1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 16/Table of contributors

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A. B. Ch. A. B. Chatwood, B.Sc, A.M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.Elec.E.
A. B. R. Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S.
Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classification of Flowering Plants, &c.
A. C. F. Alexander Campbell Fraser, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Fraser, A. C.
Locke, John.
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C.
A. D. Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin.
A. Fi. Pierre Marie Auguste Filon.
See the biographical article: Filon, P. M. A.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford. Assistant editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Lambert, Francis;
Lambert, Nicholson
A. Gl. Arnold Glover, M.A., LL.B. (d. 1905)
Trinity College, Cambridge; Joint-editor of Beaumont and Fletcher for the Cambridge University Press.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester.
Laurentius, Paul;
A. G. D. Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S., F.R.S. (Canada).
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint editor of Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Logos (in part).
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879–1901.
Lima (Peru).
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew.
La Cloche.
A. M. An. Adelaide Mary Anderson, M.A.
H.M. Principal Lady Inspector of Factories, Home Office. Clerk to the Royal Commission on Labour, 1892–1894. Gamble Gold Medallist, Girton College, Cambridge, 1893. Author of various articles on Industrial Life and Legislation, &c.
Labour Legislation.
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
Lagrange; Laplace;
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Lämmergeyer; Lapwing;
; Linnet; Loom.
A. P. C. Arthur Philemon Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Geology in the University of Toronto. Geologist, Bureau of Mines, Toronto, 1893–1910. Author of Reports of the Bureau of Mines of Ontario.
Labrador (in part).
A. P. Lo. Albert Peter Low.
Deputy Minister of Department of Mines, Canada. Member of Geological Survey of Canada. Author of Report on the Exploration in the Labrador Peninsula; &c.
Labrador (in part).
A. Se.* Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S.
Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology in the University of Cambridge, 1907–1909.
Larval Forms.
A. Sl. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water-Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.
Liquor Laws.
A. So. Albrecht Socin, Ph.D. (1844–1899).
Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tübingen. Author of Arabische Grammatik; &c.
Lebanon (in part).
A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole, C.B.
Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900–1908. Author of Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European Silks; &c.
A. St H. G. Alfred St Hill Gibbons.
Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of Africa from South to North through Marotseland.
A. S. M. Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Murray, Alexander Stuart.
A. S. W. Augustus Samuel Wilkins, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. (1843–1905).
Professor of Latin, Owens College, Manchester, 1869–1905. Author of Roman Literature; &c.
Latin Language (in part).
A. T. T. A. T. Thorson.
Official in Life Saving Service, U.S.A.
Life-boat: United States.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Leopold I. (Roman Emperor); Levellers.
A. W. Hu. Rev. Arthur Wollaston Hutton, M.A.
Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside. Librarian National Liberal Club, 1889–1899. Author of Life of Cardinal Newman; Life of Cardinal Manning; &c.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Landlord and Tenant;
Letters Patent
Lodger and Lodgings
A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ward, Adolphus William.
Lodge, Thomas.
B. D. J. Benjamin Daydon Jackson, Ph.D.
General Secretary of the Linnean Society. Secretary to Departmental Committee of H.M. Treasury on Botanical Work, 1900–1901. Author of Glossary of Botanic Terms; &c.
C. The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Crewe.
See the biographical article: Crewe, 1st Earl of.
C. C. W. Charles Crawford Whinery, A.M.
Cornell University. Assistant editor 11th Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
La Salle;
Lincoln, Abraham
 (in part).
C. Di. Charles Dibdin, F.R.G.S.
Secretary of the Royal National Life-boat Institution. Hon. Secretary of the Civil Service Life-boat Fund, 1870–1906.
Life-boat: British.
C. D. W. Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright.
See the biographical article: Wright, Hon. Carroll Davidson.
Labour Legislation: United States.
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S.. F.G.S.. F.R.A.S.
Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Light: Introduction and History.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Long Island (Battle).
C. F.-Br. Charles Fortescue-Brickdale.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Registrar of the Office of the Land Registry, Lincoln’s Inn Fields. Author of Registration of Title to Land; The Practice of the Land Registry; Land Transfer in Various Countries; &c.
Land Registration.
C. H.* Sir Charles Holroyd.
See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir Charles.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Leo I.-X. (Popes).
C. J. B.* Rev. Charles James Ball, M.A.
University Lecturer in Assyriology, Oxford. Author of Light from the East.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow’s Survey of London.
Lancaster, John of Gaunt,
 duke of
C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th.
Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c.
Lateran Councils.
C. Mo. William Cosmo Monkhouse.
See the biographical article: Monkhouse, W. C.
Leighton, Lord.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Leif Ericsson;
Leo, Johannes
De B. Henri G. S. A. de Blowitz.
See the biographical article: Blowitz, H. de.
Lesseps, Ferdinand de.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analysis of many other classical works.
Lasso, Orlando.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Latakia; Lebanon (in part).
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
La Hogue, Battle of;
Lauria, Roger de
Lepanto, Battle of
; Lissa.
D. Ll. T. Daniel Lleufer Thomas.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and Rhondda.
Llantwit Major.
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals; &c.
Leighton, Robert (in part).
D. M. W. Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891–1899. Member of the Institut de Droit International and Officier de l'Instruction Publique (France). Joint-editor of New Volumes (10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
E. B.* Ernest Charles François Babelon.
Professor at the Collège de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and Antiquities at the Bibliothèque Nationale. Member of the Académie des Inscriptions et de Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la République Romaine; Traités des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines; Catalogue des Camées de la Bibliothèque Nationale.
E. C. B. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius,” in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.
Leo, Brother.
E. Da. Edward George Dannreuther (1844–1905).
Member of Board of Professors, Royal College of Music, 1895–1905. Conducted the first Wagner Concerts in London, 1873–1874. Author of The Music of the Future; &c. Editor of a critical edition of Liszt’s Études.
E. D. J. W. Edward D. J. Wilson.
Formerly Leader-writer on The Times.
Londonderry, 2nd Marquess of.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Lampoon; Lie, Jonas L. E.
E. Ga. Emile Garcke, M.Inst.E.E.
Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of Electrical Undertakings; &c.
Lighting: Electric (Commercial Aspects).
E. He. Edward Heawood, M.A.
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, London.
Livingstone Mountains.
E. J. D. Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac.
Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Author of A. Scarlatti: his Life and Works.
Leo, Leonardo.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Liver: Surgery of Liver and Gall Bladder.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Author of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
Lobo, F. R.;
Lopes, Fernão
E. R. L. Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc.
Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898–1907. President of the British Association, 1906. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 1874–1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891–1898. Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c.
Lamellibranchia (in part).
E. V. L. Edward Verrall Lucas.
Editor of Works of Charles Lamb. Author of Life of Charles Lamb.
Lamb, Charles.
F. E. B. Frank Evers Beddard, M.A., F.R.S.
Prosector of Zoological Society, London. Formerly Lecturer in Biology at Guy’s Hospital, London. Naturalist to "Challenger" Expedition Commission, 1882–1884. Author of Monograph of the Oligochaeta; Animal Colouration; &c.
F. E. W. Rev. Frederick Edward Warren, M.A., B.D., F.S.A.
Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds. Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford, 1865–1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals; The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church; &c.
Lection, Lectionary;
; Litany; Liturgy.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
Lombards (in part).
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Liver: Anatomy.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906–1907. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Legion (in part); Limes Germanicus.
F. L.* Sir Franklin Lushington, M.A.
Formerly Chief Police Magistrate for London. Author of Wagers of Battle.
Lear, Edward.
F. V. B. F. Vincent Brooks.
F. v. H. Baron Friedrich von Hügel.
Member of Cambridge Philological Society; Member of Hellenic Society. Author of The Mystical Element of Religion.
F. Wa. Francis Watt, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law’s Lumber Room; Scotland of to-day; &c.
Law, John.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
Lapis Lazuli
F. W. Ra. Francis William Raikes, K.C., LL.D. (1842–1906).
Judge of County Courts, Hull, 1898–1906. Joint-author of The New Practice; &c.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dubl.).
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909–1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations.
G. F. B. George Frederick Barwick.
Assistant-Keeper of Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading-room, British Museum.
G. F. K. George Frederick Kunz, A.M., Ph.D., D.Sc.
Gem Expert to Messrs Tiffany & Co., New York. Hon. Curator of Precious Stones, American Museum of Natural History, New York. Fellow of Geological Society of America. Author of Precious Stones of North America; &c. Senior Editor of Book of the Pearl.
Lapidary and Gem-cutting.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: Their Structure and Life.
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B.
La Bruyère; La Fontaine; Lamartine;
La Rochefoucauld
; Le Sage.
G. S. L. George Somes Layard.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Author of Charles Keene; Shirley Brooks; &c.
Linton, William James.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
H. A. L. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.
Professor of Physics in the University of Leiden. Author of La théorie electromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants.
Light: Nature of.
H. B. W.* Henry Benjamin Wheatley, F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary, Royal Society of Arts, 1879–1909. President of the Samuel Pepys Club, 1903–1910. Vice-President of the Bibliographical Society, 1908–1910. Author of The Story of London; London Past and Present; &c.
London: History.
H. B. Wo. Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S.
Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. President Geologists' Association, 1893–1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908.
Logan, Sir William E.;
Lonsdale, William
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Lloyd George, D.
H. De. Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Bollandist. Joint-author of the Acta Sanctorum.
Lawrence, St; Linus.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, M.A., F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History).
H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Pelham, H. F.
Livy (in part).
H. H. J. Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Johnston, Sir Henry Hamilton.
H. M. S. Henry Morse Stephens, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of History and Director of University Extension, University of California. Author of History of the French Revolution; Revolutionary Europe; &c.
H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.
Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London.
Libraries (in part).
H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism.
Lange, Friedrich Albert.
H. T. A. Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of the “Commentary on Acts,” in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the Apocryphal Books in the “Century Bible.”
H. W. B.* Herbert William Blunt, M.A.
Student, Tutor, and Librarian, Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of All Souls’ College.
Logic: History.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins; &c.
Lanfranc; Langton, Stephen.
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry.
Lhasa (in part).
I. A. Israel Abrahams.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Lazarus, Emma;
Leon, Moses
Leon of Modena
J. An. Joseph Anderson, LL.D.
Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. Assistant Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and Rhind Lecturer, 1879–1882 and 1892. Editor of Drummond’s Ancient Scottish Weapons; &c.
Lake Dwellings.
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy; Magnets and Electric Currents; &c.
Leyden Jar;
: Electric.
J. A. F. M. John Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A.
Musical critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician’s Pilgrimage; Masters of German Music; English Music in the Nineteenth Century; The Age of Bach and Handel. Editor of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians; &c.
Lind, Jenny.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones; &c.
Lias; Llandovery Group.
J. Dr. Sir James Dewar, F.R.S., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Dewar, Sir J.
Liquid Gases.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
J. D. Br. James Duff Brown.
Borough Librarian, Islington Public Libraries. Vice-President of the Library Association. Author of Guide to Librarianship; &c.
Libraries (in part).
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
La Cueva; Larra; Literature.
J. F. St. John Frederick Stenning, M.A.
Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic, Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College.
J. Ga. James Gairdner, C.B., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gairdner, James.
Lancaster, House of;
Leicester, Robert Dudley, earl   of
J. G. F. Sir Joshua Girling Fitch, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Fitch, Sir J. G.
Lancaster, Joseph.
J. G. N. John George Nicolay (1832–1901).
Marshal of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1872–1887. Joint-author of Abraham Lincoln; &c.
Lincoln, Abraham (in part).
J. G. P.* James Gordon Parker, D.Sc., F.C.S.
Principal of Leathersellers Technical College, London. Gold Medallist, Society of Arts. Author of Leather for Libraries; Principles of Tanning; &c.
J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of the Modern Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c.
Lessing (in part).
J. Hn. Jŭstŭs Hashagen, Ph.D.
Privat-dozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of Das Rheinland unter der französische Herrschaft.
Lang, Karl Heinrich; Ledochowski;
Leo, Heinrich
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Leo VI. (Emperor of the East).
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Las Cases.
J. J. L.* Rev. John James Lias, M.A.
Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge.
J. K. I. John Kells Ingram, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ingram, J. K.
Leslie, Thomas E. C.
J. Le. Rev. James Legge, M.A.
See the biographical article: Legge, James.
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford.
Locri (Greece)
J. L. W. Jessie Laidlay Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory.
J. Mu. Sir John Murray, K.C.B., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Murray, Sir John.
J. M. C. Rev. James M. Crombie.
Author of Braemar: its Topography and Natural History; Lichenes Britannici.
Lichens (in part).
J. M. G. John Miller Gray (1850–1894).
Art Critic and Curator of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 1884–1894. Author of David Scott, R.S.A.; James and William Tassie.
Leech, John.
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
Lettres de Cachet.
J. P. P. John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum; &c.
Latin Literature (in part).
J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, P. E. Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888–1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates; Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian.
J. S. James Sully, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sully, James.
Lewes, George Henry (in part).
J. Si. James Sime, M.A. (1843–1895).
Author of A History of Germany; &c.
Lessing (in part).
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Laccolite; Lamprophyres;
: Leucite Rocks; Limestone.
J. S. K. John Scott Keltie, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.).
Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Hon. Member, Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of the Statesman’s Year Book. Editor of the Geographical Journal.
J. S. W. John Stephen Willison, LL.D., F.R.S. (Canada).
Editor of The News (Toronto). Canadian Correspondent of The Times. Author of Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; &c.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Ladoga (in part);
 (in part);
J. T. Br. J. Taylor Brown.
Leighton, Robert (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Lamellibranchia (in part).
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
J. V.* Jules Viard.
Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction. Author of La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois; &c.
Le Maçon.
J. W. D. Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N.
Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
J. W. L. G. James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society. Editor of Messenger of Mathematics and the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics.
Legendre, A. M.;
K. H. Killingworth Hedges, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.Elect.E.
Hon. Secretary of the Lightning Research Committee. Author of Modern Lightning Conductors; &c.
Lightning Conductor.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of The Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
L. A. W. Laurence Austine Waddell, C.B., C.I.E., LL.D., M.B.
Lieut.-Colonel I.M.S. (retired). Author of Lhasa and its Mysteries; &c.
Lhasa (in part).
L. B. Laurence Binyon.
See the biographical article: Binyon, L.
Lawson, Cecil Gordon.
L. D.* Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
 (in part);
L. T. D. Sir Lewis Tonna Dibdin, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.A.
Dean of the Arches; Master of the Faculties; and First Church Estates Commissioner. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Monasticism in England; &c.
Lincoln Judgment, The.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, and Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Leopold II. (Grand Duke of   Tuscany).
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
Landor: Bibliography;
La Sale
M. Ca. Moritz Cantor, Ph.D.
Honorary Professor of Mathematics in the University of Heidelberg. Author of Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Mathematik; &c.
Leonardo of Pisa.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c.
Line Engraving (in part).
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
; Leotychides.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
Leo I.-V. (Emperors of the East); Lesbos; Leuctra.
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences).
N. G. G. Nicholas G. Gedye.
Chief Engineer to the Tyne Improvement Commission.
Lighthouse (in part).
O. Hr. Otto Henker, Ph.D.
On the Staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena, Germany.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Ladoga (in part);
Lithuanians and Letts
: History; Livonia (in part).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888–1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892–1894; at London Hospital, 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892–1896, 1901–1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903.
Life; Longevity.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Laud, Archbishop;
Lauderdale, Duke of
Leeds, 1st Duke of
P. G. Percy Gardner, Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
P. G. H. Philip Gilbert Hamerton.
See the biographical article: Hamerton, Philip Gilbert.
Line Engraving (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
 (in part).
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Lawn Tennis;
Leicester, R. Sidney, earl of
Lockhart, George
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892–1907. Member of the Chinese Consular Service, 1858–1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; Europe and the Far East; &c.
Li Hung Chang.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
 (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part);
R. M‘L. Robert M‘Lachlan.
Editor of the Entomologists’ Monthly Magazine.
Locust (in part).
R. M. B. Robert Michael Ballantyne.
See the biographical article: Ballantyne, R. M.
Life-boat: British (in part).
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613–1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Ladislaus I. and IV. of Hungary; Laski.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Latin Language (in part); Liguria: Archaeology and   Philology.
R. We. Richard Webster, A.M.
Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of Maximianus; &c.
Long Island.
R. W. C. The Very Rev. R. W. Church, D.D.
See the biographical article: Church, R. W.
Lombards: The Kingdom in Italy.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
S. C. Sidney Colvin, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney.
Leonardo da Vinci.
St C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
S. D. F. S. Rev. Stewart Dingwall Fordyce Salmond, M.A., D.D. (1838–1905).
Professor of Systematic Theology and Exegesis of the Epistles, U.F.C. College Aberdeen, 1876–1905. Author of The Parables of our Lord; &c. Editor of The International Library of Theology; &c.
Logos (in part).
S. N. Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
: Velocity.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.
Labicana, Via; Labici;
; Lanciano;
; Larino;
Latina, Via
; Latium;
Laurentina, Via
; Lavinium;
; Leghorn; Leontini;
Licodia Eubea
Ligures Baebiani
: History; Locri: Italy.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Livery Companies;
: Finance.
T. Ca. Thomas Case, M.A.
President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Formerly Waynflete Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy at Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen College. Author of Physical Realism; &c.
T. C. A. Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, K.C.B., M.A., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Regius Professor of Physic in the University of Cambridge. Physician to Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor of Systems of Medicine.
Lister, 1st Baron.
T. Da. Thomas Davidson, LL.D.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Laodicea, Synod of.
T. F. H. Thomas F. Henderson.
Author of Mary Queen of Scots and the Casket Letters; &c.
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Perso-Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c.
Ladakh and Baltistan.
T. K. Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D.
Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c.
T. Mo. Thomas Moore, F.L.S. (1821–1887).
Curator of the Garden of the Apothecaries Company at Chelsea, 1848–1887. Editor of the Gardeners’ Magazine of Botany; Author of Handbook of British Ferns; Index Filicum; Illustrations of Orchidaceous Plants.
T. M. L. Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, LL.D., D.D.
Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of History of the Reformation; Life of Luther; &c.
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1900. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
Lever, Charles.
T. W. R. D. Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London, 1882–1904. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
T. Wo. Thomas Woodhouse.
Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee.
Linen and Linen Manufactures.
V. B. L. Vivian Byam Lewes, F.I.C., F.C.S.
Professor of Chemistry, Royal Naval College. Chief Superintendent Gas Examiner to the Corporation of the City of London.
Lighting: Oil and Gas.
V. H. B. Vernon Herbert Blackman, M.A., D.Sc.
Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Lichens (in part).
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880–1889.
Lausanne; Leuk; Liechtenstein; Linth;
; Locle, Le.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Laibach, Congress of;
Lights, Ceremonial use of
W. E. Co. The Rt. Rev. William Edward Collins, M.A., D.D.
Bishop of Gibraltar. Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King’s College, London. Lecturer of Selwyn and St John’s Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The Study of Ecclesiastical History; Beginnings of English Christianity; &c.
W. F. I. William Fergusson Irvine, Hon. M.A. (Liverpool).
Hon. Secretary and General Editor of Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. Hon. Local Secretary for Cheshire of the Society of Antiquaries. Author of Liverpool in the reign of Charles II.; Old Halls of Wirral; &c.
W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Lemming (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part).
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
Lely, Sir Peter;
W. P. T. William Peterfield Trent, LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of English Literature. Columbia University. Author of English Culture in Virginia; A Brief History of American Literature; &c.
W. R. So. William Ritchie Sorley, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College. Author of The Ethics of Naturalism; The Interpretation of Evolution; &c.
W. R. S.-R. William Ralston Shedden-Ralston, M.A.
Formerly Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Author of Russian Folk Tales; &c.
W. T. Ca. William Thomas Calman, D.Sc., F.Z.S.
Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Author of "Crustacea" in A Treatise on Zoology, edited by Sir E. Ray Lankester.
W. T. D. William Tregarthen Douglass, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E.
Consulting Engineer to Governments of Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Cape of Good Hope, &c. Erected the Eddystone and Bishop Rock Lighthouses. Author of The New Eddystone Lighthouse; &c.
Lighthouse (in part).
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Leo XI. and XII. (popes).
W. W. S. Walter William Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Skeat, W. W.
W. Y. S. William Young Sellar, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sellar, William Young.
Latin Literature (in part).


Lake District.
Lambeth Conferences.

Lead Poisoning.


Liberal Party.

Limitation, Statutes of.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume