.D., D.Litt.
Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen College, Oxford. Prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral. Pusey Librarian, Oxford, 1884-1903. Author of Liturgies: Eastern and Western; &c.
Serapion.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.
Saxons.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Scalp.
F. J. G. Major-General Sir Frederick John Goldsmid.
See the, biographical article: Goldsmid (Family).
Seistan (in part).
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology. Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis; &c.
Sais; Scarab; Serapis; Sesostris.
F. N. M. Col. Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B.
Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the World’s Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign; &c.
Sedan: Battle of; Seven Weeks' War (in part); Seven Years' War (in part).
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South-Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
St Helena (in part); Senegal; Senussi.
F. S. Francis Storr.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Officier d’Académie, Paris.
Sand, George.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
Sapphire; Serpentine.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, D.Sc.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
Salmon and Salmonidae.
G. C. T. B. Sir George Christopher Trout Bartley, K.C.B. (1842-1910).
Founder of the National Penny Bank. M.P. for North Islington, 1885-1906. Author of Schools for the People; Provident Knowledge Papers; &c.
Savings Banks (in part).
G. D. George Dobson.
Author of Russia’s Railway Advance into Central Asia; &c.
Saltykov, Michael.
G. E. D. George Edward Dobson, M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., F.R.S. (1848-1895).
Army Medical Department, 1868-1888., Formerly Curator, of the Royal Victoria Museum, Netley. Author of Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera, &c.; A Monograph of the Insectivora, Systematic and Anatomical.
Shrew.
G. G. S. George Gregory Smith, M.A.
Professorof English Literature, Queen’s University, Belfast. Author of The Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots, &c.
Scotland: Literature; Scott, Alexander.
G. H. Bo. Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A.
Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors’ School, London. Lecturer in the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 1908-1909. Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah; &c.
Shekinah.
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L.,
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George Edward Bateman.
Saint-Simon, Duc de; Sévigné, Madame de.
G. W. R. Major George William Redway.
Author of The War of Secession, 1861-1862; Fredericksburg: a Study in War.
Seven Days' Battle; Shenandoah Valley Campaigns.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Shahrastānī; Shi'ites.
H. A. R. Henry A. Rowland.
See the biographical article: Rowland, Henry Augustus.
Screw: Errors of Screws.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.,
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Salisbury, Marquess of; Shakespeare: The Shakespeare-Bacon Theory; Sherbrooke, Viscount.
H. De. Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Acta Sanctorum; and the Analecta Bollandiana.
Sebastian, St; Sergius, St.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of “Amphibia and Reptiles” in the Cambridge Natural History; &c.
Sauropsida.
H. F. T. Rev. Henry Fanshawe Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. Author of History of Ancient Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the Geography of Greece; &c.
Santorin.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.
 
Sepsis.
H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.
Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London.
Shakespeare: Bibliography.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge, Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Samuel of Nehardea; Shekel.
J. A. M. James Alexander Manson.
Formerly Literary Editor of the Daily Chronicle, and Chief Editor, Cassell & Co., Ltd. Author of The Bowler’s Handbook; &c.
Scotland: Geography (in part).
J. A. Pl. John Arthur Platt, M.A.
Professor of Greek in University College, London. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of editions of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey; &c.
Sappho.
J. A. R. Very Rev. Joseph Armitage Robinson, M.A., D.D.
Dean of Wells. Dean of Westminster, 1902-1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the King. Hon. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, 1893-1899. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation; &c.
Scillitan Martyrs.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity Surveyors’ Association. Author of Quantities.
Scaffold; Sewerage; Shoring.
J. B. A. Joseph Beavington Atkinson.
Formerly Art-critic of the Saturday Review. Author of An Art Tour in the Northern Capitals of Europe; Schools of Modern Art in Germany.
Schadow.
J. E. H. Julius Eggeling, Ph.D.
Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Edinburgh University. Formerly Secretary and Librarian to the Royal Asiatic Society.
Sanskrit.
J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship; &c.
Scaliger (in part).
J. F. S. Rev. John Frederick Smith.
Author of Studies in Religion under German Masters; translated G. H. A. von Ewald’s Commentaries on the Prophets of the Old Testament and the Book of Job.
Schleiermacher (in part).
J. G. Fr. James George Frazer, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden Bough; &c.
Saturn (in part).
J. G. H. Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E.
Author of Plating and Boiler Making; Practical Metal Turning; &c.
Screw.
J. G. K. John Graham Kerr, M.A., F.R.S.
Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1904.
Selachians; Shark (in part).
J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of the Modern Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c.
Schiller.
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma; The Upper Burma Gazetteer.
Salween: River; Shan States.
J. G. Si. Rev. James Gilliland Simpson, M.A.
Canon of St Paul’s, London. Principal of Leeds Clergy School and Lecturer of Leeds Parish Church, 1900-1910.
Scotland, Episcopal Church of.
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. .
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John’s College, Cambridge.
Scribes.
J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896).
Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.
Sangallo; Sculpture (in part).
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
Scutage; Serjeanty.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Savary.
J. H. V. C. John Henry Verrinder Crowe.
Lieut.-Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878; &c.
Shipka Pass.
J. K. I. John Kells Ingram, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ingram, John Kells.
Say, Jean Baptiste; Senior, Nassau.
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in the University of Oxford, and Student and Tutor of Christ Church. Author of A History of Rome; &c.
Salamis: Cyprus.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Schelling (in part); Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl of (in part).
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian, London.
Sheraton, Thomas.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Sand; Sandstone; Scapolite (Rocks); Schorl.
J. S. R. James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Christ’s College. Browne’s and Chancellor’s Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero’s Academia; De Amicitia; &c.
Severus, Lucius Septimius.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
St Petersburg (in part); Sakhalin (in part); Samara: Government (in part); Samarkand: City (in part); Saratov: Government (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Scaphopoda; Sea-Serpent (in part).
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Saint-Simon, Comte de (in part).
J. W. James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
All Souls’ Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College. Author of Wills and Succession; &c.
Seamen, Laws relating to; Sheriff.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondaig Schools under the Board of Education, London. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Schmerling, Anton von.
K. G. J Kingsley Garland Jayne.
Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.
Salamanca.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Sambuca; Saxhorn; Saxophone; Serpent: Music; Shawm; Shofar.
L. Be. Léonce Bénédite.
Keeper of the Musée National du Luxembourg, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. President of the Société des Peintres orientalistes français. Author of Histoire des Beaux Arts; &c.
Sculpture: Modern French.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Scapolite; Scolecite.
L. V. Linda Mary Villari.
See the biographical article: Villari, Pasquale.
Savonarola.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in the East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, and Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Savoy, House of.
M. A. C. Maurice Arthur Canney, M.A.
Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly Exhibitioner of St John’s College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew. Scholar, Oxford, 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896.
Schenkel, Daniel.
M. Be. Malcolm Bell.
Author of Pewter Plate; &c.
Sheffield Plate.
M. Bt. Michael Brett.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.
Salvage: Military.
M. D. Ch. Sir Mackenzie Dalzell Chalmers, K.C.B., C.S.I., M.A.
Trinity College, Oxford, Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, London, and First Parliamentary Counsel to the Treasury. Author of Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange; &c.
Sale of Goods.
M. Ha. Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S.
Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of “Protozoa,” in the Cambridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals.
Sarcodina.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History of “Punch”; British Portrait Painting to the Opening of the 19th Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-Day; Henriette Ronner; &c.
Sculpture (in part); Shakespeare: Portraits.
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
Shamash.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History in London University. Lecturer in Greek in Birmingham University, 1905-1908.
Salamis; Samos (in part).
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L’Industrie du sel en Franche-Comté.
St Nectaire; St Pol, Counts of.
M. T. H. M. Th. Houtsma.
Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Utrecht.
Seljūks.
O. A. Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D.
H.M Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of Education, London. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c. Editor of the Lauderdale Papers; &c.
Shaftesbury, 1st Earl of.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
St Petersburg (in part); Sakhalin (in part); Samara: Government (in part); Samarkand: City (in part); Saratov: Government (in part).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
Sex.
P. G. Percy Gardner, LL.D., F.S.A., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Scopas.
P. G. K. Paul George Konody.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasguez, Life and Work; &c.
Sculpture (in part).
P. St. Percy Somers Tyringham Stephens, J.P.
Contributor to the Badminton Magazine.
Shooting.
P. Vi. Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul.
Serfdom.
P. Wa. Sir Philip Watts, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL.D.
Director of Naval Construction for the British Navy. Chairman of the Federation of Shipbuilders. Naval Architect and Director of War Shipbuilding Department of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., 1885-1901.
Ship: History since the Invention of Steamships; Shipbuilding.
R. Ad. Robert Adamson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Adamson, Robert.
Schelling (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Samaria; Shechem.
R. A. W. Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., C.I.E.
Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation. Served with Tirah Expeditionary Force, 1897-1898, and on the Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895.
Sana.
R. C. C. Richard Copley Christie.
See the biographical article: Christie, Richard Copley.
Scaliger (in part).
R. D. H. Robert Drew Hicks, M.A.
Fellow, formerly Lecturer in Classics, Trinity College, Cambridge.
Seneca (in part).
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
Sarpi, Paolo; Satire.
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
Scorpion.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette (London).
St John, Oliver; St Leger, Sir Anthony; Scroggs, Sir William; Scrope Family; Ship-money; Shrewsbury, Duke of.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874~1882. Author of Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
Seal (in part); Serow; Sheep (in part).
R. L. A. Sir Reginald Laurence Antrobus, K.C.M.G.
Crown Agent for the Colonies, London. Assistant Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1898-1909.
St Helena (in part).
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: The Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Sehested, Hannibal; Shafirov, Peter.
R. P.* Robert Peele.
Professor of Mining in Columbia University, New York.
Shaft-sinking.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Samnites.
R. W. Robert Wallace, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S.
Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Garton. Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C., Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; The Agriculture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of Cape Colony; &c.
Sheep (in part).
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Samson; Samuel; Samuel, Books of; Saul; Serpent-worship.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Saturn: Planet.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Salerno; Sardinia; Sassari; Satricum; Saturnia; Segesta; Segusio; Selinus; Sessa Aurunca; Severiana, Via.
T. A. A. Thomas Andrew Archer, M.A.
Author of The Crusade of Richard I.; &c.
Salvian.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Savings Banks (in part).
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Search.
T. C. A. Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, K.C.B., M.A., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Regius Professor of Physic in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. Physician to Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge. Editor of Systems of Medicine.
Semmelweiss, Ignatz.
T. F. Rev. Thomas Fowler, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1832-1904).
President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1881-1904. Honorary Fellow of Lincoln College. Professor of Logic, 1873-1888. Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1899-1901. Author of Elements of Deductive Logic; Shaftesbury and Hutcheson; &c.
Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl of (in part).
T. G. C. Thomas Gilbert Carver, M.A., K.C. (1848-1906).
Formerly judge of County Courts. Author of the Law relating to the Carriage of Goods by Sea.
Salvage.
T. K. Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D.
Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c.
Saint-Simon, Comte de (in part).
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.Litt., D.C.L., D.D.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K.
Seraphim.
T. L. H. Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc.
Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Treatise on Conic Sections; &c.
Serenus "of Antissa".
Th. N. Theodor Nöldeke.
See the biographical article: Nöldeke, Theodor.
Semitic Languages.
T. T. Sir Travers Twiss, K.C., D.C.L., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Twiss, Sir Travers.
Sea Laws.
T. W. F. Thomas William Fox.
Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. Author of Mechanics of Weaving.
Shuttle.
T. W. R. D Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., PII.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
Sānchi; Sāriputta; Sāsana Vamsa.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lam eter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881; &c.
St Gall: Canton; St Gall: Town; St Gotthard Pass; St Moritz; Sarnen; Saussure, Horace Bénédict de; Savoie; Schaffhausen: Canton; Schaffhausen: Town; Scheuchzer, Johann; Schwyz; Sempach.
W. A. D. William Archibald Dunning, Ph.D., LL.D.
Lieber Professor of History and Political Philosophy, Columbia University, New York. Author of Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction; A History of Political Theories.
Sherman, John.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
St John of Jerusalem, Order of; Schleswig-Holstein Question.
W. Ba. William Bacher, Ph.D.
Professor of Biblical Science at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest.
Shammai.
W. C. D. W William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Theory of Solution; Recent Development of Physical Science; &c.
Science.
W. E. A. A. William Edward Armytage Axon, LL.D.
Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1874-1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the bardic name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c.
Salford.
W. E. Ho. William Evans Hoyle, M.A., D.Sc., F.Z.S., M.R.C.S.-Christ
Church, Oxford. Director of the National Museum of Wales. Director of the Manchester Museum, 1889-1899.
Sea-Serpent (in part).
W. Fr. William Fream, LL.D. (d. 1906).
Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and Agricultural Correspondent of The Times.
Sheep (in part).
W. F. K. Winifred F. Knox.
Author of The Court of a Saint.
Saladin.
W. Hu. Rev. William Hunt, M.A., LITT.D.
President of the Royal Historical Society, 1905-1909. Author of History of the English Church, 597-1066; The Church of England in the Middle Ages; Political History of England, 1760-1801.
Seeley, Sir J. R.
W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt.
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, and Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.
Seth.
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Seal (in part).
W. H. Ha. William Henry Hadow, M.A., Mus.Doc.
Principal of Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal College of Music. Editor of Oxford History of Music. Author of Studies in Modern Music; &c.
Schubert.
W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Editor of Documentary History of Reconstruction; &c.
Secession.
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor of History at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial Series); Canadian Constitutional Development.
St John: Canada; St Pierre and Miquelon.
W. L.-W. Sir William Lee-Warner, M.A., G.C.S.I.
Member of the Council of India. Formerly Secretary in the Political and Secret Department of the India Ofhce. Author of Life of the Marquis of Dalhousie; Memoirs of Field-Marshal Sir Henry Wylie Norman; &c.
Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Sir.
W. M. William Minto, M.A.
See the biographical article: Minto, William.
Scott, Sir Walter (in part).
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante G.
Sebastiano del Piombo; Shelley.
W. P. A. William Patrick Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.G.S.
Chief-Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.
St Lawrence: River.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, W. R.
Salt: Ancient History and Religious Symbolism.
W. T. Ca. William Thomas Calman, D.Sc., F.Z.S.
Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Author of “Crustacea,” in a Treatise on Zoology, edited by Sir E. Ray Lankester.
Shrimp.
W. W. William Wallace.
See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1844-1897).
Schopenhauer (in part).
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic. Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen.
Saragossa, Councils of.

PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

St Vitus's Dance.
Sal Ammoniac.
Salicylic Acid.
Salisbury.
Salt Lake City.
Saltpetre.
Salt.
Salvador.
Salvation Army.
Salzburg.
Samoa.
Samoyedes.
Sanctuary.
San Francisco.

Santo Domingo.
Sarsaparilla.
Saskatchewan.
Savannah.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Saxe-Meiningen.
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Saxony.
Scarlet Fever.
Schleswig-Holstein.
Scilly Isles.
Scipio.
Scrophulariaceae.
Scurvy.

Seal-Fisheries.
Seattle.
Sea-Urchin.
Sedition.
Seismometer.
Selenium.
Selkirkshire.
Senna.
Sennar.
Sequoia.
Serjeant.
Servo-Bulgaria.
Settlement.
Severn.

Sewing Machines.
Sextant.
Seychelles.
Shadow.
Shakers.
Shamash.
Sheffield.
Shell-heaps.
Shell-money.
Sheridan.
Shetland.
Shoe.
Shorthand (modern).
Shropshire.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume